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Adam DeBusk, Mark L Moster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Highlight some of the recent advances in gene therapy and gene modification for optic nerve disease to promote axon regeneration, neuroprotection, and increased visual functioning. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual loss secondary to optic nerve damage occurs in numerous ophthalmologic and neurologic conditions. Damaged retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) do not regenerate once they undergo apoptosis after injury. Gene therapy has been studied to replace gene mutations in disorders affecting the optic nerve as well as to alter genes responsible for suppressing or activating pathways of optic nerve growth and regeneration...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
M Piasecki, A Ireland, J Piasecki, D W Stashuk, A Swiecicka, M K Rutter, D A Jones, J S McPhee
Sarcopenia results from the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and reduced function in older age. It is likely to be associated with the well-documented reduction of motor unit numbers innervating limb muscles and the increase in size of surviving motor units via reinnervation of denervated fibres. However no evidence currently exists to confirm the extent of motor unit remodelling in sarcopenic individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare motor unit size and number between young (n = 48), non-sarcopenic old (n = 13), pre-sarcopenic (n = 53) and sarcopenic (n = 29) men...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Paul Hendrickse, Magdalena Galinska, Emma Hodson-Tole, Hans Degens
A large part of age-related muscle wasting is due to incomplete reinnervation of fibres that have become denervated following motoneuron loss. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and sodium channel NaV1.5 are considered markers for denervation, but the time course of changes in their expression following denervation has never been systematically evaluated in young-adult and old muscle. To assess the time course of denervation-induced changes in their expression, the left gastrocnemius muscle in 15 young-adult (5-month) and 10 old (25-month) male Wistar rats was denervated for 1, 2 or 4 weeks, while the right muscle served as an internal control...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Bülent Cengiz, Metin Mercan, Reha Kuruoğlu
INTRODUCTION: We studied spinal excitability and its relation to motor unit action potential (MUAP) changes in the thenar and hypothenar muscles in ALS patients. METHODS: Quantitative MUAP and peak ratio interference analyses were performed and cutaneous silent period (CutSP) was measured in the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles of ALS patients and controls. RESULTS: ALS patients revealed more prominently increased duration (p=0...
March 10, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Liancai Mu, Jingming Chen, Jing Li, Themba Nyirenda, Mary Fowkes, Stanislaw Sobotka
BACKGROUND:  We have demonstrated that the native motor zone (NMZ) within a muscle is an ideal target for performing nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) to restore motor function of a denervated muscle. This study was designed to determine spatiotemporal alterations of the myofibers, motor endplates (MEPs), and axons in the NMZ of long-term denervated muscles for exploring if NMEG-NMZ technique would have the potential for delayed reinnervation. METHODS:  Sternomastoid (SM) muscles of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats ( n  = 21) were experimentally denervated and denervation-induced changes in muscle weight, myofiber size, MEPs, and intramuscular nerve axons were evaluated histomorphometrically and immunohistochemically at the end of 3, 6, and 9 months after denervation...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Özlenen Özkan, Ömer Özkan, Anı Çinpolat, Mehmet Can Ubur, Gamze Bektaş, Adil Jumshudov, Hilmi Uysal
BACKGROUND: The repair of extensive lower lip defects is difficult due to the presence of both functional and esthetic requirements. This report describes functional lip repair using the partial latissimus dorsi free flap without nerve coaptation. METHODS: Reconstruction of the lower lip due to subtotal and total tissue defects was performed using latissimus dorsi free flap on twelve patients, between 2013 and 2017. The etiology was squamous cell carcinoma in six patients, malignant melanoma in one, firearm injury in three and microstomia in two...
