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Anesthetic agents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221795/comparison-of-local-anesthetic-efficiency-of-tramadol-hydrochloride-and-lidocaine-hydrochloride
#1
Bilal Ege, Metin Calisir, Yahya Al-Haideri, Miray Ege, Metin Gungormus
PURPOSE: This study investigated the local anesthetic efficiency of tramadol versus lidocaine hydrochloride in maxillary infiltration anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a randomized double-blinded study involving 50 healthy volunteers. In the experimental part of this study, each volunteer received 1 buccal 0.5-mL injection of tramadol hydrochloride 25 mg on one side and 1 buccal 0.5-mL injection of vasoconstrictor-free lidocaine hydrochloride 20 mg on the other side...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221728/emulsified-isoflurane-induces-release-of-cytochrome-c-in-human-neuroblastoma-shsy-5y-cells-via-jnk-c-jun-n-terminal-kinases-signaling-pathway
#2
Zeyong Yang, Jingjing Lv, Xianfu Lu, Xingxing Li, Xiaohu An, Jianwei Wang, Hao Weng, Yuanhai Li
A large number of studies have demonstrated that inhalation anesthetic isoflurane induced neural cell death by apoptosis in various cell and animal models. Emulsified isoflurane (EIso) is a new type of intravenous preparation of isoflurane that attracts increasing research attention as a promising clinical agent due to its both advantages as an intravenous and inhalation anesthetics medication. However, its safety and underlying molecular mechanism of neurotoxicity largely remain unknown. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate the safety of EIso and to further elucidate its mechanism of anesthetic neurotoxicity...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218620/the-impact-of-injector-based-contrast-agent-administration-in-time-resolved-mra
#3
Johannes Budjan, Ulrike I Attenberger, Stefan O Schoenberg, Hubertus Pietsch, Gregor Jost
OBJECTIVES: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography (4D-MRA), which allows the simultaneous visualization of the vasculature and blood-flow dynamics, is widely used in clinical routine. In this study, the impact of two different contrast agent injection methods on 4D-MRA was examined in a controlled, standardized setting in an animal model. METHODS: Six anesthetized Goettingen minipigs underwent two identical 4D-MRA examinations at 1.5 T in a single session...
December 7, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218424/pharmacoimaging-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeable-fdg-and-impermeable-flt-substrates-after-intranasal-in-administration
#4
Laura L Boles Ponto, Susan Walsh, Jiangeng Huang, Christine Mundt, Katherine Thede-Reynolds, G Leonard Watkins, John Sunderland, Michael Acevedo, Maureen Donovan
To illustrate the use of imaging to quantify the transfer of materials from the nasal cavity to other anatomical compartments, specifically, transfer to the brain using the thymidine analogue, [18F]fluorothymidine (FLT), and the glucose analogue, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Anesthetized rats were administered FLT or FDG by intranasal instillation (IN) or tail-vein injection (IV). PET/CT imaging was performed for up to 60 min. Volumes-of-interest (VOIs) for the olfactory bulb (OB) and the remaining brain were created on the CT and transferred to the co-registered dynamic PET...
December 7, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209787/-different-levels-of-experience-with-anesthetic-agents-of-german-emergency-physicians-results-of-an-online-survey
#5
A Luckscheiter, M Fischer, W Zink
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In 2015 practice management guidelines on prehospital emergency anesthesia in adults were published in Germany. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether emergency physicians follow these guidelines in daily practice and to assess their level of experience with the use of anesthetic agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an online survey the way of induction of preclinical anesthesia (including preoxygenation time and applied monitoring techniques) was assessed with the help of virtual scenarios based on the guidelines...
