Read by QxMD icon Read

Anesthetic agents

Vytautas Jankauskas, Candace Necyk, James Chue, Pierre Chue
Up to 20% of depressed patients demonstrate treatment resistance to one or more adequate antidepressant trials, resulting in a disproportionately high burden of illness. Ketamine is a non-barbiturate, rapid-acting general anesthetic that has been increasingly studied in treatment resistant depression (TRD), typically at sub-anesthetic doses (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min by intravenous infusion). More recent data suggest that ketamine may improve response rates to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) when used as an adjunct, but also as a sole agent...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan, Reginald P Sequeira, Khalid Aj Al-Khaja
Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction in men. The present study is a network meta-analysis of drugs used for treating PE. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing medical interventions with either placebo or with other active drugs in patients with PE. Inverse variance heterogeneity model was used for mixed-treatment comparisons. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and adverse events were the main outcome measures. A total of 44 studies were included in the meta-analysis...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Siyavash Soltanian, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Amin Gholamhosseini
The present study investigated the possible effects of different anesthetic agents including MS222 (50 ppm), 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE) (0.2 mL L-1 ) and clove oil (25 ppm), on cutaneous mucosal immune parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The induction and recovery times for each anesthetic agent were assessed. Also, the immune parameters were measured in skin mucus, 1 and 24 h post anesthesia. No significant difference was observed among treatments at 1 h post-anesthesia except for bactericidal and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities which was significantly enhanced in fish exposed to 2-PE compared to other anesthetics...
June 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Michelle M Mendonça, Joice S Santana, Kellen R da Cruz, Danielle Ianzer, Paulo C Ghedini, Eugene Nalivaiko, Marco A P Fontes, Reginaldo N Ferreira, Gustavo R Pedrino, Diego B Colugnati, Carlos H Xavier
Sympathetic premotor neurons of the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN) play a role in hemodynamics adjustments during changes in body fluid homeostasis. However, PVN contribution to the tonic control of cardiac function remains to be systematically studied. In this study, we assessed whether GABAergic and adrenergic synapses, known for being active in the PVN, are involved in the control of cardiac function. Adult male Wistar rats (250-350 g; n = 27) were anesthetized with urethane (1.2-1.4 g/kg i.p.) and underwent catheterization of femoral artery to record blood pressure and heart rate...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Maurice S Albin
Background The United States Civil War (1861-1865) pitted the more populous industrialized North (Union) against the mainly agricultural slaveholding South (Confederacy). This conflict cost an enormous number of lives, with recent estimates mentioning a total mortality greater than 700,000 combatants [1]. Although sulfuric ether (ETH) and chloroform (CHL) were available since Morton's use of the former in 1846 and the employment of the latter in 1847, and even though inhalational agents were used in Crimean war (1853-1856) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), the United States Civil War gave military surgeons on both sides the opportunity to experience the use of these two agents because of the large number of casualties...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Susanne Koch, Leopold Rupp, Christine Prager, Rudolf Mörgeli, Sylvia Kramer, Klaus Dieter Wernecke, Astrid Fahlenkamp, Claudia Spies
OBJECTIVE: In pediatric patients, anaesthesia induction is often performed with intravenous Propofol or Sevoflurane inhalation. Although epileptiform discharges have been observed during inductions with Sevoflurane, their occurrence has not been investigated for i.v. Propofol inductions. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence of epileptiform discharges in children during anaesthesia induction using Propofol versus Sevoflurane. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study in children aged 0...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Do-Won Lee, Jae-Young Kwon, Hae-Kyu Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Eun-Soo Kim, Hyae-Jin Kim, Hyung-Joon Kim, Han-Bit Lee
