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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665093/the-mapk-activator-protein-1-signaling-regulates-changes-in-lung-tissue-of-rat-exposed-to-hypobaric-hypoxia
#1
Mrinalini Singh, Seema Yadav, Meetul Kumar, Shweta Saxena, Deepika Saraswat, Anju Bansal, Shashi B Singh
This study reports the role of MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38), and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor in the hypobaric hypoxia induced change in lung tissue. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hr. Hypoxia resulted in significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreased nitric oxide (NO), these act as signaling molecules for activation of MAPK and also contribute in development of vascular leakage (an indicator of pulmonary edema) as confirmed by histological studies...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663382/effects-of-interleukin-7-interleukin-7-receptor-on-rankl-mediated-osteoclast-differentiation-and-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-by-regulating-c-fos-c-jun-pathway
#2
Ji-Jun Zhao, Zhao-Feng Wu, Ying-Hao Yu, Ling Wang, Li Cheng
To explore the effects of IL-7/IL-7R on the RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in vitro and OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. BMMs and RAW264.7 were transfected with IL-7, IL-7R siRNA, c-Fos siRNA, and c-jun siRNA and later stimulated by RANKL. TRAP and toluidine blue staining were used to observe osteoclast formation and bone resorption, respectively. HE and TRAP staining were used to detect trabecular bone microstructure and osteoclasts of mice, respectively. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to examine expression...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663136/memory-retrieval-induced-activation-of-adult-born-neurons-generated-in-response-to-damage-to-the-dentate-gyrus
#3
Andrea Aguilar-Arredondo, Angélica Zepeda
The dentate gyrus (DG) is a neurogenic structure that exhibits functional and structural reorganization after injury. Neurogenesis and functional recovery occur after brain damage, and the possible relation between both processes is a matter of study. We explored whether neurogenesis and the activation of new neurons correlated with DG recovery over time. We induced a DG lesion in young adult rats through the intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid and analyzed functional recovery and the activation of new neurons after animals performed a contextual fear memory task (CFM) or a control spatial exploratory task...
April 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656620/the-effect-of-recombinant-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-on-the-neurogenic-differentiation-potency-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Gizem Turac, Gokhan Duruksu, Erdal Karaoz
OBJECTIVE: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, making the enhancement of its activity a target for ensuring sufficient dopamine levels. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBM-MSCs) are known to synthesize TH after differentiating into neuronal cells through chemical induction, but the effect of its ectopic expression on these cells has not yet been determined. This study investigated the effects of ectopic recombinant TH expression on the stemness characteristics of rBM-MSCs...
March 2018: Neurospine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656074/protein-phosphatase-2a-as-a-new-target-for-downregulating-osteoclastogenesis-and-alleviating-titanium-particle-induced-bone-resorption
#5
Liangliang Wang, Xiaobin Guo, Wei Zhou, Yayun Ding, Jiawei Shi, Xiexing Wu, Yu Liu, Yaozeng Xu, Huilin Yang, Dechun Geng
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-кB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis is believed to play a critical role in osteolytic diseases including peri-prosthetic osteolysis (PPO), the primary reason for implant failure and revision surgery. In this study, we observed that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine-threonine phosphatase, was highly expressed in human periprosthetic interface membranes with aseptic loosening and in a murine osteolysis model induced by titanium particle irritation. PP2A inhibition effectively alleviated titanium particle-induced bone destruction at osteolytic sites...
April 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652865/calsenilin-a-presenilin-interactor-regulates-rhoa-signaling-and-neurite-outgrowth
#6
Hee-Jun Kim, Won-Haeng Lee, Mo-Jong Kim, Sunmee Shin, Byungki Jang, Jae-Bong Park, Wilma Wasco, Joseph D Buxbaum, Yong-Sun Kim, Eun-Kyoung Choi
Calsenilin modulates A-type potassium channels, regulates presenilin-mediated γ-secretase activity, and represses prodynorphin and c-fos genes expression. RhoA is involved in various cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration, transcription, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Although recent studies demonstrate that calsenilin can directly interact with RhoA and that RhoA inactivation is essential for neuritogenesis, it is uncertain whether there is a link between calsenilin and RhoA-regulated neuritogenesis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626809/cypermethrin-chlorpyrifos-deltamethrin-and-imidacloprid-exposure-up-regulates-the-mrna-and-protein-levels-of-bdnf-and-c-fos-in-the-brain-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#7
Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Mustafa Özkaraca, Atena Ghosi, Emine Toraman, Harun Arslan
The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity effects of frequently used pesticides, involving cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid, on the expression of bdnf and c-fos genes in zebrafish brain tissues. Therefore, brain tissues exposed to intoxication was primarily analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Afterwards, the mRNA transcription levels of BNDF and c-fos genes and the protein levels were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The data of the immunofluorescence assay revealed intensive immunopositivity for bdnf and c-fos genes in the tissues exposed to pesticide intoxication in comparison to the control group (p<0...
