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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782315/tlr4-gene-expression-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-in-response-to-hippocampal-deafferentation-in-rodents
#1
Justin Miron, Cynthia Picard, Josée Frappier, Doris Dea, Louise Théroux, Judes Poirier
One important aspect in Alzheimer's disease pathology is the presence of chronic inflammation. Considering its role as a key receptor in the microglial innate immune system, TLR4 was shown to regulate the binding and phagocytosis of amyloid plaques by microglia in several mouse models of amyloidosis, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge, TLR4 and its association with cytokines have not been thoroughly examined in the brains of subjects affected with Alzheimer's disease. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in postmortem human brains, we observed increased expression for the TLR4 and TNF genes (p = 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774231/semaphorin3a-signaling-is-dispensable-for-motor-axon-reinnervation-of-the-adult-neuromuscular-junction
#2
Jennifer L Shadrach, Brian A Pierchala
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that is formed by motor axon innervation of skeletal muscle fibers. The maintenance of motor-muscle connectivity is critical for the preservation of muscle tone and generation of movement. Injury can induce a robust regenerative response in motor axons, but severe trauma or chronic denervation resulting from neurodegenerative disease typically leads to inefficient repair and poor functional recovery. The axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) has been implicated as a negative regulator of motor innervation...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755519/simulated-cholinergic-reinnervation-of-%C3%AE-ins-1-cells-antidiabetic-utility-of-heterotypic-pseudoislets-containing-%C3%AE-cell-and-cholinergic-cell
#3
Ao Jiao, Feng Li, Chengshuo Zhang, Wu Lv, Baomin Chen, Jialin Zhang
Cholinergic neurons can functionally support pancreatic islets in controlling blood sugar levels. However, in islet transplantation, the level of cholinergic reinnervation is significantly lower compared to orthotopic pancreatic islets. This abnormal reinnervation affects the survival and function of islet grafts. In this study, the cholinergic reinnervation of beta cells was simulated by 2D and 3D coculture of INS-1 and NG108-15 cells. In 2D culture conditions, 20 mM glucose induced a 1.24-fold increase ( p < 0...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747672/two-ways-to-improve-myoelectric-control-for-a-transhumeral-amputee-after-targeted-muscle-reinnervation-a-case-study
#4
Yang Xu, Dingguo Zhang, Yang Wang, Juntao Feng, Wendong Xu
BACKGROUND: Myoelectric control of multifunctional prostheses is challenging for individuals with high-level amputations due to insufficient surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. A surgical technique called targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) has achieved impressive improvements in myoelectric control by providing more sEMG control signals. In this case, some channels of sEMG signals are coupled after TMR, which limits the performance of conventional amplitude-based control for upper-limb prostheses...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742295/new-insights-into-the-roles-of-myofibroblasts-and-innervation-during-skin-healing-and-innovative-therapies-to-improve-scar-innervation
#5
REVIEW
Nicolas Lebonvallet, Betty Laverdet, Laurent Misery, Alexis Desmoulière, Dorothée Girard
During the resolution phase of normal skin wound healing, there is a considerable loss of various cell types, including myofibroblasts by apoptosis. Inappropriate delay of apoptosis, and thus increased survival of myofibroblasts, may be a factor leading to pathologies and excessive scarring. Considerable data now clearly suggests that innervation plays a major role in wound healing, including the modulation of fibroblast cellular activity. An abnormal level of neuromediators is implicated not only in the development of chronic wounds but also in excessive scar formation...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737497/novel-model-of-somatosensory-nerve-transfer-in-the-rat
#6
Adriana M Paskal, Wiktor Paskal, Kacper Pelka, Martyna Podobinska, Jaroslaw Andrychowski, Pawel K Wlodarski
Nerve transfer (neurotization) is a reconstructive procedure in which the distal denervated nerve is joined with a proximal healthy nerve of a less significant function. Neurotization models described to date are limited to avulsed roots or pure motor nerve transfers, neglecting the clinically significant mixed nerve transfer. Our aim was to determine whether femoral-to-sciatic nerve transfer could be a feasible model of mixed nerve transfer. Three Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral femoral-to-sciatic nerve transfer...
May 9, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736764/-traumatic-lesions-of-the-brachial-plexus-clinical-symptoms-diagnostics-and-treatment
#7
U Schnick, F Dähne, A Tittel, K Vogel, A Vogel, A Eisenschenk, A Ekkernkamp, R Böttcher
Brachial plexus lesions mostly occur in young patients as a result of high-speed accidents. They are often diagnosed and treated after a delay. This has been shown to worsen the prognosis of surgical reconstructions evidently. In 70-80% of traumatic lesions functional reinnervation can be achieved by various surgical procedures. An early sufficient diagnosis and the subsequent referral of the patient to an appropriate competence center for consultation and, if necessary, surgery are therefore essential.
