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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156496/sensation-mechanoreceptor-and-nerve-fiber-function-after-nerve-regeneration
#1
Christian Krarup, Birgitta Rosén, Michel Boeckstyns, Allan Ibsen Sørensen, Göran Lundborg, Mihai Moldovan, Simon J Archibald
OBJECTIVE: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber function after nerve regeneration. METHODS: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors were followed for 2 years, and results were compared to non-injured hands...
November 20, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144959/induction-of-innervation-by-encapsulated-adipocytes-with-engineered-vitamin-a-metabolism
#2
Qiwen Shen, Rumana Yasmeen, Jessica Marbourg, Lu Xu, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Alan Flechtner, L James Lee, Phillip G Popovich, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
Innervation is a fundamental basis for function and survival of tissues. In the peripheral tissues, degenerative diseases create a neurotoxic metabolic milieu that either causes neurodegeneration or fails to sustain regenerative growth and reinnervation of injured/diseased tissues. Encapsulation of cells producing neurotrophic factors can augment axon growth and neuron survival; however, sustained innervation in vivo requires a combination of factors promoting axon growth and guidance pathway that are released in a tissue-specific context...
October 28, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130554/sensory-recovery-of-myomucosal-flap-oral-cavity-reconstructions
#3
Olindo Massarelli, Luigi Angelo Vaira, Andrea Biglio, Roberta Gobbi, Giovanni Dell'aversana Orabona, Giacomo De Riu
BACKGROUND: Sensory restoration of the oral cavity is a primary aim of reconstructive surgery in posttraumatic or postablative defects. Sensitivity plays a key role in oral function, whose impairment strongly affects the patient's quality of life. Cheek myomucosal flaps provide a reliable and tissue-like reconstruction of these regions but their sensitive recovery, which we still know little about, deserves thorough assessment. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the myomucosal cheek flaps were tested for different aspects of sensory recovery: touch; 2-point discrimination; pain; sharp/smooth discrimination; ability to feel hot/cold stimulus; stereognosis; and taste...
November 11, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128986/longitudinal-neurophysiological-assessment-of-intramuscular-type-a-botulin-toxin-in-healthy-humans
#4
L Lispi, L Leonardi, A Petrucci
The aim of this study is to assess the neurophysiological abnormalities of type A botulin toxin-infiltrated human muscle, and their evolution over time. Seried cMAP measurements, 3 and 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation, EMG, SFEMG over 3 months from toxin injection. Our findings consist in lack of decrement with 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation and facilitation with 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation; progressive increasing of jitter; early appearance of fibrillations; small and short motor unit action potential in the first 3 weeks, followed by increasing of MUAP amplitude and duration, with polyphasic morphology...
November 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118960/from-the-padua-muscle-days-the-basic-and-applied-myology-and-the-european-journal-of-translational-myology-to-the-a-cm-carraro-foundation-for-translational-myology
#5
Ugo Carraro
As a young researched I had the option to work on skeletal muscle at the University of Padova, Italy. Introduced to the study of muscle denervation/reinnervation, I started a project on long term denervated muscle that still is my primary interest and took me from rodents' models of chronic muscle denervation to human spinal cord injury-related muscle denervation and its managements. On the way, I organized a series of conferences in Euganei Hills, Padua, Italy and an international journal, the Basic and Applied Myology...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113703/similar-2-point-discrimination-and-stereognosia-but-better-locognosia-at-long-term-with-an-independent-home-based-sensory-reeducation-program-vs-no-reeducation-after-low-median-nerve-transection-and-repair
#6
Dimitrios K Antonopoulos, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Evanthia Mitsiokapa, George Georgoudis, Christos Th Vottis, George K Antonopoulos, Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos, Spyridon Pneumatikos, Sarantis G Spyridonos
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective controlled study. INTRODUCTION: Previous studies evaluated the effectiveness of sensory reeducation (SR) after peripheral nerve injury and repair. However, evidence for long-term clinical usefulness of SR is inconclusive. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study is to compare the sensory results of patients with low-median nerve complete transection and microsurgical repair, with and without SR at long term...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111336/regenerative-effects-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-on-restoration-of-thyroarytenoid-muscle-atrophy-caused-by-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-transection
#7
Mami Kaneko, Takuya Tsuji, Yo Kishimoto, Yoichiro Sugiyama, Tatsuo Nakamura, Shigeru Hirano
OBJECTIVES: Vocal fold atrophy following unilateral vocal fold paralysis is caused by atrophy of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle and remains a challenge. Medialization procedures are popular treatment options; however, hoarseness often remains due to the reduction in mass or tension of the TA muscle. Therefore, in addition to medialization procedures, TA muscle reinnervation is desirable. In vivo studies have shown the potential for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to affect muscular and nerve regeneration...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106982/distinct-trka-and-ret-modulated-negative-and-positive-neuropathic-behaviors-in-a-mouse-model-of-resiniferatoxin-induced-small-fiber-neuropathy
