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chronic rhinosinusitis and biofilm

Noam A Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) refractory to therapeutic intervention may involve a particularly resistant infection known as a bacterial biofilm. Critical to biofilm formation is the microbial process of quorum sensing whereby microbes secrete factors that regulate the expression of microbial genes involved in biofilm formation, persistence, and virulence. Here, we review recent work demonstrating that the bitter taste receptor T2R38, expressed on the apical surface of the sinonasal epithelium, serves a sentinel role in eavesdropping on microbial quorum-sensing communications and regulates localized innate biocidal defenses...
September 21, 2016: Laryngoscope
Francesco Blasi, Clive Page, Gian Maria Rossolini, Lucia Pallecchi, Maria Gabriella Matera, Paola Rogliani, Mario Cazzola
OBJECTIVES: In airway infections, biofilm formation has been demonstrated to be responsible for both acute and chronic events, and constitutes a genuine challenge in clinical practice. Difficulty in eradicating biofilms with systemic antibiotics has led clinicians to consider the possible role of non-antibiotic therapy. The aim of this review is to examine current evidence for the use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of biofilm-related respiratory infections. METHODS: Electronic searches of PUBMED up to September 2015 were conducted, searching for 'biofilm', 'respiratory tract infection', 'N-acetylcysteine', 'cystic fibrosis', 'COPD', 'bronchiectasis', 'otitis', and 'bronchitis' in titles and abstracts...
August 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Marina Davcheva-Chakar, Ana Kaftandzhieva, Beti Zafirovska
INTRODUCTION: Otitis media and rhinosinusitis are commonly encountered illnesses in pediatric population. Literature reports have documented the association between the occurrence of these two conditions and even their almost identical microbiological findings. Until recently, the key factor in the association of these two conditions was considered to be the hypertrophic adenoid tissue, but within the past few years there have been evidences in the literature about the presence of bacterial biofilms on the adenoids suggesting biofilms to be also responsible for both conditions, chronic otitis media with effusion and chronic rhinosinusitis...
2015: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
R Jain, T Lee, T Hardcastle, K Biswas, F Radcliff, R Douglas
INTRODUCTION: Biofilms have been implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and may explain the limited efficacy of antibiotics. There is a need to find more effective, non-antibiotic based therapies for CRS. This study examines the effects of xylitol on CRS biofilms and planktonic bacteria. METHODS: Crystal violet assay and spectrophotometry were used to quantify the effects of xylitol (5% and 10% solutions) against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus...
July 10, 2016: Rhinology
Robert M Naclerio, Fuad M Baroody
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is difficult to define, partly because the disease recognized by clinicians is both heterogeneous and the endpoint of different pathophysiologic, genetic, and environmental interactions. For this article, we define CRS as symptoms lasting more than 3 months combined with an imaging study showing inflammation in the sinuses. This article comments on some factors that are believed to influence the expression of CRS. These factors include anatomic abnormalities, immotile cilia, age, allergic sensitization, immune deficiency, dental infections, gastrointestinal reflux, smoking, biofilm, and the microbiome...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Daniel L Hamilos
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is highly prevalent in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and accounts for significant morbidity and contribution to CF lung disease. Mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene occur with increased prevalence in patients with CRS without CF, suggesting some contribution to CRS pathophysiology. Nasal polyps (NPs) occur with increased prevalence in patients with CF of all ages and have a more neutrophilic appearance with fewer eosinophils and increased submucosal glandular elements in comparison to NPs from patients without CF...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Seong Ho Cho, Dae Woo Kim, Philippe Gevaert
Chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is more prevalent than chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Certain diseases predispose to whereas others are associated with CRSsNP. Predisposing diseases include allergic and nonallergic upper and lower airway diseases, epithelial cell disorders, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and some infectious diseases. In addition, environmental and host factors, examples of which include smoking, a higher incidence of abnormal biofilms, and innate immune defects, play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Nithin D Adappa, Carl M Truesdale, Alan D Workman, Laurel Doghramji, Corrine Mansfield, David W Kennedy, James N Palmer, Beverly J Cowart, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Sinonasal biofilms have been demonstrated in specimens collected from chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients. Mounting evidence suggests that biofilms contribute to therapeutically recalcitrant CRS. Recently, the bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been implicated in the regulation of the sinonasal mucosal innate immune response. TAS2R38 gene polymorphisms affect receptor functionality and contribute to variations seen in sinonasal innate defense as well as taste perception reflected in gustatory sensitivity to the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)...
August 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Sedeek Abd El-Salam Tawfik, Ahmed Aly Ibrahim, Iman Mamdoh Talaat, Soliman Samy Abd El-Raouf El-Alkamy, Ahmed Youssef
Biofilms have been implicated in the development of several chronic upper respiratory tract infections. Role of bacterial biofilms has been well studied in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis. However, its impact on development of middle ear effusion is still a matter of debate. To study the extent of surface adenoid biofilm and evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with effusion in children. The study was carried out on 40 children in Alexandria Main University Hospital between 1 and 16 years of age without sex predilection, who were divided into two groups...