May 7, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729212/nerve-regeneration-in-conditions-of-hsv-infection-and-an-antiviral-drug-influence
#8
Alla Gumenyuk, Svetlana Rybalko, Alona Ryzha, Sergey Savosko, Dmytro Labudzynskyi, Natalia Levchuk, Yuri Chaikovsky
Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) is a latent neuroinfection which can cause focal brain lesion. The role of HSV-infection in nerve regeneration has not been studied so far. The aim of the work was to study sciatic nerve regeneration in the presence of HSV-infection and the influence of an antiviral drug. BALB/c line mice were divided into five groups. Group 1 animals were infected with HSV-I. After resolution of neuroinfection manifestations the sciatic nerve of these animals was crushed. Group 2 mice were administered acyclovir following the same procedures...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728162/current-trends-in-practices-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-unilateral-vocal-fold-immobility-a-survey-on-injections-thyroplasty-and-nerve-reinnervation
#9
Sarah Bouhabel, Christopher J Hartnick
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to poll pediatric otolaryngologists with a special interest in pediatric laryngology on their experience with injection medialization laryngoplasty (IML), thyroplasty, and reinnervation procedures in order to reflect on changing clinical practices. METHOD: A 10-items questionnaire was designed to inquire about current management practices in the treatment of symptomatic UVFI. The 59 members of an ASPO pediatric laryngology working group received the anonymous online survey...
June 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722323/end-to-end-and-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-between-thick-donor-nerves-and-thin-recipient-nerves-an-axon-regeneration-study-in-a-rat-model
#10
Tohru Tateshita, Kazuki Ueda, Akiyoshi Kajikawa
During nerve reconstruction, nerves of different thicknesses are often sutured together using end-to-side neurorrhaphy and end-to-end neurorrhaphy techniques. In this study, the effect of the type of neurorrhaphy on the number and diameter of regenerated axon fibers was studied in a rat facial nerve repair model. An inflow-type end-to-side and end-to-end neurorrhaphy model with nerve stumps of different thicknesses (2:1 diameter ratio) was created in the facial nerve of 14 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 6 and 12 weeks, nerve regeneration was evaluated in the rats using the following outcomes: total number of myelinated axons, average minor axis diameter of the myelinated axons in the central and peripheral sections, and axon regeneration rate...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710183/an-update-on-the-management-of-neonatal-brachial-plexus-palsy-replacing-old-paradigms-a-review
#11
Brandon W Smith, Alecia K Daunter, Lynda J-S Yang, Thomas J Wilson
Importance: Neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) can result in persistent deficits for those who develop it. Advances in surgical technique have resulted in the availability of safe, reliable options for treatment. Prevailing paradigms include, "all neonatal brachial plexus palsy recovers," "wait a year to see if recovery occurs," and "don't move the arm." Practicing by these principles places these patients at a disadvantage. Thus, the importance of this review is to provide an update on the management of NBPP to replace old beliefs with new paradigms...
April 30, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707457/lateral-branch-of-the-thoracodorsal-nerve-lat-branch-transfer-for-biceps-reinnervation
#12
M Asher Schusterman, Rishi Jindal, Jignesh V Unadkat, Alexander M Spiess
In cases of significant upper extremity trauma, the thoracodorsal nerve is a reliable secondary option for the restoration of elbow flexion. In all previous descriptions, however, the entire nerve is transferred. We describe a case utilizing the lateral thoracodorsal nerve (LaT) branch for biceps reinnervation with an associated cadaver study. Transfer of the LaT branch to the biceps branch was performed on a patient who had sustained a traumatic brachial plexus injury that left him without elbow flexion. Also, 4 cadavers (8 upper extremities) were dissected to identify the bifurcation of the thoracodorsal nerve and confirm the feasibility of transferring the LaT branch to the biceps motor branch...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701337/the-first-24-robotic-surgeries-of-hospital-da-luz
#13
João Eurico Reis, João Santos Silva, Ana Rita Costa, Fernando Palma Martelo
INTRODUCTION: Robotic assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) has been growing all over the world, presenting itself as an improvement over video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). The main advantages are the precision of the movements, as well as the three-dimensional vision with the consequent perception of the depth of the surgical field. Thus, technically more difficult procedures, such as anatomic segmentectomies and bronchoplastic resections, are facilitated. This surgical approach also improves the quality of mediastinal lymph node dissection, extremely important in lung cancer patients...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695713/autonomic-reinnervation-and-functional-regeneration-in-autologous-transplanted-submandibular-glands-in-patients-with-severe-keratoconjunctivitis-sicca
#14
Xueming Zhang, Ningyan Yang, Xiaojing Liu, Jiazeng Su, Xin Cong, Liling Wu, Yan Zhang, Guangyan Yu
