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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318780/surface-electromyogram-and-muscle-ultrasonography-for-detection-of-muscle-fasciculations-in-pediatric-peripheral-neuropathy
#1
Masayoshi Oguri, Yoshiaki Saito, Tetsuya Okazaki, Wataru Matsumura, Koyo Ohno, Masami Togawa, Chisako Fukuda, Yuko Saito, Ichizo Nishino, Yoshihiro Maegaki
A 12-year-old girl presented with talipes equinus of both legs, attenuation of upper and lower limb tendon reflexes, thermal hyperalgesia, and reduction of vibratory sensation. On clinical examination, muscle twitches of fingers of both hands, as well as the abductor halluces and the dorsal interossei muscles of the right foot were observed. Nerve conduction velocity was significantly declined in the upper and lower extremities. Needle electromyography (EMG) was not performed; however, ultrasonography revealed repetitive, semi-regular muscle twitches lasting 0...
March 16, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293499/proximal-versus-distal-nerve-transfer-for-biceps-reinnervation-a-comparative-study-in-a-rat-s-brachial-plexus-injury-model
#2
Aleksandra M McGrath, Johnny Chuieng-Yi Lu, Tommy Naj-Jen Chang, Frank Fang, David Chwei-Chin Chuang
BACKGROUND: The exact role of proximal and distal nerve transfers in reconstruction strategies of brachial plexus injury remains controversial. We compared proximal with distal nerve reconstruction strategies in a rat model of brachial plexus injury. METHODS: In rats, the C6 spinal nerve with a nerve graft (proximal nerve transfer model, n = 30, group A) and 50% of ulnar nerve (distal nerve transfer model, n = 30, group B) were used as the donor nerves. The targets were the musculocutaneous nerve and the biceps muscle...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269705/real-time-evaluation-of-a-myoelectric-control-method-for-high-level-upper-limb-amputees-based-on-homologous-leg-movements
#3
Kenneth R Lyons, Sanjay S Joshi
Electromyography-based gesture classification methods for control of advanced upper limb prostheses are limited either to individuals with amputations distal to the elbow or to those willing to undergo targeted muscle reinnervation surgery. Based on the natural similarity between gestures of the lower leg and the arm and on established methods in electromyography-based gesture classification, we propose a noninvasive system with which users control an upper limb prosthesis via homologous movements of the leg and foot...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268342/serial-estimation-of-motor-unit-numbers-using-an-implantable-system-following-nerve-injury-and-repair-in-rats
#4
Michael P Willand, Joseph Catapano
Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is an established technique to assess recovery following peripheral nerve injury. In rats, where the vast majority of peripheral nerve research is conducted, assessing motor units at various time points requires a terminal procedure due to the invasive nature of current techniques. Here, we present an implanted system that was used to serially assess MUNE after peripheral nerve injury and repair in rats. This system significantly increases the efficiency of peripheral nerve research by negating the need for terminal procedures, allowing for serial MUNE assessment over time in the same rat...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235444/efficient-healing-takes-some-nerve-electrical-stimulation-enhances-innervation-in-cutaneous-human%C3%A2-wounds
#5
Elaine Emmerson
Cutaneous nerves extend throughout the dermis and epidermis and control both the functional and reparative capacity of the skin. Denervation of the skin impairs cutaneous healing, presenting evidence that nerves provide cues essential for timely wound repair. Sebastian et al. demonstrate that electrical stimulation promotes reinnervation and neural differentiation in human acute wounds, thus accelerating wound repair.
