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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900791/robust-graft-survival-and-normalized-dopaminergic-innervation-does-not-obligate-recovery-in-a-pd-patient
#1
Jeffrey H Kordower, Christopher G Goetz, Yaping Chu, Glenda M Halliday, Daniel A Nicholson, Timothy Musial, David J Marmion, A Jon Stoessl, Vesna Sossi, Thomas B Freeman, C Warren Olanow
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of dopamine cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) is to provide clinical benefit mediated by graft survival with nigrostriatal reinnervation. We report a dichotomy between graft structure and clinical function in a patient dying sixteen years following fetal nigral grafting. METHODS: A 55-year-old levodopa-responsive woman with PD received bilateral putamenal fetal mesencephalic grafts as part of an NIH-sponsored double-blind sham-controlled trial...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894788/neurotoxic-mechanisms-of-paclitaxel-are-local-to-the-distal-axon-and-independent-of-transport-defects
#2
Erica L Gornstein, Thomas L Schwarz
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and other chemotherapeutic agents. Paclitaxel binds and stabilizes microtubules, but the cellular mechanisms that underlie paclitaxel's neurotoxic effects are not well understood. We therefore used primary cultures of adult murine dorsal root ganglion neurons, the cell type affected in patients, to examine leading hypotheses to explain paclitaxel neurotoxicity. We address the role of microtubule hyperstabilization and its downstream effects...
November 26, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879594/comparison-of-ulnar-intrinsic-function-following-supercharge-end-to-side-anterior-interosseous-to-ulnar-motor-nerve-transfer-a-matched-cohort-study-of-proximal-ulnar-nerve-injury-patients
#3
Heather Baltzer, Alice Woo, Christine Oh, Steven L Moran
BACKGROUND: There are few studies supporting supercharge end-to-side nerve transfer for high ulnar nerve injury. The current study hypothesized that patients with a supercharge end-to-side anterior interosseous nerve-to-ulnar motor nerve transfer would demonstrate superior return of intrinsic function compared with conventional treatment only. METHODS: A retrospective matched-cohort study matched supercharge end-to-side transfer patients based on age, level of injury, and mechanism to ulnar nerve injury patients who did not have the transfer...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879592/reinnervated-split-muscle-technique-for-creating-additional-myoelectric-sites-in-an-animal-model
#4
Maria Florencia Deslivia, Hyun-Joo Lee, Rizki Fajar Zulkarnain, Bin Zhu, Arnold Adikrishna, In-Ho Jeon, Keehoon Kim
BACKGROUND: This study proposes a novel reinnervated split-muscle operation to create additional myoelectric sites as sources of command signals of myoelectric prostheses for enhanced dexterous hand-to-wrist motions. The aim of this study was to investigate the postprocedure electromyographic properties of the muscles as distinct myoelectric sites in a rat model. METHODS: The reinnervated split-muscle group (n = 6) had the gastrocnemius muscle separated along its longitudinal axis and nerves transferred to each new muscle (peroneal nerve to lateral muscle head and tibial to medial one); the non-split-muscle group (n = 6) only had nerve transfers with its muscle intact...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878997/corneal-epithelial-cells-function-as-surrogate-schwann-cells-for-their-sensory-nerves
#5
REVIEW
Mary Ann Stepp, Gauri Tadvalkar, Raymond Hakh, Sonali Pal-Ghosh
The eye is innervated by neurons derived from both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (PNS). While much is known about retinal neurobiology and phototransduction, less attention has been paid to the innervation of the eye by the PNS and the roles it plays in maintaining a functioning visual system. The ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ganglion contains somas of neurons that innervate the cornea. These nerves provide sensory functions for the cornea and are referred to as intraepithelial corneal nerves (ICNs) consisting of subbasal nerves and their associated intraepithelial nerve terminals...
November 23, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867665/dose-dependent-differential-effect-of-neurotrophic-factors-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regeneration-of-motor-and-sensory-neurons
#6
Daniel Santos, Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Xavier Navarro, Jaume Del Valle
Although peripheral axons can regenerate after nerve transection and repair, functional recovery is usually poor due to inaccurate reinnervation. Neurotrophic factors promote directional guidance to regenerating axons and their selective application may help to improve functional recovery. Hence, we have characterized in organotypic cultures of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia the effect of GDNF, FGF-2, NGF, NT-3, and BDNF at different concentrations on motor and sensory neurite outgrowth. In vitro results show that GDNF and FGF-2 enhanced both motor and sensory neurite outgrowth, NGF and NT-3 were the most selective to enhance sensory neurite outgrowth, and high doses of BDNF selectively enhanced motor neurite outgrowth...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858587/the-feasibility-study-of-extradural-nerve-anastomosis-technique-for-canine-bladder-reinnervation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Jian Tang, Jun Ma, Lei Yang, Xinpeng Huang, Yingbin Ge, Tao Sui, Zhongqing Wei, Xiaojian Cao
OBJECTIVE: Intradural nerve anastomosis for bladder innervation has been demonstrated to be useful. However, its clinical application remains limited because of the complex surgery, its complications and extensive bony destruction. The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the feasibility of extradural spinal root anastomosis for bladder innervation in canines. METHODS: Ten beagle dogs were used. The length of the extradural segment of the nerve root, upper nerve root outlet (the point at which it emerges from the spinal dura mater) to S2 (dS2), the S3 (dS3) nerve root outlet distance, and the diameters of the extradural spinal roots were measured...