March 29, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626564/dorsal-ca1-interneurons-contribute-to-acute-stress-induced-spatial-memory-deficits
#8
Jing-Ying Yu, Ping Fang, Chi Wang, Xing-Xing Wang, Kun Li, Qian Gong, Ben-Yan Luo, Xiao-Dong Wang
Exposure to severely stressful experiences disrupts the activity of neuronal circuits and impairs declarative memory. GABAergic interneurons coordinate neuronal network activity, but their involvement in stress-evoked memory loss remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide evidence that interneurons in area CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus partially modulate acute stress-induced memory deficits. In adult male mice, both acute forced swim stress and restraint stress impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and increased the density of c-fos-positive interneurons in the dorsal CA1...
April 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623778/involvement-of-dopamine-system-in-the-regulation-of-the-brain-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-paraventricular-nucleus-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-visceral-pain
#9
Ning-Ning Ji, Jie Kang, Rong Hua, Yong-Mei Zhang
Objective We aimed to investigate the mechanism of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) circuit in the pathogenesis of visceral pain-depression with a rat model induced by neonatal and adult colorectal distension (CRD). Methods Neonate male Sprague-Dayley (SD) rats underwent CRD on postnatal days 8, 10, and 12, and when matured, were tested for adult abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores to assess visceral hypersensitivity. The forced swimming test was employed to evaluate depression-like behaviors...
April 6, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622845/a-newly-defined-area-of-the-mouse-anterior-hypothalamus-involved-in-septohypothalamic-circuit-perifornical-area-of-the-anterior-hypothalamus-pefah
#10
Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Mayumi Nishi
Although the hypothalamus is classified into more than 10 compartments, it still contains uncharacterized areas. In this study, we identified a new triangular-shaped area between the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and the fornix area in the mouse anterior hypothalamus, which is enriched in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We designated this region as the perifornical area of the anterior hypothalamus (PeFAH) based on its anatomical location. As evidenced by Nissl staining, the PeFAH was distinguishable as an area of relatively low density...
February 27, 2018: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621753/necroptosis-contributes-to-urban-particulate-matter-induced-airway-epithelial-injury
#11
Feng Xu, Man Luo, Lulu He, Yuan Cao, Wen Li, Songmin Ying, Zhihua Chen, Huahao Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis, is involved in the pathologic process of several kinds of pulmonary diseases. However, the role of necroptosis in particulate matter (PM)-induced pulmonary injury remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the involvement of necroptosis in the pathogenesis of PM-induced toxic effects in pulmonary inflammation and mucus hyperproduction, both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: PM was administered into human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells or mouse airways, and the inflammatory response and mucus production were assessed...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621117/cerebral-multimodal-monitoring-in-sepsis-an-experimental-study
#12
Pedro Kurtz, Joana C d'Avila, Darwin Prado, Caroline Madeira, Charles Vargas-Lopes, Rogerio Panizzutti, Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo, Fernando A Bozza
Acute brain dysfunction is a complication of sepsis and its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We studied the brain metabolism in a resuscitated animal model of sepsis. Twelve anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and invasively monitored pigs were allocated to a sham procedure (N = 5) or sepsis (N = 7). Sepsis was induced through fecal inoculation in the peritoneum. Fluid resuscitation was maintained during the entire study period. Animals were observed until spontaneous death or for a maximum of 24 hours...
April 4, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620843/biofunctionalized-3d-nanopillar-arrays-fostering-cell-guidance-and-promoting-synapse-stability-and-neuronal-activity-in-networks
#13
Hayder Amin, Michele Dipalo, Francesco De Angelis, Luca Berdondini
A controlled geometry of in vitro neuronal networks allows investigation of the cellular mechanisms that underlie neuron-to-neuron and neuron-extracellular matrix interactions, which are essential to biomedical research. Herein, we report a selective guidance of primary hippocampal neurons by using arrays of three-dimensional vertical nanopillars (NPs) functionalized with a specific adhesion-promoting molecule-poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO). We show that 90% of neuronal cells are guided exclusively on the combinatorial PDLO/NP substrate...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618987/cholinergic-submucosal-neurons-display-increased-excitability-following-in-vivo-cholera-toxin-exposure-in-mouse-ileum
#14
Candice Fung, Katerina Koussoulas, Petra Unterweger, Andrew M Allen, Joel C Bornstein, Jaime P P Foong
Cholera-induced hypersecretion causes dehydration and death if untreated. Cholera toxin (CT) partly acts via the enteric nervous system (ENS) and induces long-lasting changes to enteric neuronal excitability following initial exposure, but the specific circuitry involved remains unclear. We examined this by first incubating CT or saline (control) in mouse ileal loops in vivo for 3.5 h and then assessed neuronal excitability in vitro using Ca2+ imaging and immunolabeling for the activity-dependent markers cFos and pCREB...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618833/cyperenoic-acid-suppresses-osteoclast-differentiation-and-delays-bone-loss-in-a-senile-osteoporosis-mouse-model-by-inhibiting-non-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#15