December 5, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209128/role-of-combined-propofol-and-sufentanil-anesthesia-in-endoscopic-injection-sclerotherapy-for-esophageal-varices
#6
Yang Yu, Sheng-Lin Qi, Yong Zhang
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a combination of sufentanil and propofol injection in patients undergoing endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) for esophageal varices (EVs). METHODS: Patients with severe EVs who underwent EIS with sufentanil and propofol anesthesia between April 2016 and July 2016 at our hospital were reviewed. Although EIS and sequential therapy were performed under endotracheal intubation, we only evaluated the efficacy and safety of anesthesia for the first EIS procedure...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204316/acute-dystonic-reaction-following-general-anesthetic-agent-use
#7
Jiraporn Jitprapaikulsan, Prachaya Srivanitchapoom
Background: A 36-year-old Thai female who underwent a thymectomy under general anesthesia developed acute abnormal movements in the craniofacial region immediately after awakening with preserved consciousness. Phenomenology: Intermittent abnormal movements included oculogyric crisis; tongue protrusion; blepharospasm; and oro-mandibular dystonia consisting of risus sardonicus, jaw opening, and right torticollis. Educational value: An acute dystonic reaction can be a complication of either single or combined general anesthetic agents...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203576/dimethoxy-etomidate-a-non-hypnotic-etomidate-analog-that-potently-inhibits-steroidogenesis
#8
Megan McGrath, Celena Ma, Douglas Raines
Cushing's syndrome is characterized by the overproduction of adrenocortical steroids. Steroidogenesis inhibitors are mainstays of medical therapy for Cushing's syndrome; unfortunately, adverse side effects and treatment failures are common with currently available drugs. The general anesthetic induction agent etomidate is among the most potent inhibitors of adrenocortical steroidogenesis. However, its use as a treatment for Cushing's syndrome is complicated by its sedative-hypnotic activity and ability to produce myoclonus, central nervous system actions thought to be mediated by the GABAA receptor...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203057/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-revealing-autoimmune-encephalitis-due-to-gabaar-antibodies
#9
D Caputo, R Iorio, F Vigevano, L Fusco
BACKGROUND: Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) has been described as an epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology affecting previously healthy children following febrile illness. Despite large investigations on autoimmune pathogenesis no membrane antibodies has been associated since now. CASE STUDY: We report a 13 years-old girl with negative history for neurological or autoimmune disease that developed at the sixth day of high fever a super-refractory status epilepticus...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200376/anesthetic-considerations-for-patients-on-antidepressant-therapy-part-i
#10
Mana Saraghi, Leonard R Golden, Elliot V Hersh
Millions of patients take antidepressant medications in the United States for the treatment of depression or anxiety disorders. Some antidepressants are prescribed off-label to treat problems such as chronic pain, low energy, and menstrual symptoms. Antidepressants are a broad and expansive group of medications, but the more common drug classes include tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. A miscellaneous or "atypical" category covers other agents...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199541/impact-of-temperature-on-the-narcotrend-index-during-hypothermic-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-children-with-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#11
Nils Dennhardt, Christiane Beck, Dietmar Boethig, Sebastian Heiderich, Alexander Horke, Sebastian Tiedge, Martin Boehne, Robert Sümpelmann
BACKGROUND: During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children, anesthesia maintained by sevoflurane administered via the oxygenator is increasingly common. Anesthetic uptake and requirement may be influenced by the non-physiological conditions during hypothermic CPB. Narcotrend-processed EEG monitoring may, therefore, be useful to guide the administration of sevoflurane during this phase. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this prospective, clinical, observational study was to assess the correlation between body temperature, Narcotrend Index (NI) and administered sevoflurane in children during CPB...
December 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198958/inhalation-anaesthetic-isoflurane-inhibits-the-muscarinic-cation-current-and-carbachol-induced-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-contractions
#12
Dariia Dryn, Jialie Luo, Mariia Melnyk, Alexander Zholos, Hongzhen Hu
Gastrointestinal tract motility may be demoted significantly after surgery operations at least in part due to anaesthetic agents, but there is no comprehensive explanation of the molecular mechanism(s) of such adverse effects. Anesthetics are known to interact with various receptors and ion channels including several subtypes of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Two members of the canonical subfamily of TRP channels (TRPC), TRPC4 and TRPC6 are Ca2+-permeable cation channels involved in visceral smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the gut...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197566/local-subcutaneous-injection-of-chlorogenic-acid-inhibits-the-nociceptive-trigeminal-spinal-nucleus-caudalis-neurons-in-rats
#13
Kaede Kakita, Hirona Tsubouchi, Mayu Adachi, Shiori Takehana, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
Acute administration of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in vitro was recently shown to modulate potassium channel conductance and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the primary sensory neurons; however, in vivo peripheral effects of CGA on the nociceptive mechanical stimulation of trigeminal neuronal activity remains to be determined. The present study investigated whether local administration of CGA in vivo attenuates mechanical stimulation-induced excitability of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis neuronal (SpVc) activity in rats...
