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Luke Mease, Reema Sikka, Randall Rhees
Introduction: To analyze the effectiveness and suitability of pupillometer use in military and occupational medicine, specifically when pupil size is measured as part of medical surveillance. Pupil size is the most sensitive physical exam finding in vapor exposure to substances that inhibit acetylcholinesterase, such as nerve agent (chemical warfare) and organophosphates (used in agriculture). Pupillometer use permits real-time, accurate pupil measurements, which are of significant value in occupational setting where exposure to organophosphates is suspected and in dynamic military settings where it may be unclear if service members were exposed to nerve agent or not...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Jason El Brihi, Rob Horne, Kate Faasse
Background: Recent evidence indicates that placebo effects can occur even when patients know that they are taking a placebo, termed the open-label placebo effect. Aim: To assess whether placebo dose (one pill per day vs. four pills per day), treatment expectancies, and adherence contribute to open-label placebo effects. Method: Healthy undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to take one or four open-label placebo pills per day or to a no-treatment control group...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Dayna A Johnson, Jana A Hirsch, Kari A Moore, Susan Redline, Ana V Diez Roux
Although dense neighborhood built environments support increased physical activity and lower obesity, these features may also disturb sleep. Therefore, we sought to understand the association between the built environment and objectively measured sleep. From 2010 to 2013, we analyzed data from examination 5 of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a diverse population from 6 US cities. We fit multilevel models that assessed the association between the built environment (Street Smart Walk Score, social engagement destinations, street intersections, and population density) and sleep duration or efficiency from 1-week wrist actigraphy in 1,889 individuals...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Simon A Sarkisian, Daniel Brillhart
In the United States, the rate of primary and secondary syphilis has increased by 18% in 2016, the highest rate since 1993. These patients can often present to the emergency department (ED) in various stages. Although syphilis is well described in the literature, there is a paucity of ED reports of atypical cases. A 22-yr-old male presented to the ED complaining of neck pain. The patient was found to have right-sided tender cervical lymphadenopathy causing neck pain. A thorough physical exam revealed diffuse lymphadenopathy...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Laura Jayne Broome, Cristina Izura, Nuria Lorenzo-Dus
Within the literature individuals who use the internet to facilitate the sexual abuse of a minor are generally classified as being fantasy or contact driven. Classification is based upon the intended location for sexual climax: fantasy driven individuals aim to reach sexual climax online, whereas contact driven individuals target minors to achieve physical sex offline. This review systematically investigates whether there is an empirical basis for the distinction between these two proposed discrete types. Comparison of tactics and behaviour are considered to examine whether the contact vs...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Danny Mangual, Luis A Bisbal-Matos, Ricardo Jiménez-Lee, Román Vélez, Miguel Noy
The case of a 27-year-old Hispanic female who presented with an occipito-parietal tumor after suffering trauma to the area. A physical examination revealed no tenderness to palpation and with evidence of healing ulcerations. The biopsy was consistent with a synovial sarcoma. A wide excision of the mass (15cm x 14cm x 6cm) followed by a pericranial flap was performed. A follow-up CT showed recurrence involving the parietal sagittal sinus. After a second biopsy the mass was determined to be a small-cell sarcoma, consistent with Ewing's sarcoma...
March 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Velda J Gonzalez, Susan McMillan, Elsa Pedro, Maribel Tirado-Gomez, Leorey N Saligan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the health related quality of life (HRQOL) experienced by 79 Puerto Rican adults during cancer treatments. METHODS: This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional design. Participants completed a demographics form and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General QOL questionnaire (FACT-G). Descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: Participants were ages 28-78; most of the participants had breast (38.0%), prostate (14...
2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Romualdas Malinauskas, Vilija Malinauskiene, Mindaugas Malinauskas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime traumatic experiences and leisure physical inactivity among adolescent boys and to determine to what extent those associations are mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms, unhealthy behaviors (smoking, alcohol use), the daily consumption of fresh fruit, and sense of coherence. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire combining 3 instruments measured leisure physical activity level (Godin and Shephard), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (IES-revised), lifetime traumatic experiences, sense of coherence (SOC-13, from Antonovsky), and behavioral and dietary patterns in a representative sample of eighth grade boys from a number of Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N = 885; response rate 88...
March 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Waqas Hameed, Bilal Iqbal Avan
INTRODUCTION: Respectful and dignified healthcare is a fundamental right for every woman. However, many women seeking childbirth services, especially those in low-income countries such as Pakistan, are mistreated by their birth attendants. The aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalence of mistreatment and types of mistreatment among women giving birth in facility- and home-based settings in Pakistan in order to address the lack of empirical evidence on this topic...
