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Anesthetic agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034961/a-randomized-trial-of-automated-intermittent-ropivacaine-administration-vs-continuous-infusion-in-an-interscalene-catheter
#1
J Oxlund, A H Clausen, S Venø, M D Nielsen, M Pall, T Strøm, P Toft
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided interscalene nerve block with ropivacaine as local anesthetic agent given as boluses or continuous infusion is the preferred pain management after major shoulder surgery. The use of automated intermittent boluses has been shown to be superior to continuous infusion in sciatic and epidural nerve block. HYPOTHESIS: Automated intermittent boluses reduce pain after major shoulder surgery. METHODS: Seventy patients aged 18-75 years, scheduled for major shoulder surgery under general anesthesia with interscalene nerve block were included in this randomized controlled trial...
October 16, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034676/lipid-peroxidation-and-its-role-in-the-expression-of-nlrp1a-and-nlrp3-genes-in-testicular-tissue-of-male-rats-a-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Mahshid Bazrafkan, Banafsheh Nikmehr, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Seyed Reza Hosseini, Fatemeh Hassani, Mahnaz Poorhassan, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Farid Abolhassani, Hamid Choobineh, Cordian Beyer, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh
BAckground: The majority of male patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) suffer from infertility. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a kind of receptors that corporate in the inflammasome complex. Recent studies have introduced the inflammasome as the responsible agent for secreting cytokines in semen. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the elements that trigger inflammasome activation. Genital infections in SCI can lead to ROS generation...
October 16, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032753/halogenated-agents-and-cardiovascular-surgery-has-mortality-really-decreased
#3
Giovanni Landoni, Juan Carlos Lopez-Delgado, Chiara Sartini, Simona Tamà, Alberto Zangrillo
Halogenated anesthetic agents (desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane) may have cardioprotective properties at therapeutic doses against myocardial intraoperative ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cardioprotection mechanisms are related to mitochondrial and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Experimental and human studies have proven that their use may reduce morbidity and mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery, including a reduction in myocardial infarct size and mechanical ventilation needs. On the contrary, total intra-venous propofol based anesthesia may be detrimental...
October 10, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020936/staggering-the-dose-of-sugammadex-lowers-risks-for-severe-emergence-cough-a-randomized-control-trial
#4
Loh P S, M M Miskan, Chin Y Z, R A Zaki
BACKGROUND: Cough on emergence has been reported as a common adverse reaction with sugammadex reversal. We investigated if staggering the dose of sugammadex will reduce emergence cough in a single-center, randomized, double-blinded study. METHODS: A hundred and twenty ASA 1-3 adults were randomly reversed with 1 mg/kg sugammadex prior to extubation followed by another 1 mg/kg immediately after extubation (staggered group), single dose of 2 mg/kg sugammadex (single bolus group) or neostigmine 0...
October 11, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017289/comparative-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-lignocaine-containing-topical-anesthetic-agents-during-extraction-of-deciduous-anterior-teeth
#5
Mythri Sarpangala, Ashwin Devasya, Ashford L George
To evaluate the efficacy of 2%, 4% Lignocaine, EMLA mixture and Precaine topical anaesthetic agents (with 1:1, 00,000 epinephrine) during the extraction of deciduous anterior tooth. Eighty patients with pre-shedding mobility of deciduous anterior tooth were divided randomly into four groups. Lignocaine, in amount of 2% and 4%, Precaine and EMLA topical anaesthetic agents were applied and the tooth was extracted. VAS has been used to assess the subjective pain while Wong-Baker faces scale and SEM pain scale have been used to record the objective pain to check the efficacy of these topical anaesthetic agents...
October 9, 2017: Minerva Stomatologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994673/an-innovative-technique-to-improve-safety-of-volatile-anesthetics-suction-from-the-cardiopulmonary-bypass-circuit
#6
Francesco De Simone, Luigi Cassarà, Salvatore Sardo, Elena Scarparo, Omar Saleh, Caetano Nigro Neto, Alberto Zangrillo, Giovanni Landoni
CONTEXT: Myocardial injury during cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. Preclinical and clinical evidence of dose- and time-related cardioprotective effects of volatile anesthetic drugs exist and their use during the whole surgery duration could improve perioperative cardiac protection. Even if administering volatile agents during CPB are relatively easy, technical problems, such as waste gas scavenging, may prevent safe and manageable administration of halogenated vapors during CPB...
October 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991263/structural-basis-for-gabaa-receptor-potentiation-by-neurosteroids
#7
Paul S Miller, Suzanne Scott, Simonas Masiulis, Luigi De Colibus, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, A Radu Aricescu
Type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are the principal mediators of inhibitory neurotransmission in the human brain. Endogenous neurosteroids interact with GABAARs to regulate acute and chronic anxiety and are potent sedative, analgesic, anticonvulsant and anesthetic agents. Their mode of binding and mechanism of receptor potentiation, however, remain unknown. Here we report crystal structures of a chimeric GABAAR construct in apo and pregnanolone-bound states. The neurosteroid-binding site is mechanically coupled to the helices lining the ion channel pore and modulates the desensitization-gate conformation...
