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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099269/bilateral-leg-replantation-in-a-3-month-old-baby-after-a-knee-level-crush-amputation-a-2-year-follow-up
#1
Kresimir Bulic, Anko Antabak, Anto Dujmovic, Hrvoje Kisic, Mia Lorencin
We present a case of a successful bilateral leg replantation in a 3-month-old baby after a knee-level crush amputation with the loss of both knee joints. The legs were replanted after 4 hours of warm and an additional 2.5 and 3.5 hours of cold ischemia time. Both legs show motor and sensory reinnervation, without additional procedures performed on the right leg, and after a nerve reconstruction with cadaveric allografts on the left leg. Both replanted legs exhibit excellent bony and soft tissue growth. Two years after the injury, the patient is progressing well with rehabilitation, with favourable odds of having knee reconstructions performed at a later age...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093890/long-term-follow-up-for-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction-post-radical-prostatectomy-using-nerve-grafts-and-end-to-side-somatic-autonomic-neurorraphy-a-new-technique
#2
José Carlos Souza Trindade, Fausto Viterbo, André Petean Trindade, Wagner José Fávaro, José Carlos Souza Trindade Filho
: Radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer treatment, although effective, can lead to severe erectile dysfunction. This study describes a new technique, which aims to reestablish the nerve stimulus in penile erection by two sural nerve graft bridges bilaterally, using the end to side neurorraphy. The first bridge is between femoral nerve and dorsal nerve of penis and the second, is between the femoral nerve and the interior of the corpus cavernosum. In this neurorraphy the endings of the newly formed fibres, generated by the femoral nerve, release acetylcholine inside the cavernous bodies, beginning the erection mechanism...
January 17, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089079/repeated-subarachnoid-administrations-of-autologous-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-supported-in-autologous-plasma-improve-quality-of-life-in-patients-suffering-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Jesús Vaquero, Mercedes Zurita, Miguel A Rico, Celia Bonilla, Concepción Aguayo, Cecilia Fernández, Noemí Tapiador, Marta Sevilla, Carlos Morejón, Jesús Montilla, Francisco Martínez, Esperanza Marín, Salvador Bustamante, David Vázquez, Joaquín Carballido, Alicia Rodríguez, Paula Martínez, Coral García, Mercedes Ovejero, Marta V Fernández
BACKGROUND AIMS: Cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) offers new hope for patients suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Ten patients with established incomplete SCI received four subarachnoid administrations of 30 × 10(6) autologous bone marrow MSCs, supported in autologous plasma, at months 1, 4, 7 and 10 of the study, and were followed until the month 12. Urodynamic, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies were performed at months 6 and 12, and compared with basal studies...
January 6, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087606/reinnervation-post-heart-transplantation
#4
Avishay Grupper, Henry Gewirtz, Sudhir Kushwaha
Heart transplantation results in complete denervation of the donor heart with loss of afferent and efferent nerve connections. The majority of patients remain completely denervated during the first 6-12 months following transplantation. Evidence of reinnervation is usually found during the second year after transplantation and involve the myocardial muscle, sinoatrial node, and coronary vessels, but remains incomplete and regionally limited many years post-transplant. Restoration of cardiac innervation can improve exercise capacity as well as blood flow regulation in the coronary arteries, and hence improve quality of life...
January 12, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078066/use-it-or-lose-it-tonic-activity-of-slow-motoneurons-promotes-their-survival-and-preferentially-increases-slow-fiber-type-groupings-in-muscles-of-old-lifelong-recreational-sportsmen
#5
Simone Mosole, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Stefan Loefler, Sandra Zampieri
: Histochemistry, immuno-histochemistry, gel electrophoresis of single muscle fibers and electromyography of aging muscles and nerves suggest that: i) denervation contributes to muscle atrophy, ii) impaired mobility accelerates the process, and iii) lifelong running protects against loss of motor units. Recent corroborating results on the muscle effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of aged muscles will be also mentioned, but we will in particular discuss how and why a lifelong increased physical activity sustains reinnervation of muscle fibers...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073285/muscle-nerve-muscle-grafting-for-facial-reanimation-in-rats
#6
Steven J Charous, Jeffery M Hotaling, Bridget D Burgess, Joshua M Sappington, James Park, Grant Turek, Eileen M Foecking
OBJECTIVE: Facial paralysis is a devastating condition leaving patients with a myriad of aesthetic and functional consequences. Muscle-nerve-muscle (MNM) neurotization is a reinnervation technique that involves implanting an autogenous nerve graft as a conduit between an innervated "donor" muscle and a denervated "recipient" muscle. We investigated the use of MNM reinnervation, alone or in combination with electrical stimulation (ES) and testosterone propionate (TP) in comparison to nerve reanastomosis (RE), on functional recovery following rat facial nerve injury...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073145/does-partial-muscle-reinnervation-preserve-future-re-innervation-potential
#7
Jonathan Isaacs, Satya Mallu, Mary Shall, Gaurangkumar Patel, Pooja Shah, Shalin Shah, Mark A Feger, Gordon Graham, Nikhil Pasula
INTRODUCTION: Late revision nerve surgery for incomplete motor recovery due to partial reinnervation would improve muscle function only if all muscle fibers were protected from developing denervation atrophy. METHODS: Sixty immature Sprague-Dawley rats underwent the following tibial nerve manipulations (n=15/group): Group A, partial denervation (2/3 of nerve resected and remaining 1/3 crushed), revision repair at 8 months; Group B, partial denervation; Group C, complete denervation, immediate reconstruction; Group D, complete denervation, reconstruction at 8 months; Group E, control group...