Bone remodeling plays an important role in the bone healing process; for example, following fracture. The relative ratio of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)/ osteoprotegerin (OPG) controls osteoclast differentiation, thereby playing a pivotal role in the regulation of bone remodeling. Propofol, a widely used anesthetic agent in orthopedic procedures, is considered to possess potential antioxidant properties owing to its structural similarity to α-tocopherol. Antioxidants are known to enhance bone healing...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Laura M Kleinschmidt, Christopher S Hanley, John M Sahrmann, Luis R Padilla
  The immobilization properties and cardiopulmonary effects following intramuscular administration of one of two chemical immobilization agents were compared in the Haitian giant galliwasp ( Celestus warreni) in a prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial. Adult, clinically healthy galliwasps ( n = 30) were given a randomly assigned single intramuscular injection of either 15 mg/kg alfaxalone ( n = 15) or 40 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride ( n = 15). Heart rate, respiratory rate, and depth classification stage were recorded every 5 min; cloacal temperature was recorded every 15 min to ensure maintenance within this species' preferred optimal temperature range (75-85°F, 24-29°C)...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Johanna Kaartinen, Stéphane Lair, Michael T Walsh, Patrick Burns, Marion Desmarchelier, Jessica M Pang, Daniel S J Pang
  Walruses are a challenging species to anesthetize as a result of their large mass, limited access for drug delivery, unique physiology, and small number of reports describing anesthetic procedures. Three aquarium-housed walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus) ranging in age from 3 to 11 yr old (344-1,000 kg) were anesthetized for dental or ophthalmic surgical procedures, with one animal anesthetized twice and one anesthetized three times. Preanesthetic medication was with intramuscular midazolam (0.1-0.2 mg/kg) and meperidine (2-3 mg/kg)...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Nicholas B Frisch, Brian Darrith, Dane C Hansen, Adrienne Wells, Sheila Sanders, Richard A Berger
Background: With the increasing interest in fast recovery and outpatient joint arthroplasty, short-acting local anesthetic agents and minimal narcotic use are preferred. Lidocaine is a fast-onset, short-duration local anesthetic that has been used for many years in spinal anesthesia. However, lidocaine spinal anesthesia has been reported to have a risk of transient neurologic symptoms (TNSs). The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of single-dose lidocaine spinal anesthesia in the setting of outpatient joint arthroplasty...
June 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Xiaoxuan Yang, Youssef Jounaidi, Jennifer B Dai, Francisco Marte-Oquendo, Elizabeth S Halpin, Lauren E Brown, Richard Trilles, Wenqing Xu, Renee Daigle, Buwei Yu, Scott E Schaus, John A Porco, Stuart A Forman
BACKGROUND: Many general anesthetics were discovered empirically, but primary screens to find new sedative-hypnotics in drug libraries have not used animals, limiting the types of drugs discovered. The authors hypothesized that a sedative-hypnotic screening approach using zebrafish larvae responses to sensory stimuli would perform comparably to standard assays, and efficiently identify new active compounds. METHODS: The authors developed a binary outcome photomotor response assay for zebrafish larvae using a computerized system that tracked individual motions of up to 96 animals simultaneously...
June 12, 2018: Anesthesiology
Rajan Gupta, Satwinder Kaur, Parveen Dahiya, Mukesh Kumar
The treatment of periodontitis primarily consists of mechanical debridement carried out by means of thorough scaling and root planing that might sometimes be a painful procedure which requires the administration of some form of local anesthesia. The present study comparatively evaluates the anesthetic effect of three such forms, viz; eutectic mixture of 25 mg/g lignocaine plus 25 mg/g prilocaine (EMLA) and needleless jet anesthesia during SRP. 30 patients with probing depth of 5 mm or more and visual analog scale (VAS) score of ≥30 mm on probing were selected and asked to assess the pain by VAS and verbal rating scale (VRS) during SRP after application of the two agents...
