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anomalies of numer

Seher Nazlı Kazaz, İlhan Öztop
Systemic treatment is the basic treatment approach to advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and chemotherapy and targeted treatments are commonly employed in these patients. Recently, positive results achieved with immunotherapy have led to a growing number of treatment options and prolonged survival time. Today, specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and the TKI crizotinib, which targets anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement, have become the standard treatment among targeted therapies for patients with sensitive molecular anomalies...
July 2017: Turkish Thoracic Journal
Xiaomeng Jia, Patrick Bowen, Zhiqin Huang, Xiaojun Liu, Christopher Bingham, David R Smith
We study the angle-dependent optical reflectance spectrum of a metasurface consisting of a periodic array of film-coupled plasmonic nanopatch particles. The nanopatch metasurface exhibits a strong, angle-independent absorption resonance at a wavelength defined by the nanopatch geometry and relative density. When the nanopatches are arranged in a regular lattice, a second, sharp absorption dip is present that varies strongly as a function of the incidence angle. This second resonance is a collective effect involving the excitation of surface plasmon modes and relates to a Wood's anomaly...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Lu Dong, Michael J McPhaden
In early 2014, strong westerly wind bursts (WWBs) and high heat content in the equatorial Pacific favored development of a major El Niño. However, significant coupling between the Pacific Ocean and atmosphere failed to take hold during boreal summer of 2014 such that only borderline El Niño conditions were evident by the end of the year. Observational analysis suggests that warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean in 2014 weakened westerly wind anomalies in the Pacific and may have helped to arrest the development of the El Niño...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mariana Di Pietro, Natalia Pascuali, Fernanda Parborell, Dalhia Abramovich
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine pathology among women in reproductive age. Its main symptoms are oligo or amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and the presence of ovarian cysts. It is also associated with infertility, obesity and insulin resistance. Mainly due to its heterogeneity, PCOS treatments are directed to manage its symptoms and to prevent associated diseases. The correct formation and regression of blood vessels during each ovarian cycle is indispensable for proper follicular development, ovulation and corpus luteum formation...
January 31, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Susa H Stonedahl, Audrey H Sawyer, Forrest Stonedahl, Caleb Reiter, Caleb Gibson
Variations in permeability have been found to significantly affect the flow of water though hyporheic systems, especially in regions with discontinuous transitions between distinct streambed lithologies. In this study, we probabilistically arranged two sediments (sand and sandy gravel) in a grid framework and imposed a single hyporheic flow cell across the grid to investigate how discontinuous permeability fields influence volumetric flow and residence time distributions. We used both a physical system and computer simulations to model flow through this sediment grid...
January 23, 2018: Ground Water
Alyssa J Cozzo, Ashley M Fuller, Liza Makowski
Solid tumor growth and metastasis require the interaction of tumor cells with the surrounding tissue, leading to a view of tumors as tissue-level phenomena rather than exclusively cell-intrinsic anomalies. Due to the ubiquitous nature of adipose tissue, many types of solid tumors grow in proximate or direct contact with adipocytes and adipose-associated stromal and vascular components, such as fibroblasts and other connective tissue cells, stem and progenitor cells, endothelial cells, innate and adaptive immune cells, and extracellular signaling and matrix components...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
Yan Wang, Ping Hu, Zhengfeng Xu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventriculomegaly is one of the most common abnormal sonographic findings, which is associated with congenital infection, chromosomal and additional structural abnormalities. Currently, karyotype analysis is the primary method to detect chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with ventriculomegaly. Recently, with the introduction of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in prenatal diagnosis, copy number variations (CNVs) have been identified in cases of ventriculomegaly...
January 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Rossana Cecchi, Vittoria Masotti, Arturo Umberto Meo, Raffaella Rinaldi
The law on medically assisted procreation in Italy, from its entering into force, has undergone numerous amendments. This has been due to the fact that those citizens, directly affected by its imposed prohibitions, have not given in, bringing their requests before the courts, both nationally and internationally. Over the years, the courts through numerous rulings have significantly changed a law clearly incapable of protecting the rights of those involved. Currently Italy has an acceptable law on M.A.P. which is the result of the strong willing of citizens affected by problems of sterility or infertility...
