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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647594/chronic-mild-stress-impairs-latent-inhibition-and-induces-region-specific-neural-activation-in-chl1-deficient-mice-a-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#1
Mona Buhusi, Daniel Obray, Bret Guercio, Mitchell J Bartlett, Catalin V Buhusi
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal processing of information and attentional deficits. Schizophrenia has a high genetic component but is precipitated by environmental factors, as proposed by the 'two-hit' theory of schizophrenia. Here we compared latent inhibition as a measure of learning and attention, in CHL1-deficient mice, an animal model of schizophrenia, and their wild-type littermates, under no-stress and chronic mild stress conditions. All unstressed mice as well as the stressed wild-type mice showed latent inhibition...
June 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646469/the-cathinones-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-elicit-different-behavioral-and-molecular-effects-following-acute-exposure
#2
Giuseppe Giannotti, Isabella Canazza, Lucia Caffino, Sabrine Bilel, Andrea Ossato, Fabio Fumagalli, Matteo Marti
Since the mid-to-late 2000s, synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among drug users due to their psychostimulant effects greater than those produced by cocaine and amphetamine. Among them, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (α-PVP) are ones of the most popular cathinones available in the clandestine market as "bath salts" or "fertilizers." Pre-clinical studies indicate that MDPV and α-PVP induced psychomotor stimulation, affected thermoregulation, and promoted reinforcing properties in rodents...
June 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643927/co2-low-level-laser-therapy-has-an-early-but-not-delayed-pain-effect-during-experimental-tooth-movement
#3
T Deguchi, D G Kim, H Kamioka
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces elevated pain by controlling the release of neurochemicals during orthodontic tooth movement. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Okayama University. Sixty-five Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to tooth movement and LLLT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. Groups included day 0 controls, irradiation only controls and with or without irradiation sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after tooth movement (n=5 each, total n=65)...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642683/object-phobia-and-altered-rhoa-signaling-in-amygdala-of-mice-lacking-rich2
#4
Tasnuva Sarowar, Stefanie Grabrucker, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
RICH2 knockout (RICH2 KO) mice exhibit neophobia in the novel object test. To gain further insight into their anxiety-related phenotype, we subjected these mice to additional behavioral tests to elucidate whether the behavioral abnormality in these mice is a consequence of reduced exploratory motivation, and whether the neophobia is linked specifically to objects or also present for other modalities. RICH2 KO mice engage in normal exploration in a novel environment, suggesting that the anxiety-related phenotype is not due to reduced exploratory drive...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638715/rat-intersubjective-decisions-are-encoded-by-frequency-specific-oscillatory-contexts
#5
Jana Schaich Borg, Sanvesh Srivastava, Lizhen Lin, Joseph Heffner, David Dunson, Kafui Dzirasa, Luis de Lecea
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown how the brain coordinates decisions to withstand personal costs in order to prevent other individuals' distress. Here we test whether local field potential (LFP) oscillations between brain regions create "neural contexts" that select specific brain functions and encode the outcomes of these types of intersubjective decisions. METHODS: Rats participated in an "Intersubjective Avoidance Test" (IAT) that tested rats' willingness to enter an innately aversive chamber to prevent another rat from getting shocked...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637007/c-fos-dependent-mir-22-targets-mdc1-and-regulates-dna-repair-in-terminally-differentiated-cells
#6
Jung-Hee Lee, Seon-Joo Park, Seok Won Kim, Gurusamy Hariharasudhan, Sung-Mi Jung, Semo Jun, Jeongsik Yong, Ho Jin You
Terminally differentiated cells have a reduced capacity to repair double-stranded breaks (DSB) in DNA, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that miR-22 is upregulated during postmitotic differentiation of human breast MCF-7 cells, hematopoietic HL60 and K562 cells. Increased expression of miR-22 in differentiated cells was associated with decreased expression of MDC1, a protein that plays a key role in the response to DSBs. This downregulation of MDC1 was accompanied by reduced DSB repair, impaired recruitment of the protein to the site of DNA damage following IR...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634108/disturbances-of-novel-object-exploration-and-recognition-in-a-chronic-ketamine-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#7
Maria Jelena Hauser, Dirk Isbrandt, Jochen Roeper
Schizophrenia is a chronic and devastating disease with an overall lifetime risk of 1%. While positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions are reduced by antipsychotic medication based on the inhibition of type 2 dopaminergic receptors (D2R), negative symptoms (e.g. reduced motivation) and cognitive symptoms (e.g. impaired working memory) of schizophrenia are not effectively treated by current medication. This dichotomy might arise in part because of our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of negative and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634074/distinct-regulation-of-activity-dependent-transcription-of-immediate-early-genes-in-cultured-rat-cortical-neurons
#8
Mamoru Fukuchi, Tomofumi Sanabe, Toshifumi Watanabe, Takane Kubota, Akiko Tabuchi, Masaaki Tsuda
The activity-regulated expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) contributes to long-lasting neuronal functions underlying long-term memory. However, their response properties following neuronal activity are unique and remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, here we further investigated the response properties of two representative IEGs, c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). Treatment of cultured cortical cells with KCl produces a depolarization process that results in the increase of intracellular calcium concentration in a KCl concentration-dependent manner...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630099/kndy-neurone-activation-prior-to-the-lh-surge-of-the-ewe-is-disrupted-by-lps
#9
Chrysanthi Fergani, Jean Routly, David Jones, Lucy Pickavance, Robert Frank Smith, Hilary Dobson
In the ewe, steroid hormones act on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to initiate the GnRH/LH surge. Within the ARC, steroid signal transduction may be mediated by dopamine, β-endorphin or neuropeptide Y (NPY) expressing cells, as well as those co-localising kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (termed KNDy). We investigated the time during the follicular phase when these cells become activated (i.e., co-localise c-Fos) relative to the timing of the LH surge onset and may, therefore, be involved in the surge generating mechanism...