October 9, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990948/case-series-of-three-different-scenarios-with-drug-induced-brugada-patterns-fact-or-fiction
#8
Serkan Asil, Uğur Canpolat, Ergün Barış Kaya, Kudret Aytemir, Giray Kabakçı
Brugada syndrome is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia condition characterized by coved-type ST elevation and J point elevation of at least 2 mm in at least 2 of the right precordial electrocardiogram (ECG) leads (V1-3). An increasing number of noncardiac agents, including psychotropic and anesthetic drugs, have been shown to induce a characteristic Brugada ECG pattern, predisposing the patient to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. However, there are scarce data regarding the clinical significance. In this case series, a typical Brugada pattern was unmasked by lithium, valproic acid, and thiocolchicoside; however, the clinical scenario was different in all 3 cases, ranging from an asymptomatic patient to sudden cardiac arrest...
October 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990517/anesthetic-agents-and-neuronal-autophagy-what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t
#9
Lili Xu, Jianjun Shen, Patrick M McQuillan, Zhiyong Hu
Numerous experimental data have demonstrated that neonatal animal exposure to commonly used anesthetic agents may cause neuronal death resulting in cognitive impairment. The underlying mechanism(s) remain elusive. Depending on the circumstances, autophagy may produce an effect that can be either protective or deleterious. Recent evidence demonstrates that this process can reduce the development of ethanol induced neurotoxicity and, as we know, ethanol has γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist characteristics similar to commonly used volatile anesthetic agents...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989831/intraoperative-awareness-and-recall-a-comparative-study-of-dexmedetomidine-and-propofol-in-cardiac-surgery
#10
Tufail Ahmad, Nadeem A Sheikh, Nihida Akhter, Bashir A Dar, Riyaz Ahmad
Background Awareness during general anesthesia is undesired and unanticipated patient wakefulness during surgery or recall of intraoperative events. Incidence of awareness in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is significantly higher than the overall incidence of 1% during general surgery. Awareness during cardiac surgery can be prevented by a number of methods. One such method is the supplemental, intraoperative use of sedative agents. Propofol, a bisubstituted phenol, is an intravenous general anesthetic that has been shown to reduce the incidence of awareness...
August 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986051/effect-of-intermediate-dose-dexamethasone-on-post-operative-pain-in-lumbar-spine-surgery-a-randomized-triple-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Aumjit Wittayapairoj, Kriangkrai Wittayapairoj, Atiporn Kulawong, Yuwadee Huntula
OBJECTIVES: Dexamethasone has demonstrated analgesic properties and is used as an adjunctive pain agent for many procedures. We evaluated the efficacy of a single, intermediate dose of dexamethasone on post-operative analgesic consumption, and pain scores for lumbar spine surgery. METHODS: Eighty patients aged between 18 and 70 scheduled for lumbar decompressive laminectomy were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either intravenous 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone (group D = 40) or normal saline (group P = 40) before anesthetic induction...
September 18, 2017: Asian J Anesthesiol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979044/use-of-volatile-anesthetic-agent-in-extracorporeal-circuit-as-a-cause-of-break-in-polycarbonate-connector-lessons-learnt
#12
Deepak Gowda, K Rashmi, Naveen Pandarinathan, Neelam Desai
Mishaps, near misses, and lethal incidents are known to occur during cardiopulmonary bypass. We share one such rare case of break in polycarbonate connector because of the use of isoflurane in extracorporeal circuit and its successful management.
September 2017: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969534/perioperative-management-of-female-hormone-medications
#13
Lynsey A Seim, Joan M Irizarry-Alvarado
BACKGROUND: No clear guideline exists for the management of female hormone therapy in the perioperative period. Besides oral contraceptives (OCPs), hormone medications have been prescribed to treat cancer, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of OCPs in the 1960s, the thromboembolic risk associated with these medications has been studied and alterations have been made in the hormone content. The continuation of hormone therapy in the perioperative period and its possible interactions with commonly used anesthetic agents are important information for all perioperative health care providers...
