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Lei You, Xiaoxia Ren, Yongxing Du, Wenjing Zhao, Ming Cui, Ge Chen, Yupei Zhao
Pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is thought to develop through the progression of precursor lesions, known as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN). In the present study, we showed that c-Fos promoted proliferation, cell cycle and migration in pancreatic cancer cells. Caerulein was used to accelerate the pathogenesis of Pdx-cre; KrasG12D mice. During PanIN formation and development of PDAC, the expression of ERK and c-Fos increased concomitantly. When ERK activity was inhibited by U0126, the expression of c-Fos also decreased...
October 13, 2016: Oncology Reports
Dan Xu, Ying Lyu, Xiaowen Chen, Xiaoyu Zhu, Jinqiu Feng, Yajun Xu
Fructus ligustri Lucidi (FLL) is the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait and a traditional Chinese medicine, primarily known for its role in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect and underlying mechanism of action of ethanol extract of FLL on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, and to identify the active compounds within it. RAW264.7 murine monocyte/macrophage cells were stimulated with the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclast differentiation in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kuo Zhang, Jingyu Yang, Fang Wang, Xing Pan, Jian Liu, Lijuan Wang, Guanyue Su, Jie Ma, Yinxu Dong, Zhili Xiong, Chufu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often observed in the pathophysiology of depression. Antidepressant therapy can restore hippocampal neurogenesis to rescue the HPA axis regulation defects. Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), a famous Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically in depressive disorders in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated XCHT improved depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat, but the underlying mechanisms of XCHT on hippocampal neurogenesis and the HPA axis were still unclear...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sooyeon Song, Sei-Jung Lee, Dong-June Park, Sejong Oh, Kye-Taek Lim
Recently, interest in the beneficial role of probiotics in the protection and management of allergic diseases caused by immune disorders has been increasing. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum L67 on induced allergic inflammatory response in bisphenol A-treated rat basophilic leukemia 2H3 (RBL-2H3) cells and mouse splenocytes. We also evaluated the applicability of L. plantarum L67 as a yogurt starter culture. We measured the ability of Lactobacillus strains to induce the production of IL-12 and IFN- γ in cultured splenocytes by ELISA...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Xiaocui Chen, Jing Li, Zuowang Cheng, Yinghua Xu, Xia Wang, Xiaorui Li, Dongmei Xu, Carolyn M Kapron, Ju Liu
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and environmental pollutant. The kidney is the principal target organ of Cd exposure. Previously, we found that low concentration of Cd damages the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, little is known about the effects of Cd on renal mesangial cells, which provide structural support for the glomerular capillary loops and regulate intraglomerular blood flow. In this study, human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) were cultured in the presence of serum and treated with 4 μM Cd...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lei Zhang, Lu Huang, Kangrong Lu, Yutong Liu, Genghong Tu, Mengjuan Zhu, Li Ying, Jinlan Zhao, N Liu, Fukun Guo, Lin Zhang, Lu Zhang
Synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in cocaine addiction. The dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially regulate the cocaine-induced gene expression, structural remodeling and behavioral response. However, how these two receptors coordinately mediate the ultra-structural changes of synapses after cocaine exposure and whether these changes are behaviorally relevant are still not clear. Here, using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that D1 and D3 receptors have distinct roles in regulating cocaine-induced ultra-structural changes of synapses in the nucleus accumbens and caudoputamen...