November 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858573/multiple-nerve-and-tendon-transfers-a-new-strategy-for-restoring-hand-function-in-a-patient-with-c7-t1-brachial-plexus-avulsions
#8
Bin Xu, Zhen Dong, Cheng-Gang Zhang, Yu-Dong Gu
C7-T1 brachial plexus palsies result in a loss of finger motion and hand function. The authors have observed that finger flexion motion can be recovered after a brachialis motor branch transfer. However, finger flexion strength after this procedure merely corresponds to Medical Research Council Grades M2-M3, lowering the grip strength and practical value of the reconstructed hand. Therefore, they used 2 donor nerves and accomplished double nerve transfers for stronger finger flexion. In a patient with a C7-T1 brachial plexus injury, they transferred the pronator teres branch to the anterior interosseous nerve and the brachialis motor branch to the flexor digitorum superficialis branch for reinnervation of full finger flexors...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856290/enhanced-neurogenic-biomarker-expression-and-reinnervation-in-human-acute-skin-wounds-treated-by-electrical-stimulation
#9
Anil Sebastian, Susan W Volk, Poonam Halai, James Colthurst, Ralf Paus, Ardeshir Bayat
Electrical stimulation (ES) is known to promote cutaneous healing, however its ability to regulate reinnervation remains unclear. Firstly, we show that ES treatment of human acute cutaneous wounds (n=40) increased reinnervation. Next, to define neurophysiological mechanisms through which ES impacts repair, microarray of wound biopsies was performed on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding. This identified neural differentiation biomarkers Class III β-tubulin (TUBB3; melanocyte development and neuronal marker) and its upstream molecule Factor Induced Gene 4 (FIG4; phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase) as significantly up-regulated post-ES treatment...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824736/free-functional-muscle-transfer-tendon-insertion-secondary-advancement-procedure-to-improve-elbow-flexion
#10
Sreedharan Sechachalam, Anne O'Byrne, Anthony MacQuillan
One method of restoring elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injuries is through the use of free functional muscle transfer. Most of our patients achieve good outcome, resulting in improved usefulness of the affected limb. However, a minority of our patients have successful reinnervation of the transferred muscle but with a suboptimal strength and range of motion (ROM) of elbow flexion. In this subset of patients, we perform a secondary procedure to improve the moment arm of the muscle on the elbow joint...
November 7, 2016: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824734/targeted-muscle-reinnervation-for-transradial-amputation-description-of-operative-technique
#11
Emily N Morgan, Benjamin Kyle Potter, Jason M Souza, Scott M Tintle, George P Nanos
Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a revolutionary surgical technique that, together with advances in upper extremity prostheses and advanced neuromuscular pattern recognition, allows intuitive and coordinated control in multiple planes of motion for shoulder disarticulation and transhumeral amputees. TMR also may provide improvement in neuroma-related pain and may represent an opportunity for sensory reinnervation as advances in prostheses and haptic feedback progress. Although most commonly utilized following shoulder disarticulation and transhumeral amputations, TMR techniques also represent an exciting opportunity for improvement in integrated prosthesis control and neuroma-related pain improvement in patients with transradial amputations...
December 2016: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805444/feasibility-repeatability-and-safety-of-ultrasound-guided-stimulation-of-the-first-cervical-nerve-at-the-alar-foramen-in-horses
#12
Céline Mespoulhès-Rivière, Olivier Brandenberger, Fabrice Rossignol, Céline Robert, Justin D Perkins, Jean-Paul Marie, Norm Ducharme
OBJECTIVE To develop and assess the feasibility, repeatability, and safety of an ultrasound-guided technique to stimulate the first cervical nerve (FCN) at the level of the alar foramen of the atlas of horses. ANIMALS 4 equine cadavers and 6 clinically normal Standardbreds. PROCEDURES In each cadaver, the FCN pathway was determined by dissection, and any anastomosis between the first and second cervical nerves was identified. Subsequently, each of 6 live horses underwent a bilateral ultrasound-guided stimulation of the FCN at the alar foramen 3 times at 3-week intervals...