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Sathiya Mahakrishnan, Subrata Chakraborty, Amrendra Vijay
Emergent statistical attributes, and therefore the equations of state, of an assembly of interacting charge carriers embedded within a complex molecular environment frequently exhibit a variety of anomalies, particularly in the high-density (equivalently, the concentration) regime, which are not well understood, because they do not fall under the low-concentration phenomenologies of Debye-Hückel-Onsager and Poisson-Nernst-Planck, including their variants. To go beyond, we here use physical concepts and mathematical tools from quantum scattering theory, transport theory with the Stosszahlansatz of Boltzmann, and classical electrodynamics (Lorentz gauge) and obtain analytical expressions both for the average and the frequency-wave vector-dependent longitudinal and transverse current densities, diffusion coefficient, and the charge density, and therefore the analytical expressions for (a) the chemical potential, activity coefficient, and the equivalent conductivity for strong electrolytes and (b) the current-voltage characteristics for ion-transport processes in complex molecular environments...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Fatima Azahraa Haddad, Ibraheem Qaisi, Nagham Joudeh, Hamada Dajani, Fareed Jumah, Amjad Elmashala, Nimer Adeeb, Joshua J Chern, R Shane Tubbs
In 1891 Hans Chiari described a group of congenital hindbrain anomalies, which were eventually named after him. He classified these malformations into three types (Chiari malformations I, II, and III), and four years later added the Chiari IV malformation. However, numerous reports across the literature do not seem to fit Chiari's original descriptions of these malformations, so researchers have been encouraged to propose new classifications to encompass these variants (e.g., Chiari 0, Chiari1.5, and Chiari 3...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Vanlalhruaii, Riddhi Dasgupta, Roshna Ramachandran, Jiji E Mathews, Annie Regi, Niranjan Thomas, Vijay Gupta, P Visalakshi, H S Asha, Thomas Paul, Nihal Thomas
BACKGROUND: The initiation of metformin in early pregnancy in Gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains controversial. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of Metformin on maternal and fetal outcomes when initiated within the first trimester of pregnancy in GDM. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis of 540 women with diabetes complicating pregnancy (IADPSG criteria) over five years (January 2011 to May 2016) was done. The study population comprised of patients initiated on (a) metformin within the first trimester (Group A:n = 186), (b) metformin after the first trimester (Group B:n = 203) and (c) insulin at any time during their pregnancy (Group C:n = 151)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
J V Karunakaran, Susan Mathew Fenn, N Jayaprakash, N Ragavendran
Palatogingival groove also known as radicularlingual groove is a developmental anomaly involving the lingual surface of the maxillary incisors. They are inconspicuous, funnel-shaped, extend for varying distances on root surface and occur due to infolding of the hertwigs epithelial root sheath. This encourages adherence of microorganisms and plaque to levels significant for pathological changes resulting in endodontic and periodontal lesions. The variations in anatomy of the tooth as a cause of pulp necrosis in teeth of anterior maxillary segment should be considered by the clinician when other etiological factors are ruled out...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Michael Lenning, Joseph Fortunato, Tai Le, Isaac Clark, Ang Sherpa, Soyeon Yi, Peter Hofsteen, Geethapriya Thamilarasu, Jingchun Yang, Xiaolei Xu, Huy-Dung Han, Tzung K Hsiai, Hung Cao
Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. with approximately 610,000 people dying every year. Effective therapies for many cardiac diseases are lacking, largely due to an incomplete understanding of their genetic basis and underlying molecular mechanisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an excellent model system for studying heart disease as they enable a forward genetic approach to tackle this unmet medical need. In recent years, our team has been employing electrocardiogram (ECG) as an efficient tool to study the zebrafish heart along with conventional approaches, such as immunohistochemistry, DNA and protein analyses...