February 23, 2018: Microsurgery
Hakim Benkhatar, Ora Levy, Isabelle Goemaere, Vincent Borderie, Laurent Laroche, Nacim Bouheraoua
PURPOSE: We describe the first case of minimally invasive corneal neurotization with the great auricular nerve (GAN) to treat unilateral neurotrophic keratopathy. We assessed corneal sensation and reinnervation by esthesiometry and confocal microscopy over 12 months of follow-up, and we provide a detailed description of the surgical technique. METHODS: Corneal neurotization was successfully achieved with the ipsilateral GAN in a 58-year-old woman. Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry and in vivo confocal microscopy were performed before and after corneal neurotization, to monitor the recovery of corneal sensation and corneal reinnervation by subbasal nerve fibers...
February 22, 2018: Cornea
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Tiam M Saffari, Barthold N Schüttenhelm, Johan W van Neck, Jan C Holstege
In this study, we investigated whether post-burn itch in rats, after a full thickness burn, is correlated to the nervous reinnervation of the burn wound area. For this purpose, we determined scratching duration (expressed as sec/hr) at 24 hours, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-burn and combined this with immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) to identify all nerve fibers, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) to identify peptidergic fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) for sympathetic fibers and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) for regrowing fibers...
February 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Simeon C Daeschler, Leila Harhaus, Philipp Schoenle, Arne Boecker, Ulrich Kneser, Konstantin D Bergmeister
Limited regeneration after nerve injury often leads to delayed or incomplete reinnervation and consequently insufficient muscle function. Following nerve surgery, application of low-intensity ultrasound or extracorporeal shock waves may promote nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes. Because currently clinical data is unavailable, we performed a meta-analysis following the PRISMA-guidelines to investigate the therapeutic effect of ultrasound and shock wave therapies on motor nerve regeneration. Ten ultrasound-studies (N = 445 rats) and three shock-wave studies (N = 110 rats) were identified from multiple databases...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
SeungWon Lee, KiNam Park
OBJECTIVES: This study compared and assessed long-term voice outcomes when thyroidectomy-related unilateral vocal fold paralysis (VFP) was managed using injection laryngoplasty (IL) and recurrent laryngeal nerve reinnervation (RLNR). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. METHODS: A prospective clinical trial was performed from March 2005 to January 2016 at Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital (Bucheon, South Korea). Nineteen patients who underwent ansa cervicalis to RLNR or direct reinnervation, and 43 patients who underwent IL to treat thyroidectomy-related unilateral VFP, were enrolled...
February 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Chuanjiang Dong, Ping Zhu, Zonglan Xie, Zheqi Fan, Ziqiang Dong
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of rectum reinnervation with transfer of a primarily genitofemoral nerve to the pelvic nerve in the rat. METHODS Thirty-six male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: rats in the nerve transfer group (n = 12) were subjected to rectal denervation and then bilateral genitofemoral nerve-pelvic nerve transfer; rats in the nerve resection group (n = 12) underwent rectum denervation without nerve transfer; and rats in the control group (n = 12) underwent sham surgery...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
George D Bittner, Dale R Sengelaub, Cameron L Ghergherehchi
Current Neuroscience dogma holds that transections or ablations of a segment of peripheral nerves produce: (1) Immediate loss of axonal continuity, sensory signaling, and motor control; (2) Wallerian rapid (1-3 days) degeneration of severed distal axons, muscle atrophy, and poor behavioral recovery after many months (if ever, after ablations) by slowly-regenerating (1 mm/d), proximal-stump outgrowths that must specifically reinnervate denervated targets; (3) Poor acceptance of microsutured nerve allografts, even if tissue-matched and immune-suppressed...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
C O'Rourke, A G E Day, C Murray-Dunning, L Thanabalasundaram, J Cowan, L Stevanato, N Grace, G Cameron, R A L Drake, J Sinden, J B Phillips