2018: PloS One
Robert W Irwin, Jeffrey Smith, S Barry Issenberg
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (ABPMR) developed milestones for evaluation of resident physicians that include proper musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) examination of major joints. To date, there have been no published data demonstrating acquisition and retention of these skills and correlation with the milestone evaluation. The investigators developed and implemented a curriculum in musculoskeletal ultrasound examination for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) residents at a large academic medical center...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Elona Toska, F Mark Orkin, Rebecca J Hodes, Lorraine Sherr
OBJECTIVE(S): HIV-positive adolescents have low ART-adherence, with consequent increased risks of mortality, morbidity and viral resistance. Despite high rates of violence against children in the Africa region, no known studies have tested impacts on HIV-positive adolescents. We examine associations of ART-adherence with adolescent violence victimisation by caregivers, teachers, peers, community members, and healthcare providers. DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-positive adolescents were interviewed (n = 1060), and clinic biomarker data collected...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Ignacio Torres-Navarro, Jennifer Piqueras-García, Rafael Botella-Estrada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Sarah Herzog, Wendy D'Andrea, Jonathan DePierro, Vivian Khedari
There is need for further work clarifying attention-physiology interactions by degree of exposure to early victimization, as it is clear that cumulative trauma in childhood, that is, polyvictimization, may have lasting effects on the stress response that differ from those of acute traumatization. The present study examined relationships between baseline and task-related physiology (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] and heart rate [HR], respectively), and attention biases (via the dot probe task), in 63 community-dwelling adult women stratified on the basis of self-reported exposure to multiple types of childhood interpersonal victimization (i...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Mohammad Sadekuzzaman, Md Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Sungdae Yang, Hyung-Suk Kim, Sang-Do Ha
Microbial biofilms pose a serious threat to food industry, as they are difficult to inactivate or remove owing to their inherent resistance to traditional physical and antimicrobial treatments. Bacteriophages have been suggested as promising biocontrol agents for eliminating biofilms within the food industry. The efficacy of phages (BP 1369 and BP 1370) was evaluated against Salmonella spp. in biofilms. Biofilms were grown on food (lettuce), food contact surfaces (stainless steel and rubber), and MBEC biofilm devices...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Niki Oikonomopoulou, Ana Belén Martínez López, Javier Urbano Villaescusa, María Del Carmen Molina Molina, Laura Butragueño Laiseca, Daniel Barraca Nuñez, Olalla Álvarez Blanco
INTRODUCTION: Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is a rare entity in the pediatric age. It is de fined by the infiltration of the renal parenchyma by mononuclear and/or polynuclear cells with se condary involvement of the tubules, without glomerular injury. It can be triggered by infections or immunological diseases, drugs like NSAIDs or be of idiopathic origin. OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness among pediatricians about the prescription of NSAIDs, especially to patients of less than a year old, since they can provoke renal damage...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Ramiro Manzano Núñez, James Alejandro Zapata, Herney A García-Perdomo, Diego A Gomez, Mónica A Solís Velasco
INTRODUCTION: Few reports are available about perinatal dengue, with controversial results in regards the risk of perinatal outcome. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of perinatal dengue as a differential diagno sis with neonatal sepsis, which must be considered in endemic areas. CLINICAL CASE: Male newborn of a 23 year-old female, who presented a Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) antigen positive to dengue at 36 weeks of gestation and negative anti-dengue antibodies...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Junho Ahn, Michael A Del Core, Dane K Wukich, George T Liu, Trapper Lalli, Michael D VanPelt, Javier La Fontaine, Lawrence A Lavery, Katherine M Raspovic
The aim of this study was to examine if using orthogonal and oblique factor analysis detect changes in health-related quality of life differently in diabetic patients on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) survey. A total of 155 patients had diabetic foot complications (DFC), and 145 patients had no DFCs. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were calculated using scoring coefficients determined by orthogonal and oblique rotation principle component analyses of the subscales...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Ye Seul Yang, Min Hyuk Lim, Seong Ok Lee, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim, Andrea Mari, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
AIMS: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with renal protective effect. Additionally, they have been associated with the delayed onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations, and some ARB were reported to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. Therefore, we studied the effects of ARB on insulin secretion in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this open-labeled, active comparator-controlled and crossover study...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Amelia Swanson, Jessica Geller, Kelly DeMartini, Anne Fernandez, Dwain Fehon
Without a transplant, end-stage liver disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transplant candidates endure physical and psychological stress while awaiting surgery, yet little is known about the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience during the wait-list period. This study examined predictors of psychological resilience and mediators of the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience in liver transplant candidates. Wait-listed candidates (N = 120) from a single Northeast transplant center completed assessments of physical functioning, coping, perceived social support, and resilience...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Kazuhisa Matsui, Takashi Tachibana, Katsuya Nobuhara, Yasushi Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: The glenohumeral joint is subjected to opposing forces when the direction of shoulder motion is changed, accelerating and decelerating to make the movements. The influence of motion velocity or acceleration on translation of the humeral head has not been evaluated although direction and distance of humeral head translation has been analyzed in real time in normal shoulders. We hypothesized that, in a normal shoulder, the humeral head does not deviate significantly or suddenly during active shoulder rotation regardless of motion velocity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
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