January 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052417/c8-cross-transfer-for-the-treatment-of-caudal-brachial-plexus-avulsion-in-three-dogs
#8
Pierre Moissonnier, Claude Carozzo, Jean-Laurent Thibaut, Catherine Escriou, Antoine Hidalgo, Stéphane Blot
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cervical nerve 8 cross-transfer technique (C8CT) as a part of surgical treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in the dog. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs suspected to have caudal BPA based on neurological examination and electrophysiological testing (n = 3). METHODS: The distal stump of the surgically transected contralateral C8 ventral branch (donor) was bridged to the proximal stump of the avulsed C8 ventral branch (recipient) and secured with 9-0 polypropylene suture under an operating microscope...
January 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044362/the-electrodiagnostic-natural-history-of-parsonage-turner-syndrome
#9
Joseph H Feinberg, Elizabeth T Nguyen, Kwadwo Boachie-Adjei, Caitlin Gribbin, Steve K Lee, Aaron Daluiski, Scott W Wolfe
Introduction Recovery from Parsonage-Turner syndrome (PTS) is generally favorable, although recovery times have varied, in part because there are no universally-accepted outcome measures. This study describes the electrodiagnostic natural history of this condition based on objective electrodiagnostic testing, and proposes that complete electrodiagnostic recovery can be seen as early as 1 year. Methods Twenty-six subjects with 29 affected nerves confirmed as PTS were followed every 3 months for electrodiagnostic testing, or until full reinnervation was confirmed...
January 3, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039938/targeted-p2x7-r-shrna-delivery-attenuates-sympathetic-nerve-sprouting-and-ameliorates-cardiac-dysfunction-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction
#10
Hongmei Gao, Jie Yin, Yugen Shi, Hesheng Hu, Xiaolu Li, Mei Xue, Wenjuan Cheng, Ye Wang, Xinran Li, Yongkang Li, Yu Wang, Suhua Yan
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-dominated sympathetic sprouting adjacent to the necrotic region following myocardial infarction (MI) has been implicated in the etiology of arrhythmias resulting in sudden cardiac death; however, the mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. Although P2X7 R is a key immune mediator, its role has yet to be explored. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether P2X7 R regulates NF-κB and affects cardiac sympathetic reinnervation in rats undergoing MI...
December 31, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036084/preferential-enhancement-of-sensory-and-motor-axon-regeneration-by-combining-extracellular-matrix-components-with-neurotrophic-factors
#11
Daniel Santos, Francisco González-Pérez, Guido Giudetti, Silvestro Micera, Esther Udina, Jaume Del Valle, Xavier Navarro
After peripheral nerve injury, motor and sensory axons are able to regenerate but inaccuracy of target reinnervation leads to poor functional recovery. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert their effect on different neuronal populations creating a suitable environment to promote axonal growth. Here, we assessed in vitro and in vivo the selective effects of combining different ECM components with NTFs on motor and sensory axons regeneration and target reinnervation. Organotypic cultures with collagen, laminin and nerve growth factor (NGF)/neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or collagen, fibronectin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) selectively enhanced sensory neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and motor neurite outgrowth from spinal cord slices respectively...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005753/motor-nerve-preservation-and-muscle-atrophy-after-pectoralis-major-musculocutaneous-flap-surgery-for-oromandibular-reconstruction
#12
Yu Takayama, Satoshi Yokoo, Takaya Makiguchi, Takahide Komori
OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the clinical and histopathologic significance of medial pectoral nerve preservation/reinnervation of pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap for oromandibular reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors compared 13 patients treated with pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap reconstruction and 6 control patients treated by rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap reconstruction without motor nerve restoration. Subjective awareness was scored to evaluate changes in the facial contour due to muscle atrophy, and objective evaluation was performed in few patients...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991911/inhibition-of-infarction-induced-sympathetic-innervation-with-endothelin-receptor-antagonism-via-a-pi3k-gsk-3%C3%AE-dependent-pathway
#13
T-M Lee, Nen-Chung Chang, Shinn-Zong Lin
Although endothelin (ET)-1 has been shown to upregulate nerve growth factor (NGF) expression, the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β signal has been implicated in the regulation of NGF. We investigated whether selective ET receptor blockers attenuated cardiac sympathetic reinnervation through restoring PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β activity. After ligation of the left anterior descending artery, male Wistar rats were randomized to either vehicle, atrasentan (an ETA receptor antagonist) or A-192621 (an ETB receptor antagonist) for 4 weeks...