May 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
L Brad Morgans, Nicholas Graham
Medical services in the austere and limited environment often require therapeutics and practices uncommon in modern times due to a lack of availability, affordability, or expertise in remote areas. In this setting, diethyl ether, or simply ether anesthesia, still serves a role today as an effective inhalation agent. An understanding of ether as an anesthetic not only illustrates the evolution in surgical anesthesia but also demonstrates ether's surviving function and durable use as a practical agent in developing nations...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Julie A Balko, Ayako Oda, Lysa P Posner
OBJECTIVE To substantiate current AVMA guidelines for immersion euthanasia of goldfish (Carassius auratus) with tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS), determine whether immersion in propofol at 5 times its immersion anesthesia concentration for 30 minutes is sufficient for euthanasia of goldfish, and quantify the duration of myocardial contraction following immersion of goldfish in TMS and decapitation. DESIGN Prospective clinical trial. ANIMALS 36 healthy, adult goldfish. PROCEDURES Goldfish were randomly assigned to be immersed in 1 of 6 test solution treatments (n = 6/treatment): TMS (500 mg/L) for 15 minutes followed by placement in anesthetic agent-free water (T15W), placement out of water (T15A), or decapitation (T15D); TMS (1,000 mg/L) for 15 minutes followed by placement in anesthetic agent-free water (T15XW); TMS (500 mg/L) for 30 minutes followed by placement in anesthetic agent-free water (T30W); or propofol (25 mg/L) for 30 minutes followed by placement in anesthetic agent-free water (P30W)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
S Hidaka, Y Kanai, S Takehana, Y Syoji, Y Kubota, N Uotsu, K Yui, Y Shimazu, M Takeda
Although a modulatory role has been reported for α-lipoic acid (LA) on T-type Ca2+ channels in the nervous system, the acute effects of LA in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute intravenous LA administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Kazuyuki Sakamoto, Yukiko Noguchi, Koji Ueshima, Hisashi Yamakuni, Akiyoshi Ohtake, Shuichi Sato, Kenichiro Ishizu, Naomi Hosogai, Eiji Kawaminami, Masahiro Takeda, Noriyuki Masuda
Current pharmacotherapies for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) are in need of improvement. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a phospholipid with various biological functions. However, its exact role in the lower urinary tract and its target receptor subtype have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the role of LPA and the type 1 LPA receptor (LPA1) in urethral/prostatic contractile function and prostate cell proliferation by pharmacologically characterizing ASP6432 (potassium 1-(2-{[3,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-N-(3-phenylpropyl)benzamido]methyl}-1,3-thiazole-4-carbonyl)-3-ethyl-2,2-dioxo-2λ6-diazathian-1-ide), a novel LPA1 antagonist...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
R S Mangus, S B Kinsella, D T Farar, J A Fridell, L T Woolf, C A Kubal
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the ability of inhaled anesthetic agents to ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in liver transplantation (LT). This study compares inhaled anesthetics in early liver allograft IRI. LT recipient and organ donor data were extracted retrospectively for all LTs at a single center between 2001 and 2015. METHODS: LT recipient and organ donor data were extracted retrospectively for all LTs at a single center between 2001 and 2015...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Roohollah Sharifi, Hamid Reza Mozaffari, Hesameddin Nazari, Narges Ziaei, Arash Mohammadi, Seyed Mojtaba Amiri
This article includes data from the research article entitled "The most painful site of maxillary anterior infiltrations" (Sharifi et al., 2016) [1]. This article presents data of a study regarding pain from infiltration injection in the anterior region of maxilla in 3 locations in the buccal mucosa: the central and lateral incisors' region as well as the canine region. Pain measurements were performed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at the time of needle insertion, as well as during injection of the anesthetic agent at 5, 30 and 55 s...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Brett Lipshetz, Sergey G Khasabov, Hai Truong, Theoden I Netoff, Donald A Simone, Glenn J Giesler
Understanding of processing and transmission of information related to itch and pain in the thalamus are incomplete. In fact, no single unit studies of pruriceptive transmission in the thalamus have yet appeared. In urethane-anesthetized rats, we examined responses of 66 thalamic neurons to itch- and pain- inducing stimuli including chloroquine, serotonin, b-alanine, histamine, and capsaicin. Eighty percent of all cells were activated by intradermal injections of one or more pruritogens. Forty percent of tested neurons responded to injection of three, four or even five agents...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Pavan Kumar Kadiyala, Lakshmi Deepthi Kadiyala
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as a treatment option in psychiatry is advancing day by day. This review discusses new advancements in ECT with regards to anesthetic variables, stimulus, and response variables along with their impact on clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Anesthetic variables influence clinical efficacy and patient tolerance of ECT. Although etomidate or a ketamine-propofol combination may be the first choice for many clinicians, the search for ideal induction agent continues...
June 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"