October 12, 2016: Addiction Biology
Leticia Ramírez-Lugo, Ana Peñas-Rincón, Sandybel Ángeles-Durán, Francisco Sotres-Bayon
: The ability to select an appropriate behavioral response guided by previous emotional experiences is critical for survival. Although much is known about brain mechanisms underlying emotional associations, little is known about how these associations guide behavior when several choices are available. To address this, we performed local pharmacological inactivations of several cortical regions before retrieval of an aversive memory in choice-based versus no-choice-based conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tasks in rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zhimin Ou, Yuxia Sun, Li Lin, Nachun You, Xue Liu, Hongchao Li, Yanchen Ma, Lei Cao, Ying Han, Min Liu, Yaqi Deng, Luming Yao, Q Richard Lu, Ying Chen
: Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are known to result from acute or chronic injury to the myelin sheath and inadequate remyelination; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we performed genome occupancy analysis by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing in oligodendrocytes in response to lysolecithin-induced injury and found that Olig2 and its downstream target Gpr17 are critical factors in regulating oligodendrocyte survival. After injury to oligodendrocytes, Olig2 was significantly upregulated and transcriptionally targeted the Gpr17 locus...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ryota Araki, Yosuke Hiraki, Shoji Nishida, Yuka Inatomi, Takeshi Yabe
Emotional impairments such as depressive symptoms often develop in patients with sustained and systemic immune activation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of gomisin N, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the dried fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., which exhibited inhibitory effects of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in a screening assay, on inflammation-induced depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of gomisin N on inflammation induced by LPS in murine microglial BV-2 cells and on LPS-induced behavioral changes in mice...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Ai-Ling Chen, Xi Sun, Wei Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Xin Zeng, Jing-Fan Qiu, Xin-Jian Liu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression has been described as a consequence of brain injury and infection by different mechanisms. Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause injury to the central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Both T cell and B cell immunity play an essential role in the resistance of the infection. However, whether brain injury caused by A. cantonensis infection can lead to immunosuppression is not clear. Therefore, the present study sought to observe the alteration of immune responses in mice infected with A...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Shi-Xun Ma, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Jee-Yeon Seo, Ji-Young Hwang, Sa-Ik Hong, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers. We previously demonstrated that TRPV1 in the dorsal striatum significantly contributes to morphine reward by using the conditioned place preference paradigm in mice; however, it is unknown whether TRPV1 has the same effect in other reward models. In this study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in morphine reward by using a self-administration paradigm in rats...
October 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
Anna Ulyanova, Xuan Vinh To, A B M A Asad, Weiping Han, Kai-Hsiang Chuang
Hypothalamus plays the central role in regulating energy homeostasis. To understand the hypothalamic neurocircuit in responding to leptin, Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) was applied. Highly elevated signal could be mapped in major nuclei of the leptin signaling pathway, including the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in fasted mice and the enhancement was reduced by leptin administration. However, whether changes in MEMRI signal reflect Ca(2+) channel activity, neuronal activation or connectivity in the leptin signaling pathway are not clear...
October 8, 2016: NeuroImage
Shuai Zhao, Yu Sun, Xiaolei Li, Jingcheng Wang, Lianqi Yan, Zhen Zhang, Daxin Wang, Jihang Dai, Jun He, Shuguang Wang
Aseptic prosthetic loosening is a major complication after hip joint replacement. Wear particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis plays a key role in aseptic prosthetic loosening. Attempting to modulate receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANKL) mediated signaling pathways is a promising strategy to prevent aseptic prosthetic loosening. In the present study, we determined the effect of scutellarin (SCU) on titanium (Ti) particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvarial model and RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis...
October 8, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Yadanar Moe, Chaw Kyi-Tha-Thu, Tomoko Tanaka, Hiroto Ito, Satowa Yahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Goro Katsuura, Fumihiro Iwashige, Ichiro Sakata, Atsushi Akune, Akio Inui, Takafumi Sakai, Sonoko Ogawa, Shinji Tsukahara
We found a novel sexually dimorphic area in the dorsal hypothalamus of mice (hereafter the SDA-DH). The SDA-DH was sandwiched between two known male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the calbindin-sexually dimorphic nucleus, and exhibited a female-biased sex difference in neuronal cell density. The density of neurons in the SDA-DH was increased in male mice by orchidectomy on the day of birth and decreased in female mice by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth...