June 19, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628625/neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-in-the-hypothalamus-is-involved-in-acquired-heat-tolerance-in-long-term-heat-acclimated-rats
#10
Kentaro Matsuzaki, Masanori Katakura, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Toshiko Hara, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido
Constant exposure to moderate heat facilitates progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus of heat-acclimated (HA) rats. In this study, we investigated neural phenotype and responsiveness to heat in HA rats' hypothalamic newborn cells. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic neurogenesis on heat acclimation in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 32°C for 6 days (STHA) or 40 days (LTHA), while control (CN) rats were kept at a Ta of 24°C for 6 days (STCN) or 40 days (LTCN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622391/neuronal-substrates-underlying-stress-resilience-and-susceptibility-in-rats
#11
Fabia Febbraro, Katrine Svenningsen, Thao Phuong Tran, Ove Wiborg
BACKGROUND: Stress and stressful life events have repeatedly been shown as causally related to depression. The Chronic Mild Stress rat model is a valid model of stress-induced depression. Like humans, rats display great heterogeneity in their response to stress and adversity. Hence some individuals are stress-sensitive and prone to develop depression-like behaviour in response to modest stressors, while others are stress-resilient and remain essentially symptom free. OBJECTIVES: Compared to the large body of research, which describes stress-induced maladaptive neurobiological changes, relatively little attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616594/pattern-of-c-fos-expression-induced-by-tail-suspension-test-in-the-mouse-brain
#12
Kentaro Hiraoka, Keisuke Motomura, Satoru Yanagida, Ayako Ohashi, Nozomi Ishisaka-Furuno, Shigenobu Kanba
The tail suspension test (TST) has been widely used as a screening assay for antidepressant drugs. However, the neural substrates underlying the stress response and antidepressant-like effect during the TST remain largely unknown despite the prevalence of this test. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine alterations in c-Fos expression as a measure of neuronal activity in the mouse brain after acute administration of the antidepressant drugs nortriptyline or escitalopram (or saline as a control) with or without a subsequent TST session...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612572/-comparison-of-two-methods-of-lidocaine-administrating-for-neuroprotection-in-rabbit-model-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#13
Xian-Qing Shi, Yong-Jian Fu, Li-Rong Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To compare the neuroprotection effect of two methods of Lidocaine administration in rabbit model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Forty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into sham group, subarachnoid hemorrhage group (SAH), Lidocaine intravenous injection group (L1), and Lidocaine intracisternal administration group (L2). The rabbits were given general anaesthesia, then 1.5 mL autologous nonheparinized arterial blood was injected into cisterna magna to establish SAH model, while 1...
