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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346661/the-role-of-healthcare-and-education-systems-in-co-occurrence-of-health-risk-behaviours-in-27-european-countries
#1
Shiho Kino, Eduardo Bernabé, Wael Sabbah
Background: Contextual factors play an important role in health and related behaviours. This study aims to examine the association of co-occurrence of five health-risk behaviours with healthcare and education contextual factors using nationally representative samples from 27 European countries. Methods: Data were from Eurobarometer 72.3, 2009. The outcome was a count variable ranging from 0 to 5 indicating co-occurrence of five health-risk behaviours, namely smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, non-frequent fresh fruit consumption, physical inactivity and non-dental check-ups...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346517/does-telomere-length-indicate-biological-physical-and-cognitive-health-among-older-adults-evidence-from-the-health-and-retirement-study
#2
Lauren Brown, Yuan Zhang, Colter Mitchel, Jennifer Ailshire
Telomere length (TL) has been suggested as a biomarker that can indicate individual variability in the rate of aging. Yet, it remains unclear whether TL is related to recognized indicators of health in an aging, older nationally representative sample. We examine whether TL is associated with 15 biological, physical and cognitive markers of health among older adults ages 54+. TL was assayed from saliva using quantitative PCR (T/S ratio) in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (n=4,074). We estimated probability of high risk levels across indictors of health by TL and age-singly and jointly...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346467/modification-of-the-associations-between-duration-of-oral-contraceptive-use-and-ovarian-endometrial-breast-and-colorectal-cancers
#3
Kara A Michels, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Louise A Brinton, Britton Trabert
Importance: Although oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, the influence of OC use on carcinogenesis is not fully understood. A recent Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report identified a need to understand the consistency of OC use and cancer associations across subpopulations, including smokers and obese women. Objective: To determine whether associations between duration of OC use and risk of specific cancers were modified by lifestyle characteristics...
January 18, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346312/sidewalk-landscape-structure-and-thermal-conditions-for-child-and-adult-pedestrians
#4
Young-Jae Kim, Chanam Lee, Jun-Hyun Kim
Walking is being promoted for health and transportation purposes across all climatic regions in the US and beyond. Despite this, an uncomfortable microclimate condition along sidewalks is one of the major deterrents of walking, and more empirical research is needed to determine the risks of heat exposure to pedestrians while walking. This study examined the effect of street trees and grass along sidewalks on air temperatures. A series of thermal images were taken at the average heights of adults and children in the US to objectively measure the air temperatures of 10 sidewalk segments in College Station, TX, USA...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346299/meteo-and-hydrodynamic-measurements-to-detect-physical-processes-in-confined-shallow-seas
#5
Francesca De Serio, Michele Mossa
Coastal sites with typical lagoon features are extremely vulnerable, often suffering from scarce circulation. Especially in the case of shallow basins subjected to strong anthropization and urban discharges, it is fundamental to monitor their hydrodynamics and water quality. The proper detection of events by high performance sensors and appropriate analysis of sensor signals has proved to be a necessary tool for local authorities and stakeholders, leading to early warning and preventive measures against environmental degradation and related hazards...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346184/synergistic-impact-of-training-followed-by-on-site-support-on-hiv-clinical-practice-a-mixed-design-study-in-uganda-with-pre-post-and-cluster-randomized-trial-components
#6
Sarah Burnett, Norbert Mubiru, Peace Imani, Martin K Mbonye, Leigh Fisher, Robert Colebunders, Yukari C Manabe, Marcia R Weaver
BACKGROUND: Task-shifting can expand antiretroviral therapy access, but little is known about effective approaches to improve clinical practice among mid-level practitioners' (MLP) such as clinical officers, nurses, and midwives. The Integrated Infectious Diseases Capacity-Building Evaluation compared training alone to training combined with on-site support (OSS). METHODS: Two MLP each from 36 health facilities attended the five-week Integrated Management of Infectious Disease training...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346067/the-association-between-child-maltreatment-and-adult-poverty-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-research
#7
Lisa Bunting, Gavin Davidson, Claire McCartan, Jennifer Hanratty, Paul Bywaters, Will Mason, Nicole Steils
Child maltreatment is a global problem affecting millions of children and is associated with an array of cumulative negative outcomes later in life, including unemployment and financial difficulties. Although establishing child maltreatment as a causal mechanism for adult economic outcomes is fraught with difficulty, understanding the relationship between the two is essential to reducing such inequality. This paper presents findings from a systematic review of longitudinal research examining experiences of child maltreatment and economic outcomes in adulthood...