Artificial tissues constructed from therapeutic cells offer a promising approach for improving the treatment of severe peripheral nerve injuries. In this study the effectiveness of using CTX0E03, a conditionally immortalised human neural stem cell line, as a source of allogeneic cells for constructing living artificial nerve repair tissue was tested. CTX0E03 cells were differentiated then combined with collagen to form engineered neural tissue (EngNT-CTX), stable aligned sheets of cellular hydrogel. EngNT-CTX sheets were delivered within collagen tubes to repair a 12 mm sciatic nerve injury model in athymic nude rats...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xuan Ye, Yun-Dong Shen, Jun-Tao Feng, Wen-Dong Xu
OBJECTIVE Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury results in a series of shoulder dysfunctions and continuous pain. However, current treatments are limited by the lack of donor nerves as well as by undesirable nerve regeneration. Here, the authors report a modified nerve transfer technique in which they employ a nerve fascicle from the posterior division (PD) of the ipsilateral C-7 nerve to repair SAN injury. The technique, first performed in cadavers, was then undertaken in 2 patients. METHODS Six fresh cadavers (12 sides of the SAN and ipsilateral C-7) were studied to observe the anatomical relationship between the SAN and C-7 nerve...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Hanqing Wang, Chengju Xiao, Dong Dong, Cuipei Lin, Yunxia Xue, Jun Liu, Mingjuan Wu, Jingxin He, Ting Fu, Hongwei Pan, Xinwei Jiao, Dingli Lu, Zhijie Li
The successful restoration of corneal innervation and function after a corneal injury is a clinically challenging issue. Structural and functional recovery after a nerve injury involves a complex series of steps in which microtubules play a key role. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of epothilone B (EpoB), a microtubule-stabilizing agent, on corneal innervation and the functional recovery of the corneal nerve in mice after corneal epithelial abrasion. The pretreatment of mice with EpoB has a remarkable effect on the stabilization of beta-III tubulin, as demonstrated by substantial increases in the visualization of beta-III tubulin, nerve beading, corneal reinnervation, and reaction to stimuli...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pengfei Liu, Chenlong Liao, Wenxiang Zhong, Min Yang, Pengyang Li, Wenchuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Classic hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis inevitably causes hemitongue atrophy and dysfunction. Thus, many variants have been developed to reduce tongue-related morbidities. A comparative study concerning these techniques was conducted in rats to systematically evaluate long-term functional and histological outcomes of the recipient and donor systems. METHODS: Rats (8 per group) were treated by end-to-end neurorrhaphy (EEN), EEN using the hemi-sectioned and longitudinally splitted donor nerve (EEN-Hemi), and end-to-side neurorrhaphy through a perineurial window (ESN-PW) or 30-40% partial neurotomy (ESN-PN)...
February 1, 2018: World Neurosurgery
P S Sharp, N Tyreman, K Jones, T Gordon
Selective survival of small motor nerve fibers and their neuromuscular contacts in the SOD1G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggests that smaller regenerated nerve fibers are more able to sustain reformed nerve-muscle connections as functionally intact motor units (MUs). The sciatic nerve was crushed unilaterally in SOD1G93A transgenic mice at 40 days of age and contractile forces of reinnervated muscles and their MUs were recorded at 90 days in order to determine the capacities of the nerves to regenerate and to form and retain functional neuromuscular connections...
January 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
M D Sarker, Saman Naghieh, Adam D McInnes, David J Schreyer, Xiongbiao Chen
Nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have been drawing considerable attention as an aid to promote regeneration of injured axons across damaged peripheral nerves. Ideally, NGCs should include physical and topographic axon guidance cues embedded as part of their composition. Over the past decades, much progress has been made in the development of NGCs that promote directional axonal regrowth so as to repair severed nerves. This paper briefly reviews the recent designs and fabrication techniques of NGCs for peripheral nerve regeneration...
February 3, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
H Chiang, K-C Chang, H-W Kan, S-W Wu, M-T Tseng, H-W Hsueh, Y-H Lin, C-C Chao, S-T Hsieh
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the physiology, psychophysics, pathology and their relationship in reversible nociceptive nerve degeneration, and the physiology of acute hyperalgesia. METHODS: We enrolled 15 normal subjects to investigate intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) density, contact heat-evoked potential (CHEP) and thermal thresholds during the capsaicin-induced skin nerve degeneration-regeneration; and CHEP and thermal thresholds at capsaicin-induced acute hyperalgesia...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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