Supatta Chawalitpong, Ratchanaporn Chokchaisiri, Apichart Suksamrarn, Shigeru Katayama, Takakazu Mitani, Soichiro Nakamura, Ahmad Ai Athamneh, Patcharee Ritprajak, Asada Leelahavanichkul, Ratchaneevan Aeimlapa, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Tanapat Palaga
Cyperenoic acid is a terpenoid isolated from the root of a medicinal plant Croton crassifolius with a wide range of biological activities. In this study, the effects of cyperenoic acid on osteoclast differentiation were investigated both in vitro and in vivo using receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced bone marrow-derived osteoclasts and senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6). Cyperenoic acid significantly suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation at the concentrations with no apparent cytotoxicity...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617678/increased-asics-expression-via-the-camkii-creb-pathway-in-a-novel-mouse-model-of-trigeminal-pain
#16
Yan Wang, Xiujuan Fu, Lifang Huang, Xi Wang, Zuneng Lu, Fan Zhu, Zheman Xiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Migraine is a disabling condition that severely impacts socioeconomic function and quality of life. The focus of this study was to develop a mouse model of trigeminal pain that mimics migraine. METHODS: After undergoing dural cannulation surgery, mice were treated with repeated dural doses of an acidic solution to induce trigeminal pain. RESULTS: The method elicited intermittent, head-directed wiping and scratching as well as the expression of both the c-FOS gene in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in the periaqueductal grey matter...
March 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609419/add-on-therapy-with-the-%C3%AE-blockers-tamsulosin-and-naftopidil-improves-voiding-function-by-enhancing-neuronal-activity-in-prostatic-hyperplasia-rats
#17
Il-Gyu Ko, Lakkyong Hwang, Jun-Jang Jin, Sang-Hoon Kim, Jin Hee Han, Jung Won Jeon, Sung Tae Cho
PURPOSE: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) impacts quality of life in men by causing lower urinary tract symptoms. α1-Adrenoceptor (α1-AR) blockers improve lower urinary tract symptoms. We investigated the efficacy of add-on therapy with α1-AR blockers on BPH rats. METHODS: Rats in the drug-treated groups were orally administered each drug once a day for 30 days after orchiectomy. To induce BPH, rats were castrated and testosterone (20 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously once per day for 30 days...
March 2018: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601847/repeated-peripheral-administration-of-lipidized-prolactin-releasing-peptide-analog-induces-c-fos-and-fosb-expression-in-neurons-of-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-in-male-c57-mice
#18
Zdenko Pirník, Mária Kolesárová, Blanka Železná, Lenka Maletínská
Previous studies indicate that hypothalamic prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), signaling via GPR10 and neuropeptide FF2 receptor, is involved in energy homeostasis, stress responses, and cardiovascular regulation. Energy homeostasis depends on the balance between food intake regulation and energy expenditure, in which the hypothalamus plays a key role. The lipidization of PrRP31 with palmitoyl acid allows it to produce its anorexigenic effect after repeated peripheral administration and to reduce body weight and improve metabolic parameters in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice...
March 27, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601817/glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-exerts-central-action-to-induce-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-through-medulla-to-vagal-pathway-in-mice
#19
Parmila Kumari, Masanori Nakata, Bo Yang Zhang, Zesemdorj Otgon-Uul, Toshihiko Yada
Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) regulate glucose metabolism via common and distinct mechanisms. Postprandial release of GLP-1 is modest and it is degraded by DPP-4 within 2 min, and hence it cannot enter the brain in substantial amount. In contrast, DPP-4-resistant GLP-1RAs are administered at 10 times higher concentration than endogenous GLP-1 level, which enables them to reach several brain regions including ARC and AP, the areas implicated in glucose metabolism. Hence, some of the effects of GLP-1RAs observed clinically and experimentally, including pancreatic β-cell proliferation, are thought to involve the brain...
March 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599617/resolvin-e1-inhibits-osteoclastogenesis-and-bone-resorption-by-suppressing-il-17-induced-rankl-expression-in-osteoblasts-and-rankl-induced-osteoclast-differentiation
#20
Yoshihiro Funaki, Yasuyuki Hasegawa, Ryota Okazaki, Akira Yamasaki, Yuriko Sueda, Akihiro Yamamoto, Masaaki Yanai, Takehito Fukushima, Tomoya Harada, Haruhiko Makino, Eiji Shimizu
Background: Resolvin E1 (RvE1) derived from the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is known to be a potent pro-resolving lipid mediator that prevents chronic inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. We investigated the inhibitory effects of RvE1 on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption to clarify its therapeutic potential for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was assessed with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining...
March 2018: Yonago Acta Medica
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