November 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803939/mechanoreceptor-reinnervation-of-autografts-versus-allografts-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#13
Simon W Young, Roberto D Valladares, Florence Loi, Jason L Dragoo
BACKGROUND: Loss of proprioceptive function occurs after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Clinical, motor, and proprioceptive function is known to improve after ACL reconstruction but does not return to normal. While histological studies of human ACL allografts have been unable to demonstrate mechanoreceptor reinnervation, animal data suggest that reinnervation may occur when an autograft is used. PURPOSE: To compare the presence or absence of mechanoreceptors between allograft versus autograft after ACL reconstruction in humans...
October 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803079/effect-of-botulinum-toxin-and-surgery-among-spasmodic-dysphonia-patients-a-systematic-review
#14
Babette F van Esch, Inge Wegner, Inge Stegeman, Wilko Grolman
OBJECTIVE: The effect of botulinum toxin among patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (AdSD) is temporary. To optimize long-term treatment outcome, other therapy options should be evaluated. Alternative treatment options for AdSD comprise several surgical treatments, such as thyroarytenoid myotomy, thyroplasty, selective laryngeal adductor denervation-reinnervation, laryngeal nerve crush, and recurrent laryngeal nerve resection. Here, we present the first systematic review comparing the effect of botulinum toxin with surgical treatment among patients diagnosed with AdSD...
November 1, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802930/early-denervation-and-later-reinnervation-of-the-heart-following-cardiac-transplantation-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Morcos Awad, Lawrence S C Czer, Margaret Hou, Sarah S Golshani, Michael Goltche, Michele De Robertis, Michelle Kittleson, Jignesh Patel, Babak Azarbal, Evan Kransdorf, Fardad Esmailian, Alfredo Trento, Jon A Kobashigawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801698/magnetic-resonance-neurographic-and-clinical-long-term-results-after-oberlin-s-transfer-for-adult-brachial-plexus-injuries
#16
Florian S Frueh, Michael Ho, Andreas Schiller, Pascal Ducommun, Andrei Manoliu, Gustav Andreisek, Maurizio Calcagni, Pietro Giovanoli
The primary goal of the surgical treatment of upper brachial plexus injuries is to restore active elbow flexion. Accordingly, Oberlin's transfer has been frequently performed since 1994 and has influenced the development of other nerve transfers. However, the window of opportunity for nerve transfers remains a subject of controversy. The objective of this study was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) neurographic, clinical and electrophysiological long-term results after Oberlin's transfer. For this purpose, we performed a retrospective follow-up study...
October 31, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770818/progranulin-promotes-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-and-reinnervation-role-of-notch-signaling
#17
Christine Altmann, Verica Vasic, Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Annett Häussler, Ilka Wittig, Mirko H H Schmidt, Irmgard Tegeder
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury is a frequent cause of lasting motor deficits and chronic pain. Although peripheral nerves are capable of regrowth they often fail to re-innervate target tissues. RESULTS: Using newly generated transgenic mice with inducible neuronal progranulin overexpression we show that progranulin accelerates axonal regrowth, restoration of neuromuscular synapses and recovery of sensory and motor functions after injury of the sciatic nerve...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763908/ultrasonographic-and-surgical-findings-of-acute-radial-neuropathy-following-blunt-trauma
#18
Seok-Youl Choi, Jong Woong Park, Dong Hwee Kim
Ultrasonographic study is useful for decision making of treatment for focal neuropathy with unusual electrodiagnostic findings. We present a patient with severe acute radial neuropathy with sensory sparing around the distal arm secondary to twisting of the radial nerve following blunt trauma. A 24-year-old man with a 2-week history of left wrist drop and severe pain around the left elbow presented after hitting the left distal arm on the doorknob. The left wrist and finger extensions were grade 0, but elbow extension could not be tested because of severe pain during this action...
November 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737470/outcomes-of-muscle-reinnervation-with-direct-nerve-implantation-into-the-native-motor-zone-of-the-target-muscle
#19
Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda, Liancai Mu
Background Our recent work has demonstrated that the native motor zone (NMZ) within a given skeletal muscle is the best site for muscle reinnervation. This study was designed to explore the outcomes of direct nerve implantation (DNI) into the NMZ of denervated sternomastoid (SM) muscle in a rat model. Methods The right SM muscle was experimentally denervated by transecting its innervating nerve. The proximal stump of the severed SM nerve was immediately implanted into a small muscle slit made in the NMZ of the muscle where denervated motor endplates were concentrated...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727054/axillary-nerve-lesions-after-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation-of-proximal-humeral-fractures-through-an-extended-lateral-deltoid-split-approach-electrophysiological-findings
#20
Thomas Westphal, Stephan Woischnik, Daniela Adolf, Helmut Feistner, Stefan Piatek
BACKGROUND: Axillary nerve injuries after shoulder surgery are rare. In most studies, the frequency of injury is usually determined using clinical examinations, but results from intraoperative neuromonitoring studies have revealed higher than expected rates. Few studies have investigated this topic. Our aim was to determine the frequency of axillary nerve lesions after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures by using electrophysiological assessments and to provide a review of the relevant literature...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
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