March 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227966/real-time-evaluation-of-a-myoelectric-control-method-for-high-level-upper-limb-amputees-based-on-homologous-leg-movements
#6
Kenneth R Lyons, Sanjay S Joshi, Kenneth R Lyons, Sanjay S Joshi, Sanjay S Joshi, Kenneth R Lyons
Electromyography-based gesture classification methods for control of advanced upper limb prostheses are limited either to individuals with amputations distal to the elbow or to those willing to undergo targeted muscle reinnervation surgery. Based on the natural similarity between gestures of the lower leg and the arm and on established methods in electromyography-based gesture classification, we propose a noninvasive system with which users control an upper limb prosthesis via homologous movements of the leg and foot...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226503/serial-estimation-of-motor-unit-numbers-using-an-implantable-system-following-nerve-injury-and-repair-in-rats
#7
Michael P Willand, Joseph Catapano, Michael P Willand, Joseph Catapano, Michael P Willand, Joseph Catapano
Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is an established technique to assess recovery following peripheral nerve injury. In rats, where the vast majority of peripheral nerve research is conducted, assessing motor units at various time points requires a terminal procedure due to the invasive nature of current techniques. Here, we present an implanted system that was used to serially assess MUNE after peripheral nerve injury and repair in rats. This system significantly increases the efficiency of peripheral nerve research by negating the need for terminal procedures, allowing for serial MUNE assessment over time in the same rat...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213440/muscle-yap-is-a-regulator-of-neuromuscular-junction-formation-and-regeneration
#8
Kai Zhao, Chengyong Shen, Yisheng Lu, Zhihui Huang, Lei Li, Christopher D Rand, Jinxiu Pan, Xiang-Dong Sun, Zhibing Tan, Hongsheng Wang, Guanglin Xing, Yu Cao, Guoqing Hu, Jiliang Zhou, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Yes-associated protein (Yap) is a major effector of the Hippo pathway that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation during development and restricts tissue growth in adult animals. However, its role in synapse formation remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized Yap's role in the formation of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In HSA-Yap(-/-) mice where Yap was mutated specifically in muscle cells, AChR clusters were smaller and were distributed in a broader region in the middle of muscle fibers, suggesting that muscle Yap is necessary for the size and location of AChR clusters...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203223/impaired-axonal-regeneration-in-diabetes-perspective-on-the-underlying-mechanism-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-experimental-studies
#9
REVIEW
Kazunori Sango, Hiroki Mizukami, Hidenori Horie, Soroku Yagihashi
Axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury is impaired in diabetes, but its precise mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on altered axonal regeneration in animal models of diabetes and cultured nerve tissues exposed to hyperglycemia. Impaired nerve regeneration in animal diabetes can be attributed to dysfunction of neurons and Schwann cells, unfavorable stromal environment supportive of regenerating axons, and alterations of target tissues receptive to reinnervation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197545/active-nerve-regeneration-with-failed-target-reinnervation-drives-persistent-neuropathic-pain
#10
Wenrui Xie, Judith A Strong, Jun-Ming Zhang
Peripheral nerves can regenerate and, when injured, may cause neuropathic pain. We propose that the active regeneration process plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. In one commonly used rodent neuropathic pain model, pronounced pain behaviors follow ligation and cutting of the L5 spinal nerve. We found that the injured nerve regenerates into the sciatic nerve and functionally reinnervates target tissues: the regenerated nerve conducts electrical signals, mechanical responses, and tracers between the leg/hindpaw and axotomized sensory ganglion...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149223/successful-nerve-transfers-for-traumatic-brachial-plexus-palsy-in-a-septuagenarian-a-case-report
#11
Parker H Johnsen, Scott W Wolfe
Background: Conventional wisdom and the available literature demonstrate compromised outcomes following nerve reconstruction for traumatic brachial plexus palsy in the elderly. We present a 74-year-old male who was reconstructed with multiple nerve transfers for brachial plexus palsy after a ski accident. Methods: Triceps to axillary nerve transfer, spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer, and ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve transfer were performed 16 weeks post injury. Results: At 11 years post-op, the patient could abduct to 65° and forward flex at M4 strength, limited only by painful glenohumeral arthritis...
December 2016: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129915/analysis-of-the-modifications-of-mri-signal-of-the-brachial-plexus-of-rats-comparative-study-before-and-after-freezing-thawing
#12
A Perruisseau-Carrier, N Bahlouli, C Po, P Vernet, S Facca, P Liverneaux
The aim of this study was to compare the MRI signal of the brachial plexus and surrounding muscles before and after freezing/thawing on a murine model. A first MRI going through the brachial plexuses of 5 healthy Wistar rats was performed immediately post-mortem. A second MRI was performed after freezing at -30°C and then thawing at 20°C for 24hours. All MRI images were segmented to make nerve and muscular structures appear and calculate the average intensity of the MRI signal using the program ImageJ. The average nerve and muscular MRI signals were compared before and after freezing/thawing and rated in grayscale units between 0 and 255...
January 24, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121890/facial-reanimation-basic-surgical-tools-and-creation-of-an-effective-toolbox-for-treating-patients-with-facial-paralysis-part-a-functional-muscle-transfers-in-the-long-term-facial-palsy-patient
#13
Shai M Rozen
The literature on facial paralysis is vast; however, detailed videos of the basic tools of dynamic reanimation within the context of patient scenarios accompanied by detailed narrative emphasizing both technique and thought processes are not common. Although not all scenarios of facial paralysis can be discussed in one setting, videographic visualization of basic surgical procedures, including facial marking, facial dissection, donor nerve preparation, cross-facial nerve graft, nerve transfers, and muscle harvest and inset, may provide a strong toolbox...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120411/electrical-stimulation-delays-reinnervation-in-denervated-rat-muscle
#14
Clara M Pinheiro-Dardis, Bruna T Erbereli, Davilene Gigo-Benato, Paula A T S Castro, Thiago L Russo
INTRODUCTION: It is not clear if electrical stimulation (ES) can affect muscle reinnervation. This study aimed to verify if ES affects neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats. METHODS: Denervated muscles were electrically stimulated daily for 6 or 14 days. Neuromuscular performance and excitability, and muscle morphology were determined. Muscle trophism markers (atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myoD), as well as neuromuscular junction (NMJ) organization (MuSK, Dok-7, nAChR, and N-CAM) were assessed...