November 29, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189539/effect-of-continuous-systemic-administration-of-esmolol-on-intraocular-pressure-during-surgery-in-a-sustained-steep-trendelenburg-position
#14
Jin Joo, Jiyoung Kim, Jaemin Lee
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of continuous systemic administration of esmolol on intraocular pressure (IOP) during laparoscopic and robotic surgeries for recto-sigmoid cancer in a steep Trendelenburg position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery in a steep Trendelenburg position were included. Patients in the esmolol (E) group received a 0.25 mg/kg IV loading dose of esmolol before anesthesia, followed by an infusion of 15 μg/kg/min throughout the operation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186909/ketamine-a-clinically-used-anesthetic-inhibits-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-via-pp2a-activated-pi3k-akt-erk-inhibition
#15
Yi Chang, Jiun-Yi Li, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Shou-Huang Hung, Wei-Cheng Lee, Manjunath Manubolu, Joen-Rong Sheu, Ming-Jen Hsu
Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) gives rise to major pathological processes involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The use of anti-proliferative agents for VSMCs offers potential for the treatment of vascular disorders. Intravenous anesthetics are firmly established to have direct effects on VSMCs, resulting in modulation of blood pressure. Ketamine has been used for many years in the intensive care unit (ICU) for sedation, and has recently been considered for adjunctive therapy...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176503/diagnostic-injections-about-the-shoulder
#16
Edward McFarland, Johnathan Bernard, Eric Dein, Alex Johnson
Injections about the shoulder serve diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. Diagnosis of shoulder conditions, such as rotator cuff tears, acromioclavicular joint pathology, subacromial impingement or anterolateral pain syndrome, glenohumeral joint pathology, suprascapular nerve entrapment, and biceps tendon pathologies, is often complicated by concomitant conditions with overlapping symptoms and by inconclusive physical examination and imaging results. Injections of anesthetic agents can often help clinicians locate the source of pain...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176298/smaller-effect-of-propofol-than-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-dopamine-turnover-induced-by-methamphetamine-and-nomifensine-in-the-rat-striatum-an-in-vivo-microdialysis-study
#17
Saori Taharabaru, Maiko Satomoto, Takahiro Tamura, Yushi U Adachi
Volatile anesthetics accelerate dopamine turnover in the brain, especially when used in conjunction with psychotropic agents such as methamphetamine and nomifensine. The effect of intravenous propofol anesthesia on the extracellular dopamine concentrations is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two anesthetics on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and metabolites using an in vivo microdialysis model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with a microdialysis probe into the right striatum...
November 23, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174123/intraoperative-anesthetic-management-of-lung-transplantation-center-specific-practices-and-geographic-and-centers-size-differences
#18
Roland Tomasi, David Betz, Sophie Schlager, Tobias Kammerer, Dominik J Hoechter, Thomas Weig, Peter Slinger, Laura V Klotz, Bernhard Zwißler, Nandor Marczin, Vera von Dossow
OBJECTIVE: Although increasing evidence in lung transplantation (LTx) suggests that intraoperative management could influence outcomes, there are no guidelines available regarding intraoperative management of LTx. The overall goal of the study was to assess geographic and center volume-specific clinical practices in perioperative management. DESIGN: Prospective data analysis. SETTING: Online survey from a single-center university hospital...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163846/does-the-type-of-anesthesia-really-affect-the-recurrence-free-survival-after-breast-cancer-surgery
#19
Myoung Hwa Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Joo Heung Kim, Ki Young Lee, Seho Park, Young Chul Yoo
Background: Although previous studies have suggested that propofol inhibits cancer recurrence and metastasis, the association between anesthetic agents and the recurrence of breast cancer has not been clearly investigated. We compared total intravenous anesthesia and balanced anesthesia with volatile agents to investigate the differences in their effects on recurrence-free survival and overall survival after breast cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: The electronic medical records of 2,729 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery between November 2005 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed to analyze the factors associated with recurrence-free survival after surgery...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162522/loss-of-consciousness-is-related-to-hyper-correlated-gamma-band-activity-in-anesthetized-macaques-and-sleeping-humans
#20
Michał Bola, Adam B Barrett, Andrea Pigorini, Lino Nobili, Anil K Seth, Artur Marchewka
Loss of consciousness can result from a wide range of causes, including natural sleep and pharmacologically induced anesthesia. Important insights might thus come from identifying neuronal mechanisms of loss and re-emergence of consciousness independent of a specific manipulation. Therefore, to seek neuronal signatures of loss of consciousness common to sleep and anesthesia we analyzed spontaneous electrophysiological activity recorded in two experiments. First, electrocorticography (ECoG) acquired from 4 macaque monkeys anesthetized with different anesthetic agents (ketamine, medetomidine, propofol) and, second, stereo-electroencephalography (sEEG) from 10 epilepsy patients in different wake-sleep stages (wakefulness, NREM, REM)...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
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