December 28, 2017: Sensors
Shinnosuke Aoyama, Yuichiro Ueno
Microbial sulfate reduction is among the most ubiquitous metabolic processes on earth. The oldest evidence of microbial sulfate reduction appears in the ca. 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation in the North Pole area of Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. That evidence was found through analysis of quadruple sulfur isotopes of sulfate and sulfide minerals deposited on the seafloor. However, the activity of microbial sulfate reduction below the Archean seafloor remains poorly understood. Here, we report the quadruple sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfide minerals within hydrothermally altered seafloor basalt and less altered basaltic komatiite collected from the North Pole Dome area...
December 15, 2017: Geobiology
Oscar P Bruno, Stephen P Shipman, Catalin Turc, Venakides Stephanos
This work, part II in a series, presents an efficient method for evaluation of wave scattering by doubly periodic diffraction gratings at or near what are commonly called 'Wood anomaly frequencies'. At these frequencies, there is a grazing Rayleigh wave, and the quasi-periodic Green function ceases to exist. We present a modification of the Green function by adding two types of terms to its lattice sum. The first type are transversely shifted Green functions with coefficients that annihilate the growth in the original lattice sum and yield algebraic convergence...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Xianbiao Kang, Rong-Hua Zhang, Chuan Gao, Jieshun Zhu
The El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) simulated in the Community Earth System Model of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR CESM) is much stronger than in reality. Here, satellite data are used to derive a statistical relationship between interannual variations in oceanic chlorophyll (CHL) and sea surface temperature (SST), which is then incorporated into the CESM to represent oceanic chlorophyll -induced climate feedback in the tropical Pacific. Numerical runs with and without the feedback (referred to as feedback and non-feedback runs) are performed and compared with each other...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sebastiano Padovan, Nicola Tosi, Ana-Catalina Plesa, Thomas Ruedas
Mercury's crust is mostly the result of partial melting in the mantle associated with solid-state convection. Large impacts induce additional melting by generating subsurface thermal anomalies. By numerically investigating the geodynamical effects of impacts, here we show that impact-generated thermal anomalies interact with the underlying convection modifying the source depth of melt and inducing volcanism that can significantly postdate the impact depending on the impact time and location with respect to the underlying convection pattern...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Ashley L Lukefahr, Maria Proytcheva
Hurler syndrome is an autosomal recessive mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycan fragments, with cellular accumulation of distended lysosomes resulting in interference with normal cell function. One of the peripheral blood features of mucopolysaccharidoses is the presence of numerous, dark lilac granules within lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils, also known at Alder-Reilly anomaly. Here we describe intracytoplasmic granules with haloes in mononuclear cells present in the cerebrospinal fluid of a 2-year-old boy with the diagnosis of Hurler syndrome, undergoing pretransplant evaluation for an unrelated donor cord blood stem cell transplant...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Kuntharee Traisrisilp, Kasemsri Srisupundit, Songkiet Suwansirikul, Thunya Norasetthada, Shanika Kosarat, Theera Tongsong
Fetus in fetu (FIF) is an extremely rare anomaly featuring a monozygotic, diamniotic, parasitic twin, enclosed within its host twin. It is characterized by the presence of vertebrae and well-developed organs in a fetiform mass. Only 18 cases of intracranial FIF have been published. Of them, only five cases were prenatally detected. This study prenatally demonstrated triplet FIFs at 31 weeks within amniotic-like sac in the fetal skull, consisting of multiple well-defined organs. The FIF attached to the host twin via body stalk containing a single main feeding artery and vein, representing umbilical vessels...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Benjamin M Blau, Ryan J Whitby
One of the foundations of financial economics is the idea that rational investors will discount stocks with more risk (volatility), which will result in a positive relation between risk and future returns. However, the empirical evidence is mixed when determining how volatility is related to future returns. In this paper, we examine this relation using a range-based measure of volatility, which is shown to be theoretically, numerically, and empirically superior to other measures of volatility. In a variety of tests, we find that range-based volatility is negatively associated with expected stock returns...
2017: PloS One
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