October 11, 2016: Endocrinology
Jong Won Kim, Sung-Kyun Ko, Hye-Min Kim, Gun-Hee Kim, Sangkeun Son, Gil Soo Kim, Gwi Ja Hwang, Eun Soo Jeon, Kee-Sun Shin, In-Ja Ryoo, Young-Soo Hong, Hyuncheol Oh, Kyung Ho Lee, Nak-Kyun Soung, Daisuke Hashizume, Toshihiko Nogawa, Shunji Takahashi, Bo Yeon Kim, Hiroyuki Osada, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Jong Seog Ahn
Two new phenylspirodrimane derivatives, stachybotrysin (1) and stachybotrylactone B (2), were isolated from the cultures of the marine-derived fungus Stachybotrys sp. KCB13F013. The structures were determined by analyzing the spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR and MS) and chemical transformation, including the modified Mosher's method and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. Compound 1 exhibited an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophage cells via suppressing the RANKL-induced activation of p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, c-Fos, and NFATc1...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Callum Hicks, Linnet Ramos, Bruno Dampney, Sarah J Baracz, Iain S McGregor, Glenn E Hunt
Peripherally administered oxytocin induces a wide range of behavioural and physiological effects that are thought to be mediated by the oxytocin receptor (OTR). However, oxytocin also has considerable affinity for the vasopressin 1A receptor (V1AR), such that various oxytocinergic effects may in fact be mediated by the V1AR rather than the OTR. Here we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to determine the extent to which the regional pattern of neuronal activation produced by peripheral oxytocin involves the V1AR...
October 8, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Erica L Schoeller, Daniel D Clark, Sandeepa Dey, Nathan V Cao, Sheila J Semaan, Ling W Chao, Alexander S Kauffman, Lisa Stowers, Pamela L Mellon
Circadian rhythms synchronize physiological processes with the light-dark cycle and are regulated by a hierarchical system initiated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a hypothalamic region that receives direct photic input. The SCN then entrains additional oscillators in the periphery. Circadian rhythms are maintained by a molecular transcriptional feedback loop, of which BMAL1 is a key member. Disruption of circadian rhythms by deletion of the BMAL1 gene (Bmal1 KO) induces a variety of disease states, including infertility in males, due to unidentified mechanisms...
October 5, 2016: Endocrinology
Małgorzata H Lehner, Ewa Taracha, Ewelina Kaniuga, Aleksandra Wisłowska-Stanek, Marek Gryz, Alicja Sobolewska, Danuta Turzyńska, Anna Skórzewska, Adam Płaźnik
This study utilised the two injection protocol of sensitisation (TIPS) and the conditioned place preference test to validate and extend previous findings on the effects of amphetamine on positive reinforcement-related 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisation (USV) in rats. We also examined changes in the expression of c-Fos and the NMDA receptor 2B (GluN2B) subunit, markers of neuronal activity and plasticity, in brain regions of rats in response to TIPS. We used low anxiety-responsive (LR) and high anxiety-responsive (HR) rats, which are known to exhibit different fear-conditioned response strengths, different susceptibilities to amphetamine in the TIPS procedure and different amphetamine-dependent 50 kHz USV responses...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Fang Zheng, Jiahe Zhang, Siyu Luo, Jing Yi, Ping Wang, Quanqing Zheng, Yurong Wen
Inappropriate expression of microRNA (miR) is strongly associated with carcinogenesis. miR-143 was reported to be one of the most prominent miRs implicated in the genesis and progression of human cancer. However, its correlation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in cervical cancer remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that miR-143 is able to suppress the proliferation of cervical cancer HeLa cells and induce cell apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The present study also investigated the potential targets of miR-143, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) and its downstream substrate oncoprotein c-Fos, both of which are involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Zengbing Lu, Chi-Kong Yeung, Ge Lin, David T W Yew, P L R Andrews, John A Rudd
BACKGROUND: GLP-1 receptor agonists are utilised for the treatment of Type-2 diabetes but can be associated with undesirable effects of nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of GLP-1 receptors in mechanisms of emesis, behaviours indicative of nausea (BIN) and food intake in the ferret. RESULTS: Exendin-4 (10 and 30nmol, i.c.v.) induced emesis, inhibited food intake, and increased the frequency of BIN. Increases in c-Fos in the brainstem, midbrain and forebrain occurred in animals exhibiting emesis; no activation of the brainstem occurred in animals not vomiting...
September 14, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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