September 26, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968324/a-study-on-the-effects-of-the-use-of-propofol-in-experimental-model-inferior-epigastric-island-flap-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Tuncay Eroglu, Mehmet Bozkurt, Emin Kapi, Caferi Tayyar Selcuk, Samet Vasfi Kuvat, Adnan Tufek, Fatma Birgul Isik, Beri Hocaoglu Bozarslan, Ugur Firat, Omer Satici
Problems concerning vascular blood flow are the most frequently encountered ones after flap applications. The flap tissue starts to develop ischemia in patients with a vascular blood flow insufficiency. And reperfusion starts in those patients in whom the ischemia is temporary, triggering an ischemia-reperfusion injury depending on the duration of the ischemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of propofol, which is an anesthetic agent known to have an antioxidant effect and a free radical scavenging feature on the ischemia-reperfusion injury created on an experimental epigastric island flap...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964815/peripheral-versus-central-effect-of-intravenous-moxonidine-on-rat-carotid-sinus-baroreflex-mediated-sympathetic-arterial-pressure-regulation
#15
Toru Kawada, Shuji Shimizu, Hiromi Yamamoto, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Toshiaki Shishido, Masaru Sugimachi
AIMS: Moxonidine is a centrally acting antihypertensive agent with a selectivity to I1-imidazoline receptors higher than that to α2-adrenergic receptors. The present study aimed to quantify a peripheral effect of moxonidine on carotid sinus baroreflex-mediated sympathetic arterial pressure (AP) regulation separately from its central effect. MAIN METHODS: In eight anesthetized Wistar rats, changes in efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and AP in response to a carotid sinus pressure input were compared before and during an intravenous administration of moxonidine (100μgkg(-1) bolus followed by a continuous infusion at 200μg·kg(-1)·h(-1))...
September 27, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959192/brainstem-influence-on-thalamocortical-oscillations-during-anesthesia-emergence
#16
Christopher M Scheib
Theories of mechanisms that impair or prevent consciousness during anesthesia that are related to thalamocortical oscillations have been proposed. Many methods of EEG analysis have been proposed as measures of anesthetic effects but only a few have potential to provide measures of those anesthetic effects that are directly related to thalamocortical oscillations. Some of these methods will be explained and demonstrated with examples chosen to provide evidence for or against two of the proposed mechanisms. The first of the two mechanisms to be addressed is the "traveling peak" (Ching et al...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958878/a-new-class-of-cubic-spions-as-a-dual-mode-t1-and-t2-contrast-agent-for-mri
#17
Akbar Alipour, Zeliha Soran-Erdem, Mustafa Utkur, Vijay Kumar Shamra, Oktay Algin, Emine Ulku Saritas, Hilmi Volkan Demir
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are widely used as a robust negative contrast agent on conventional MRI. In this study, we (a) synthesized a new class of cubic SPIONs as a dual-mode contrast agent in MRI and (b) showed the in-vivo feasibility of these nanaoparticles as a simultaneous positive and negative contrast agent. Relaxation properties and contrast enhancement analysis of the synthesized SPIONs with two different shapes (cubic vs. spherical) and three different sizes 7nm, 11nm, and 14nm were investigated to evaluate contrast enhancement in-vitro...
September 25, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956316/anesthetic-implications-of-recreational-drug-use
#18
Pierre Beaulieu
PURPOSE: As the use of recreational drugs increases, the likelihood of an anesthesiologist perioperatively encountering patients using or addicted to these drugs will also increase. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Addicted patients may present for anesthetic care in a variety of circumstances in everyday elective surgeries or in acute or life-saving situations, such as emergency Cesarean delivery or trauma surgery. Therefore, it is important for anesthesiologists to know about the most common illicit drugs being used, their clinical presentation and side effects, and the anesthetic options that are beneficial or detrimental to these patients...
September 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951521/isoflurane-promotes-glucose-metabolism-through-upregulation-of-mir-21-and-suppresses-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-of-ovarian-cancer-cells
#19
Nai-Liang Guo, Jing-Hua Tan, Jing-Ping Wu, Ying-Hua Xu
Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecologic malignancies in women. Isoflurane is one of volatile anesthetics used extensively for inhalational anesthesia and gynaecological surgery. However, the effects of isoflurane on ovarian cancer have not been fully elucidated. It is wildly studied that one of the biochemical fingerprints of cancer cells is the altered energy metabolism which is characterized by preferential dependence on glycolysis for energy production in an oxygen-independent manner. In this study, we explored the roles of isoflurane in the regulation of cellular metabolism of ovarian cancer cells...
September 26, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949804/can-dexmedetomidine-influence-recovery-profiles-from-general-anesthesia-in-nasal-surgery
#20
Ho Seok Lee, Ho Young Yoon, Ho Jun Jin, Se Hwan Hwang
Objectives Dexmedetomidine has sympatholytic, sedative, anesthetic, and analgesic effects, as well as vasoconstrictive effects, which may help prevent hypotension under general anesthesia. This meta-analysis aimed to perform a systematic review of the literature and investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on perioperative morbidity following nasal surgery and its adverse effects. Data Sources MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane database. Review Methods Two authors independently searched the databases from their inception to March 2017...
September 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
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