December 19, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984178/endogenous-modulation-of-trkb-signaling-by-treadmill-exercise-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#14
Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Stefano Cobianchi, Mireia Herrando-Grabulosa, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injury, transected fibers distal to the lesion are disconnected from the neuronal body. This results in target denervation but also massive stripping of the central synapses of axotomized motoneurons, disrupting spinal circuits. Even when axonal regeneration is successful, the non-specific target reinnervation and the limited rebuilding of spinal circuits impair functional recovery. Therefore, strategies aimed to preserve spinal circuits after nerve lesions may improve the functional outcome...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982525/two-component-collagen-nerve-guides-support-axonal-regeneration-in-the-rat-peripheral-nerve-injury-model
#15
S G A van Neerven, K Haastert-Talini, A Boecker, T Schriever, C Dabhi, K Claeys, R Deumens, G A Brook, J Weis, N Pallua, A Bozkurt
Progress in material development has enabled the production of nerve guides that increasingly resemble the characteristics of an autologous nerve graft. In the present study, 20 mm adult rat sciatic nerve defects were bridged with the collagen-based, two-component nerve guide 'Neuromaix', the commercially available NeuraGen® nerve tube or an autologous nerve graft. Neuromaix was able to support structural as well as functional regeneration across this gap. The majority of the axons grew across the scaffold into the distal nerve segment and retrograde tracing confirmed that these axons were of somatosensory and motor origin...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973708/peot-pbt-guides-enhance-nerve-regeneration-in-long-gap-defects
#16
Daniel Santos, Paul Wieringa, Lorenzo Moroni, Xavier Navarro, Jaume Del Valle
Development of new nerve guides is required for replacing autologous nerve grafts for the repair of long gap defects after nerve injury. A nerve guide comprised only of electrospun fibers able to bridge a critical (15 mm) nerve gap in a rat animal model is reported for the first time. The nerve conduits are made of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT), a biocompatible copolymer composed of alternating amorphous, hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate), and crystalline, hydrophobic poly(butylene terephthalate) segments...
December 14, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973564/chondroitinase-c-selectively-degrades-chondroitin-sulfate-glycosaminoglycans-that-inhibit-axonal-growth-within-the-endoneurium-of-peripheral-nerve
#17
James B Graham, David Muir
The success of peripheral nerve regeneration is highly dependent on the regrowth of axons within the endoneurial basal lamina tubes that promote target-oriented pathfinding and appropriate reinnervation. Restoration of nerve continuity at this structural level after nerve transection injury by direct repair and nerve grafting remains a major surgical challenge. Recently, biological approaches that alter the balance of growth inhibitors and promoters in nerve have shown promise to improve appropriate axonal regeneration and recovery of peripheral nerve function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900791/robust-graft-survival-and-normalized-dopaminergic-innervation-do-not-obligate-recovery-in-a-parkinson-disease-patient
#18
Jeffrey H Kordower, Christopher G Goetz, Yaping Chu, Glenda M Halliday, Daniel A Nicholson, Timothy F Musial, David J Marmion, A Jon Stoessl, Vesna Sossi, Thomas B Freeman, C Warren Olanow
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of dopamine cell replacement therapy in Parkinson disease (PD) is to provide clinical benefit mediated by graft survival with nigrostriatal reinnervation. We report a dichotomy between graft structure and clinical function in a patient dying 16 years following fetal nigral grafting. METHODS: A 55-year-old levodopa-responsive woman with PD received bilateral putaminal fetal mesencephalic grafts as part of an NIH-sponsored double-blind sham-controlled trial...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894788/neurotoxic-mechanisms-of-paclitaxel-are-local-to-the-distal-axon-and-independent-of-transport-defects
#19
Erica L Gornstein, Thomas L Schwarz
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and other chemotherapeutic agents. Paclitaxel binds and stabilizes microtubules, but the cellular mechanisms that underlie paclitaxel's neurotoxic effects are not well understood. We therefore used primary cultures of adult murine dorsal root ganglion neurons, the cell type affected in patients, to examine leading hypotheses to explain paclitaxel neurotoxicity. We address the role of microtubule hyperstabilization and its downstream effects...
February 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879594/comparison-of-ulnar-intrinsic-function-following-supercharge-end-to-side-anterior-interosseous-to-ulnar-motor-nerve-transfer-a-matched-cohort-study-of-proximal-ulnar-nerve-injury-patients
#20
Heather Baltzer, Alice Woo, Christine Oh, Steven L Moran
BACKGROUND: There are few studies supporting supercharge end-to-side nerve transfer for high ulnar nerve injury. The current study hypothesized that patients with a supercharge end-to-side anterior interosseous nerve-to-ulnar motor nerve transfer would demonstrate superior return of intrinsic function compared with conventional treatment only. METHODS: A retrospective matched-cohort study matched supercharge end-to-side transfer patients based on age, level of injury, and mechanism to ulnar nerve injury patients who did not have the transfer...
December 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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