January 24, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111608/repairing-the-aged-parkinsonian-striatum-lessons-from-the-lab-and-clinic
#15
Natosha M Mercado, Timothy J Collier, Thomas Freeman, Kathy Steece-Collier
The primary risk factor associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is advanced age. While there are symptomatic therapies for PD, efficacy of these eventually wane and/or side-effects develop over time. An alternative experimental therapy that has received a great deal of attention over the past several decades has been neural transplantation aimed at replacing nigral dopamine (DA) neurons that degenerate in PD. However, in PD patients and parkinsonian rats, advanced age is associated with inferior benefit following intrastriatal grafting of embryonic DA neurons...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111229/surgical-repair-in-humans-after-traumatic-nerve-injury-provides-limited-functional-neural-regeneration-in-adults
#16
REVIEW
Winnie A Palispis, Ranjan Gupta
Traumatic nerve injuries result in devastating loss of neurologic function with unpredictable functional recovery despite optimal medical management. After traumatic nerve injury and denervation, regenerating axons must traverse a complex environment in which they encounter numerous barriers on the way to reinnervation of their target muscle. Outcomes of surgical intervention alone have unfortunately reached a plateau, resulting in often unsatisfactory functional recovery. Over the past few decades, many improvements were developed to supplement and boost the results of surgical repair...
April 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099269/bilateral-leg-replantation-in-a-3-month-old-baby-after-a-knee-level-crush-amputation-a-2-year-follow-up
#17
Kresimir Bulic, Anko Antabak, Anto Dujmovic, Hrvoje Kisic, Mia Lorencin
We present a case of a successful bilateral leg replantation in a 3-month-old baby after a knee-level crush amputation with the loss of both knee joints. The legs were replanted after 4 hours of warm and an additional 2.5 and 3.5 hours of cold ischemia time. Both legs show motor and sensory reinnervation, without additional procedures performed on the right leg, and after a nerve reconstruction with cadaveric allografts on the left leg. Both replanted legs exhibit excellent bony and soft tissue growth. Two years after the injury, the patient is progressing well with rehabilitation, with favourable odds of having knee reconstructions performed at a later age...
March 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093890/long-term-follow-up-for-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction-post-radical-prostatectomy-using-nerve-grafts-and-end-to-side-somatic-autonomic-neurorraphy-a-new-technique
#18
José Carlos Souza Trindade, Fausto Viterbo, André Petean Trindade, Wagner José Fávaro, José Carlos Souza Trindade Filho
Radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer treatment, although effective, can lead to severe erectile dysfunction. This study describes a new technique, which aims to reestablish the nerve stimulus in penile erection by two sural nerve graft bridges bilaterally, using the end to side neurorraphy. The first bridge is between femoral nerve and dorsal nerve of penis and the second, is between the femoral nerve and the interior of the corpus cavernosum. In this neurorraphy the endings of the newly formed fibres, generated by the femoral nerve, release acetylcholine inside the cavernous bodies, beginning the erection mechanism...
January 17, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089079/repeated-subarachnoid-administrations-of-autologous-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-supported-in-autologous-plasma-improve-quality-of-life-in-patients-suffering-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Jesús Vaquero, Mercedes Zurita, Miguel A Rico, Celia Bonilla, Concepción Aguayo, Cecilia Fernández, Noemí Tapiador, Marta Sevilla, Carlos Morejón, Jesús Montilla, Francisco Martínez, Esperanza Marín, Salvador Bustamante, David Vázquez, Joaquín Carballido, Alicia Rodríguez, Paula Martínez, Coral García, Mercedes Ovejero, Marta V Fernández
BACKGROUND AIMS: Cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) offers new hope for patients suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Ten patients with established incomplete SCI received four subarachnoid administrations of 30 × 10(6) autologous bone marrow MSCs, supported in autologous plasma, at months 1, 4, 7 and 10 of the study, and were followed until the month 12. Urodynamic, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies were performed at months 6 and 12, and compared with basal studies...
January 6, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087606/reinnervation-post-heart-transplantation
#20
Avishay Grupper, Henry Gewirtz, Sudhir Kushwaha
Heart transplantation results in complete denervation of the donor heart with loss of afferent and efferent nerve connections. The majority of patients remain completely denervated during the first 6-12 months following transplantation. Evidence of reinnervation is usually found during the second year after transplantation and involve the myocardial muscle, sinoatrial node, and coronary vessels, but remains incomplete and regionally limited many years post-transplant. Restoration of cardiac innervation can improve exercise capacity as well as blood flow regulation in the coronary arteries, and hence improve quality of life...
January 12, 2017: European Heart Journal
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