#8
Yu-Lin Hsieh, Hung-Wei Kan, Hao Chiang, Yi-Chen Lee, Sung-Tsang Hsieh
Neurotrophic factors and their corresponding receptors play key roles in the maintenance of different phenotypic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, the axons of which degenerate in small fiber neuropathy, leading to various neuropathic manifestations. Mechanisms underlying positive and negative symptoms of small fiber neuropathy have not been systematically explored. This study investigated the molecular basis of these seemingly paradoxical neuropathic behaviors according to the profiles of TrkA and Ret with immunohistochemical and pharmacological interventions in a mouse model of resiniferatoxin (RTX)-induced small fiber neuropathy...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104236/the-emerging-role-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Gabriela Bortolança Chiarotto, Giovanni Nardo, Maria Chiara Trolese, Marcondes Cavalcante França, Caterina Bendotti, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). The etiology of the disease is still unknown for most patients with sporadic ALS, while in 5-10% of the familial cases, several gene mutations have been linked to the disease. Mutations in the gene encoding Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), reproducing in animal models a pathological scenario similar to that found in ALS patients, have allowed for the identification of mechanisms relevant to the ALS pathogenesis...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104116/putative-roles-of-soluble-trophic-factors-in-facial-nerve-regeneration-target-reinnervation-and-recovery-of-vibrissal-whisking
#10
REVIEW
Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Maria Grosheva, Levent Sarikcioglu, Tessa Gordon, Doychin N Angelov
It is well-known that, after nerve transection and surgical repair, misdirected regrowth of regenerating motor axons may occur in three ways. The first way is that the axons enter into endoneurial tubes that they did not previously occupy, regenerate through incorrect fascicles and reinnervate muscles that they did not formerly supply. Consequently the activation of these muscles results in inappropriate movements. The second way is that, in contrast with the precise target-directed pathfinding by elongating motor nerves during embryonic development, several axons rather than a single axon grow out from each transected nerve fiber...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095795/role-of-reinnervation-in-the-management-of-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-injury-current-state-and-advances
#11
Virginia Fancello, S A Reza Nouraei, Kate J Heathcote
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present the current state of knowledge concerning different laryngeal reinnervation procedures for unilateral and bilateral vocal palsy. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports show positive outcomes on both unilateral and bilateral reinnervations. The phrenic nerve is the most commonly used donor for bilateral vocal palsy, but use of the superior laryngeal nerve has also been suggested. SUMMARY: Reinnervation of the larynx is a complex undertaking that can be performed by ENT surgeons with skills in microsurgery...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094077/quantitative-facial-electromyography-monitoring-after-hypoglossal-facial-jump-nerve-suture
#12
Jan Flasar, Gerd Fabian Volk, Thordis Granitzka, Katharina Geißler, Andrey Irintchev, Thomas Lehmann, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
Objectives/Hypothesis: The time course of the reinnervation of the paralyzed face after hypoglossal-facial jump nerve suture using electromyography (EMG) was assessed. The relation to the clinical outcome was analyzed. Study Design: Retrospective single-center cohort study. Methods: Reestablishment of motor units was studied by quantitative EMG and motor unit potential (MUP) analysis in 11 patients after hypoglossal-facial jump nerve suture...
October 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089975/autonomic-dysreflexia-a-cardiovascular-disorder-following-spinal-cord-injury
#13
REVIEW
Hisham Sharif, Shaoping Hou
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a serious cardiovascular disorder in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The primary underlying cause of AD is loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) caudal to the injury, which renders the SPNs hyper-responsive to stimulation. Central maladaptive plasticity, including C-fiber sprouting and propriospinal fiber proliferation exaggerates noxious afferent transmission to the SPNs, causing them to release massive sympathetic discharges that result in severe hypertensive episodes...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077513/the-phrenic-nerve-transfer-in-the-treatment-of-a-septuagenarian-with-brachial-plexus-avulsion-injury-a-case-report
#14
Ye Jiang, Jie Lao
Phrenic nerve transfer has been a well-established procedure for restoring elbow flexion function in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury. Concerning about probably detrimental respiratory effects brought by the operation, however, stirred up quite a bit of controversy. We present a case report of the successful application of phrenic nerve as donor to reinnervate the biceps in a septuagenarian with brachial plexus avulsion injury, not accompanied with significant clinical respiratory problem.