January 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346062/television-viewing-time-physical-activity-and-mortality-among-african-americans
#8
Tasnim F Imran, Mark Ommerborn, Cheryl Clark, Adolfo Correa, Patricia Dubbert, J Michael Gaziano, Luc Djoussé
BACKGROUND: Prolonged television viewing time, a marker of sedentary activity, is independently associated with increased all-cause mortality; however, this association has rarely been studied in African Americans. The objective of our study was to examine the association between television viewing time and mortality among African Americans by using data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). METHODS: We studied 5,289 participants from the JHS study who reported television viewing time (h/day) in the JHS baseline questionnaire from 2000 through 2004...
January 18, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346056/esophageal-leiomyoma-in-a-dog-causing-esophageal-distension-and-treated-by-transcardial-placement-of-a-self-expanding-covered-nitinol-esophageal-stent
#9
Elisabeth M Robin, Pascaline B Pey, Pauline de Fornel-Thibaud, Pierre H M Moissonnier, Valérie Freiche
CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-year-old spayed female Rottweiler was referred for evaluation because of a 2-month history of regurgitation and weight loss, despite no apparent change in appetite. The dog had received antiemetic and antacid treatment, without improvement. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a low body condition score (2/5), but other findings were unremarkable. Diffuse, global esophageal dilatation was noted on plain thoracic radiographs, and normal motility was confirmed through videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346049/microphthalmia-corneal-dermoids-and-congenital-anomalies-resembling-goldenhar-syndrome-in-a-cat
#10
William Berkowski, Ingeborg Langohr, Anthony Pease, Joshua Bartoe
CASE DESCRIPTION An 18-month-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of conjunctivitis and skin-fold dermatitis secondary to bilateral microphthalmia, corneal dermoids, and ankyloblepharon. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed bilateral microphthalmia, bilaterally symmetrical corneal dermoids, ankyloblepharon, superior and inferior entropion, prognathism, and facial asymmetry with deviation of the nasal septum. Computed tomography revealed malformed, thickened bony orbits with mineralization of the orbital ligament bilaterally...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346001/strategies-and-challenges-in-preventing-violence-against-canadian-indoor-sex-workers
#11
Vicky Bungay, Adrian Guta
OBJECTIVES: To examine indoor sex workers' strategies in preventing workplace violence and influential socio-structural conditions. METHODS: Data included qualitative interviews with 85 sex workers in British Columbia, Canada, from 2014 through 2016. For analyses, we used interpretive thematic techniques informed by World Health Organization position statements on violence. RESULTS: Robbery, nonpayment, financial exploitation, and privacy violations were frequent types of violence perpetrated by clients, landlords, and neighbors...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345622/position-paper-on-nasal-obstruction-evaluation-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
A Valero, A M Navarro, A Del Cuvillo, I Alobid, J R Benito, C Colás, G de Los Santos, R Fernández Liesa, A García-Lliberós, R González-Pérez, A Izquierdo-Domínguez, A Jurado-Ramos, M M Lluch-Bernal, J R Montserrat Gili, J Mullol, A Puiggròs Casas, M C Sánchez-Hernández, F Vega, J M Villacampa, M Armengot-Carceller, M T Dordal
Nasal obstruction (NO) is defined as the subjective perception of discomfort or difficulty in the passage of air through the nostrils. It is a common reason for consultation in primary and specialized care, and it may affect up to 30-40% of the population. It affects the quality of life (it especially disturbs sleep) and lowers work efficiency. The aim of this document is to agree on how to treat NO, establish a methodology for evaluating and diagnosing it, and define an individualized approach to its treatment...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345602/the-mental-health-of-adolescents-and-pre-adolescents-living-with-inherited-arrhythmia-syndromes-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
Patricia E Longmuir, Margaret Sampson, Jennifer Ham, Makenzie Weekes, Bhavika J Patel, Robert M Gow
Potentially fatal arrhythmias add to the mental health challenges of adolescence. This systematic review sought to summarise current knowledge regarding the mental health of adolescents and pre-adolescents diagnosed with inherited arrhythmia syndromes. Searches combining psychological problems with inherited cardiac arrhythmia diagnoses identified 16 studies with paediatric (<18 years) inherited arrhythmia patients. All studies were cross-sectional; 8/16 required an implantable cardioverter defibrillator...