May 27, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Patorn Piromchai, Sanguansak Thanaviratananich, Malinee Laopaiboon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
I Brook
Most sinus infections are viral and only a small percentage develop bacterial infection. Rhino-, influenza, and para-influenza viruses are the most frequent viral causes of sinusitis. The most common bacterial isolates from children and adult patients with community-acquired acute bacterial sinusitis are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic organisms (Prevotella and Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp...
July 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Elaine M Mokrzan, Michael O Ward, Lauren O Bakaletz
UNLABELLED: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), a commensal of the human nasopharynx (hNP), is a common cause of biofilm-associated diseases of the respiratory tract. However, NTHI biofilm biology at the average hNP temperature, i.e., 34°C, has not been well studied. Here we grew NTHI biofilms at 34°C and 37°C, to evaluate relative biofilm growth, expression, and function of the type IV pilus (Tfp), a critical adhesin important for NTHI biofilm formation. The kinetics and regulation of Tfp expression in NTHI biofilms are unclear, especially at 34°C...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Keqing Zhao, Chen Yang, Guoqiang Ding, Chunhong Liu, Ying Ma, Xiaoying Chen, Yang Wu, Chunquan Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the photodynamic therapy (PDT) against multi-antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S.epidermidis) obtained from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS: Forty-five CRS patients who had been given medical treatment but still needed endoscopic surgery were included in this study. The mucus from middle meatus was collected from these patients during surgery, followed by separation of S...
March 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Domagoj Kifer, Vedran Mužinić, Maja Šegvić Klarić
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly isolated microbes in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) that can be complicated due to the formation of a staphylococcal biofilm. In this study, we investigated antimicrobial efficacy of single mupirocin and three types of monoterpenes (thymol, menthol and 1,8-cineole) as well as mupirocin-monoterpene combinations against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and 5 methicilin-resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) grown in planktonic and biofilm form. MIC against planktonic bacteria as well as minimum biofilm-eliminating concentrations (MBECs) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined by TTC and MTT reduction assay, respectively...
September 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Janusz Marcinkiewicz, Paweł Stręk, Magdalena Strus, Roman Głowacki, Marta Ciszek-Lenda, Katarzyna Zagórska-Świeży, Anna Gawda, Anna Tomusiak
A key role of bacterial biofilm in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is commonly accepted. However, the impact of some bacterial species isolated from inflamed sinus mucosa on biofilm formation is unclear. In particular, the role of Staphylococcus epidermidis as aetiological agents of CRS is controversial. Moreover, the effect of biofilm formation on neutrophil infiltration and activity in CRSwNP calls for explanation. In this study, biofilms were found in three of 10 patients (mean age = 46 ± 14) with CRS undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery by means of scanning electron microscopy...
December 2015: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Stavros Garantziotis, Martin Brezina, Paolo Castelnuovo, Lorenzo Drago
Hyaluronan, a ubiquitous naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan, is a major component of the extracellular matrix, where it participates in biological processes that include water homeostasis, cell-matrix signaling, tissue healing, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation and migration. There are emerging data that hyaluronan and its degradation products have an important role in the pathobiology of the respiratory tract. We review the role of hyaluronan in respiratory diseases and present evidence from published literature and from clinical practice supporting hyaluronan as a novel treatment for respiratory diseases...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Amanda J Drilling, Clare Cooksley, Chun Chan, Peter-John Wormald, Sarah Vreugde
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus biofilms are a nidus for exacerbation of infectious conditions including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Resistance of biofilms to current therapeutics stresses the need for the development of novel anti-biofilm strategies. The chimeric muralytic enzyme P128 was specifically engineered to target Staphylococcal sp. by combining the cell wall binding domain of lysostaphin and the peptidoglycan-degrading murein hydrolase derived from phage K. This study assessed the anti-biofilm activity of P128 against sinus-derived S...
April 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Daniel L Hamilos
The goal of this review is to elucidate the pathogenic factors, histopathologic features, and special considerations that relate to pediatric versus adult chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and to emphasize differences and similarities between the adult and pediatric conditions. Emphasis is placed on understanding of the differences in pathogenic mechanisms, host-microbial interactions, potential defects in innate antimicrobial immunity, and the role of biofilm formation in pediatric versus adult CRS and how these translate to different approaches toward both medical and surgical management...
November 2015: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Kjell Arild Danielsen, Øystein Eskeland, Katrin Fridrich-Aas, Vivian Cecilie Orszagh, Gregor Bachmann-Harildstad, Espen Burum-Auensen
CONCLUSION: Biofilms were more prevalent in patients with CRSwNP compared to both CRSsNP and controls, and also on the ethmoid bulla compared to the middle turbinate, supporting a biofilm-related pathogenesis of CRSwNP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of biofilms in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) compared to patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and controls. To examine the prevalence of biofilms in different anatomical localizations...
2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
S Hayes, S Pender, R Salib, P Harries
OBJECTIVES: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common condition with 20% of patients developing nasal polyps (NP). Bacterial biofilms have been implicated as mediators of the inflammatory reaction in CRS; however, little data pertains to bacterial profiles in NP. Therefore, we conducted a preliminary study characterising bacterial profiles in NP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in nine patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery and five control patients undergoing trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery...
October 2015: Clinical Otolaryngology
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