January 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611581/glial-endozepines-inhibit-feeding-related-autonomic-functions-by-acting-at-the-brainstem-level
#14
Florent Guillebaud, Clémence Girardet, Anne Abysique, Stéphanie Gaigé, Rym Barbouche, Jérémy Verneuil, André Jean, Jérôme Leprince, Marie-Christine Tonon, Michel Dallaporta, Bruno Lebrun, Jean-Denis Troadec
Endozepines are endogenous ligands for the benzodiazepine receptors and also target a still unidentified GPCR. The endozepine octadecaneuropeptide (ODN), an endoproteolytic processing product of the diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) was recently shown to be involved in food intake control as an anorexigenic factor through ODN-GPCR signaling and mobilization of the melanocortinergic signaling pathway. Within the hypothalamus, the DBI gene is mainly expressed by non-neuronal cells such as ependymocytes, tanycytes, and protoplasmic astrocytes, at levels depending on the nutritional status...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608828/kaempherol-and-luteolin-decrease-claudin-2-expression-mediated-by-inhibition-of-stat3-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-a549-cells
#15
Hiroyuki Sonoki, Asami Tanimae, Satoshi Endo, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Takumi Furuta, Kenji Ichihara, Akira Ikari
Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues and may be a novel target for cancer chemotherapy because knockdown of claudin-2 decreases cell proliferation. We found that flavonoids including kaempferol, chrysin, and luteolin concentration-dependently decrease claudin-2 expression in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Claudin-2 expression is up-regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways, but these activities were not inhibited by kaempferol, chrysin, and luteolin...
June 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606772/dominance-status-alters-restraint-induced-neural-activity-in-brain-regions-controlling-stress-vulnerability
#16
Matthew A Cooper, Sahba Seddighi, Abigail K Barnes, J Alex Grizzell, Brooke N Dulka, Catherine T Clinard
Understanding the cellular mechanisms that control resistance and vulnerability to stress is an important step toward identifying novel targets for the prevention and treatment of stress-related mental illness. In Syrian hamsters, dominant and subordinate animals exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to social defeat stress, with dominants showing stress resistance and subordinates showing stress vulnerability. We previously found that dominant and subordinate hamsters show different levels of defeat-induced neural activity in brain regions that modulate coping with stress, although the extent to which status-dependent differences in stress vulnerability generalize to non-social stressors is unknown...
June 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605877/ginsenoside-rb2-inhibits-osteoclast-differentiation-through-nuclear-factor-kappab-and-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-protein-3-signaling-pathway
#17
Fei Cong, Jian Liu, Chunmei Wang, Zhi Yuan, Long Bi, Jidong Liang, Ke Su, Yucheng Qiu, Tao Song, Jinzhu Fan, Gao Chao
Ginsenoside-Rb2 (Rb2) is a 20(S)-protopanaxadiol glycoside extracted from ginseng possessing various bioactivities which has drawn considerable interest regarding the area of bone metabolism. However, the effect of Rb2 on osteoclast differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of Rb2 in regulating osteoclast differentiation and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by receptor activator nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in mouse RAW 264...
June 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602698/early-growth-response-factor-1-is-essential-for-cigarette-smoke-induced-muc5ac-expression-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#18
Shao-Bin Wang, Chao Zhang, Xu-Chen Xu, Feng Xu, Jie-Sen Zhou, Yan-Ping Wu, Chao Cao, Wen Li, Hua-Hao Shen, Jiao-Fei Cao, Zhi-Hua Chen
Early growth response factor 1 (Egr-1) is a zinc finger transcription factor which responses rapidly to a variety of extracellular stimuli. Previous studies have suggested that Egr-1 exerts pathological functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by regulation of cigarette smoking-induced autophagy, cell death, and inflammation. However, little is known about the role of Egr-1 in regulation of mucus production in airway epithelium. In this study, we observed that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced a successive expression of Egr-1 and MUC5AC in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells...
June 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600000/sex-specific-effects-of-developmental-alcohol-exposure-on-cocaine-induced-place-preference-in-adulthood
#19
Victoria A Macht, Sandra J Kelly, Justin T Gass
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is associated with high rates of drug addiction in adulthood. One possible basis for increased drug use in this population is altered sensitivity to drug-associated contexts. This experiment utilized a rat model of FASD to examine behavioral and neural changes in the processing of drug cues in adulthood. Alcohol was given by intragastric intubation to pregnant rats throughout gestation and to rat pups during the early postnatal period (ET group). Controls consisted of a non-treated group (NC) and a pair-fed group given the intubation procedure without alcohol (IC)...
June 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597963/mir-181a-and-mir-150-regulate-dendritic-cell-immune-inflammatory-responses-and-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-via-targeting-jak1-stat1-c-fos-pathway
#20
Jianbing Zhu, Kang Yao, Junjie Guo, Hongtao Shi, Leilei Ma, Qian Wang, Haibo Liu, Wei Gao, Aijun Sun, Yunzeng Zou, Junbo Ge
The immune inflammatory response plays a crucial role in many cardiac pathophysiological processes, including ischaemic cardiac injury and the post-infarction repair process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the development and function of dendritic cells (DCs), which are key players in the initiation and regulation of immune responses; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used the supernatants of necrotic primary cardiomyocytes (Necrotic-S) to mimic the myocardial infarction (MI) microenvironment to investigate the role of miRNAs in the regulation of DC-mediated inflammatory responses...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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