January 18, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345520/correlates-of-physical-activity-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-with-hazardous-drinking-habits-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries
#14
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha, Ai Koyanagi
We investigated physical activity (PA) correlates among middle-aged and older adults (aged ≥50 years) with hazardous drinking patterns in six low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Hazardous drinking was defined as consuming >7 (females) or >14 (males) standard drinks per week. Participants were dichotomized into low (i.e. not meeting 150 minutes of moderate PA / week) and moderate-to-high physically active groups...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345477/an-exploratory-study-of-stress-and-coping-among-black-college-men
#15
Janelle R Goodwill, Daphne C Watkins, Natasha C Johnson, Julie Ober Allen
Research on coping mechanisms among Black Americans is robust, yet there is a dearth of studies that use qualitative approaches to examine coping specifically among young Black men. The current and historical landscape of race relations in the United States calls for additional concern and exploration of this topic. To fill gaps in this area, this study uncovered the ways Black college men cope with various stressors that impact their mental health. Eleven qualitative interviews were conducted with 18- to 25-year-old Black men enrolled at a college in the Midwest who participated in the Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) project...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345427/review-article-best-practice-management-of-common-shoulder-injuries-and-conditions-in-the-emergency-department-part-4-of-the-musculoskeletal-injuries-rapid-review-series
#16
REVIEW
Kirsten Strudwick, Megan McPhee, Anthony Bell, Melinda Martin-Khan, Trevor Russell
Shoulder injuries are a commonly presenting complaint to the ED. In the absence of an obvious deformity, they can be difficult to assess and definitively diagnose because of the multiple structures that cause shoulder pain, the acuity and severity of pain and the lack of range of motion in the ED setting. The quality of ED care provided to patients with musculoskeletal shoulder pain is crucial to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient. This rapid review investigated best practice for the assessment and management of common shoulder injuries and conditions in the ED...
January 18, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345147/the-complexities-of-family-caregiving-at-work-a-mixed-methods-study
#17
Joseph E Gaugler, Deborah L Pestka, Heather Davila, Rebecca Sales, Greg Owen, Sarah A Baumgartner, Rocky Shook, Jane Cunningham, Maureen Kenney
The current project examined the impact of caregiving and caregiving-work conflict on employees' well-being. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design (QUAN→qual) was utilized, and a total of 880 employees from a large health-care plan employer completed an online survey. Forty-five caregivers who completed the survey also participated in one of the five focus groups held 1 to 2 months later. Employed caregivers were significantly ( p < .05) more likely to indicate poorer physical and mental health than noncaregivers; among caregivers ( n = 370), caregiving-work conflict emerged as the most significant predictor of well-being and fully mediated the empirical relationship between burden and well-being...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344768/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-injuries-to-the-biceps-and-superior-labral-complex-in-overhead-athletes
#18
REVIEW
Jacob G Calcei, Venkat Boddapati, David W Altchek, Christopher L Camp, Joshua S Dines
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the diagnostic and treatment challenges presented by injuries to the biceps and superior labral complex. RECENT FINDINGS: A focused patient history, numerous physical examination maneuvers, and appropriate advanced imaging studies must be utilized to reach an accurate diagnosis. Nonoperative management, even in overhead athletes, has demonstrated relatively good outcomes, while operative outcomes have yielded mixed results...
January 17, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344667/clinical-evaluation-of-covered-stents-in-the-treatment-of-superficial-femoral-artery-pseudoaneurysm-in-drug-abusers
#19
Jian Xu, Zhao Zheng, Yong Yang, Wei Zhang, Hongliang Zhao, Bei E, Minwen Zheng
The present study aimed to investigate the technical feasibility and initial clinical outcomes of a covered stent for the endovascular treatment of superficial femoral artery (SFA) pseudoaneurysm in drug abusers. A total of 29 drug abuse patients with SFA pseudoaneurysm, as confirmed by color Doppler sonography, were enrolled to the present study between January 2012 and May 2014. All patients were treated percutaneously by implantation of a covered stent. Physical examination and lower extremity computed tomography angiography were performed at 1 and 9 months postoperation...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344455/qualitative-assessment-of-learning-strategies-among-medical-students-using-focus-group-discussions-and-in-depth-interviews
#20
Anuradha Sujai Joshi, Jaishree Deepak Ganjiwale, Jagdish Varma, Praveen Singh, Jyoti Nath Modi, Tejinder Singh
Background: Globally, students with top academic performance and high intellectual capacity usually opt to study medicine. However, once students get enrolled, their academic performance varies widely. Such variations appear to be determined by various factors, one of them being types of learning strategies adopted by students. The learning strategies utilized by the students with better academic performance are likely to be more effective learning strategies. Aims and Objectives: The objective is to identify effective learning strategies used by medical students...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
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