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062663/free-neurovascular-latissimus-dorsi-muscle-transplantation-for-reconstruction-of-hip-abductors
#15
Sergi Barrera-Ochoa, Jose Manuel Collado-Delfa, Andrea Sallent, Alejandro Lluch, Roberto Velez
Resection of tumors affecting the hip abductors can cause significant decrease in muscle strength and may lead to abnormal gait and poor function. We present a case report showing full functional recovery after resection of a synovial sarcoma affecting the right gluteus medius and minimus muscles with reconstruction free neurovascular latissimus dorsi muscle transplantation. The latissimus dorsi muscle was harvested following standard technique and fixed to the ilium and the greater trochanter. Receptor vessels were end-to-end anastomosed to the subscapular vessels followed by an end-to-end epineural suture between the superior gluteal nerve and the thoracodorsal nerve...
September 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062019/myoelectric-pattern-recognition-outperforms-direct-control-for-transhumeral-amputees-with-targeted-muscle-reinnervation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Levi J Hargrove, Laura A Miller, Kristi Turner, Todd A Kuiken
Recently commercialized powered prosthetic arm systems hold great potential in restoring function for people with upper-limb loss. However, effective use of such devices remains limited by conventional (direct) control methods, which rely on electromyographic signals produced from a limited set of muscles. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation (TMR) is a nerve transfer procedure that creates additional recording sites for myoelectric prosthesis control. The effects of TMR may be enhanced when paired with pattern recognition technology...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054880/common-synaptic-input-to-motor-neurons-and-neural-drive-to-targeted-reinnervated-muscles
#17
D Farina, A M Castronovo, I Vujaklija, A Sturma, S Salminger, C Hofer, O C Aszmann
We compared the behaviour of motor neurons innervating their physiological muscle targets with motor neurons from the same spinal segment whose axons were surgically redirected to remnant muscles (targeted muscle reinnervation). The objective was to assess whether motor neurons with non-physiological innervation receive similar synaptic input and could be voluntary controlled as motor neurons with natural innervation. For this purpose, we acquired high-density EMG signals from the biceps brachii in 5 male trans-humeral amputees who underwent targeted reinnervation of this muscle by the ulnar nerve and from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of 5 healthy individuals to investigate the natural innervation of the ulnar nerve...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053875/current-state-of-the-surgical-treatment-of-terminal-neuromas
#18
Graham C Ives, Theodore A Kung, Bao Tram Nghiem, Daniel C Ursu, David L Brown, Paul S Cederna, Stephen W P Kemp
Painful terminal neuromas resulting from nerve injury following amputation are common. However, there is currently no universally accepted gold standard of treatment for this condition. A comprehensive literature review is presented on the treatment of terminal neuromas. Four categories of terminal neuroma surgical procedures are assessed: epineurial closure; nerve transposition with implantation; neurorrhaphy, and alternate target reinnervation. Significant patient and case studies are highlighted in each section, focusing on surgical technique and patient outcome metrics...
October 19, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053558/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-reveals-corneal-reinnervation-after-treatment-of-neurotrophic-keratopathy-with-corneal-neurotization
#19
Simon S M Fung, Joseph Catapano, Uri Elbaz, Ronald M Zuker, Gregory H Borschel, Asim Ali
PURPOSE: To document the presence and location of new sensory nerve fibers after corneal neurotization using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in 2 patients with neurotrophic keratopathy (NK). METHODS: Two patients with unilateral advanced NK received corneal neurotization to surgically reinnervate the cornea. IVCM was used to identify subbasal nerve fibers and document corneal reinnervation. In 1 patient (case 1), IVCM was performed before and after corneal neurotization; in the second patient (case 2), IVCM was performed after neurotization and corneal transplantation...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044770/effects-of-forced-passive-and-voluntary-exercise-on-spinal-motoneurons-changes-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#20
Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injury, there are important changes at the spinal level that can lead to disorganization of the central circuitry and thus, compromise functional recovery even if axons are able to successfully regenerate and reinnervate their target organs. Physical rehabilitation is a promising strategy to modulate these plastic changes and thus, to improve functional recovery after damage of the nervous system. Forced exercise in a treadmill is able to partially reverse the synaptic stripping and the loss of perineuronal nets that motoneurons suffer after peripheral nerve injury in animal models...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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