Autologous submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation has been proved to ameliorate the discomforts in patients with severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The transplanted glands underwent a hypofunctional period and then restored secretion spontaneously. This study aims to investigate whether autonomic nerves reinnervate the grafts and contribute to the functional recovery, and further determine the origin of these nerves. Parts of the transplanted SMGs were collected from the epiphora patients, and a rabbit SMG transplantation model was established to fulfill the serial observation on the transplanted glands with time...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663403/smoke-induced-neuromuscular-junction-degeneration-precedes-the-fibre-type-shift-and-atrophy-in-copd
#15
Sophia Kapchinsky, Madhusudanarao Vuda, Kayla Miguez, Daren Elkrief, Angela R de Souza, Carolyn J Baglole, Sudhakar Aare, Norah J MacMillan, Jacinthe Baril, Paul Rozakis, Vita Sonjak, Charlotte Pion, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Jose A Morais, R Thomas Jagoe, Jean Bourbeau, Tanja Taivassalo, Russell T Hepple
A neurological basis for the fast fibre shift and atrophy seen in limb muscle of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been considered previously. The objective of our study was: (i) to determine if denervation contributes to fast fibre shift and muscle atrophy in COPD; and (ii) to assess using a preclinical smoking mouse model whether chronic tobacco smoke (TS) exposure could initiate denervation by causing neuromuscular junction (NMJ) degeneration. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained from severe COPD patients (n = 10 with low fat free mass index [FFMI], 65 y; n = 15 normal FFMI, 65 y) and healthy age- and activity-matched non-smoker control subjects (CON; n = 11, 67 y), to evaluate morphological and transcriptional markers of denervation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659184/the-human-laryngeal-innervation-revisited-the-role-of-the-neural-connections
#16
C Martín-Oviedo, E Maranillo, J R Sañudo, P Pérez-LLoret, E Verdú, T Martínez-Guirado, O Álvarez-Montero, J M Gómez Martín-Zarco, T Vázquez
In spite that vascular inconvenients or immunological rejections have been solved in relation with larynx transplant, a successful functional reinnervation has not been achieved. Some studies have suggested that laryngeal nerve connection may contain motor fibers, which could explain unexpected evoked responses in electromyographic studies or the different positions adopted of the vocal folds after similar nerve lesions. Ten patients with unexpected evoked responses after laryngeal nerve stimulation were selected...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659058/polyethylene-glycol-solutions-rapidly-restore-and-maintain-axonal-continuity-neuromuscular-structures-and-behaviors-lost-after-sciatic-nerve-transections-in-female-rats
#17
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Robert Louis Hastings, Amir Ali, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, George D Bittner
Complete severance of major peripheral mixed sensory-motor nerve proximally in a mammalian limb produces immediate loss of action potential conduction and voluntary behaviors mediated by the severed distal axonal segments. These severed distal segments undergo Wallerian degeneration within days. Denervated muscles atrophy within weeks. Slowly regenerating (∼1 mm/day) outgrowths from surviving proximal stumps that often nonspecifically reinnervate denervated targets produce poor, if any, restoration of lost voluntary behaviors...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657936/cellular-therapy-for-chronic-traumatic-brachial-plexus-injury
#18
Alok Sharma, Hemangi Sane, Nandini Gokulchandran, Prerna Badhe, Suhasini Pai, Pooja Kulkarni, Jayanti Yadav, Sanket Inamdar
Cellular therapy is being actively pursued as a therapeutic modality in many of the neurological diseases. A variety of stem cells from diverse sources have been studied in detail and have been shown to exhibit angiogenetic and immunomodulatory properties in addition to other neuroprotective effects. Published clinical data have shown bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC) injection in neurological disorders is safe and possesses regenerative potential. We illustrate a case of 27-year-old male with traumatic brachial plexus injury, administered with autologous BMMNCs intrathecally and intramuscularly, followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652694/perspectives-for-progress-performance-limitations-in-heart-transplant-recipients
#19
Wesley J Tucker, Rhys I Beaudry, T Jake Samuel, Michael D Nelson, Martin Halle, Aaron L Baggish, Mark J Haykowsky
We hypothesize that the reduced peak aerobic power (peak VO2) following heart transplantation (HT) is due to impaired cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, and its improvement with short-term (≤1 year) exercise training is primarily due to favorable skeletal muscle adaptations. Further, the increased peak VO2 with long-term (>2 years) training is primarily mediated by cardiac (sympathetic) reinnervation.
April 12, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625866/mixed-facial-reanimation-technique-to-treat-paralysis-in-medium-term-cases
#20
Federico Biglioli, Federico Bolognesi, Fabiana Allevi, Dimitri Rabbiosi, Silvia Cupello, Antonino Previtera, Alessandro Lozza, Valeria M A Battista, Claudio Marchetti
Recent facial paralyses, in which fibrillations of the mimetic muscles are still detectable by electromyography (EMG), allow facial reanimation based on giving new neural stimuli to musculature. However, if more time has elapsed, mimetic muscles can undergo irreversible atrophy, and providing a new neural stimulus is simply not effective. In these cases function is provided by transferring free flaps into the face or transposing masticatory muscles to reinstitute major movements, such as eyelid closure and smiling...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
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