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anomalies of numer

Vincent Holten, Chen Qiu, Emmanuel Guillerm, Max Wilke, Jaroslav Ricka, Martin Frenz, Frédéric Caupin
Water keeps puzzling scientists because of its numerous properties which behave oppositely to usual liquids: for instance, water expands upon cooling, and liquid water is denser than ice. To explain this anomalous behaviour, several theories have been proposed, with different predictions for the properties of supercooled water (liquid at conditions where ice is stable). However, discriminating between those theories with experiments has remained elusive because of spontaneous ice nucleation. Here we measure the sound velocity in liquid water stretched to negative pressure, and derive an experimental equation of state, which reveals compressibility anomalies...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Akram Hajebifard, Pierre Berini
The optical properties of gold heptamer nanohole arrays have been investigated theoretically and numerically. This structure support pronounced Fano resonances with high transmittance (~50%) and narrow bandwidths (down to 12 nm). The Fano features arise from the interference between light directly transmitted through the holes, and light indirectly scattered through the excitation of localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPPs), propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), or/and waves related to Wood's anomaly (WA)...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
Martijn Baas, Elise B Burger, Dimitri Sneiders, Robert-Jan H Galjaard, Steven E R Hovius, Christianne A van Nieuwenhoven
PURPOSE: Poland syndrome was first described as a deficiency of the pectoral muscle with ipsilateral symbrachydactyly. Currently, numerous case reports describe variations of Poland syndrome in which pectoral muscle deficiency is often used as the only defining criterion. However, more syndromes can present with pectoral muscle deficiency. The aim of this review is to illustrate the diversity of the phenotypic spectrum of Poland syndrome and to create more awareness for alternative diagnoses in pectoral muscle deficiency...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
Suk-Joo Choi
Preterm birth (PTB) is one of the most common complications during pregnancy and it primarily accounts for neonatal mortality and numerous morbidities including long-term sequelae including cerebral palsy and developmental disability. The most effective treatment of PTB is prediction and prevention of its risks. Risk factors of PTB include history of PTB, short cervical length (CL), multiple pregnancies, ethnicity, smoking, uterine anomaly and history of curettage or cervical conization. Among these risk factors, history of PTB, and short CL are the most important predictive factors...
September 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Anna Starowicz-Filip, Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Marek Moskała, Roger M Krzyżewski, Borys Kwinta, Stanisław Kwiatkowski, Olga Milczarek, Anna Rajtar-Zembaty, Dorota Przewoźnik
The present paper is a review of studies on the role of the cerebellum in the regulation of language functions. This brain structure until recently associated chiefly with motor skills, visual-motor coordination and balance, proves to be significant also for cognitive functioning. With regard to language functions, studies show that the cerebellum determines verbal fluency (both semantic and formal) expressive and receptive grammar processing, the ability to identify and correct language mistakes, and writing skills...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Lin Wang, Xiaobin Wang, Na Cai, Bin He, Qiuhua Wu, Wei Li, Liping Zhang, Xiaoping Ma, Rong Qiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic etiology for fetuses featuring intrauterine growth anomalies using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). METHODS: Forty-nine fetuses were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA of the abortive tissues was analyzed with aCGH. RESULTS: Fourteen (28.6%) samples were found with chromosomal aberrations, which included 8 chromosomal aneuploidies and 6 micro-aberrations (4 with known clinical pathogenecity and 2 with unknown clinical significance)...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
B S Harish, Kiran Babu Uppuluri
Serine protease inhibitors, inhibit serine proteases either partially or completely after forming complexes with their respective proteases. Protease actions are significant for many physiological pathways found in living forms and any anomalies may lead to numerous physiological complications. Each cell or organism has its own mechanism for controlling these protease actions. It is often regulated by the action of inhibitors or activators. Among the proteases, serine proteases are the most common that are involved in many life and death processes...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fabienne Gally, Deviyani M Rao, Carsten Schmitz, Kelley L Colvin, Michael E Yeager, Anne-Laure Perraud
Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome, DS) is the most common chromosomal anomaly. Although DS is mostly perceived as affecting cognitive abilities and cardiac health, individuals with DS also exhibit dysregulated immune functions. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are increased, but intrinsic alterations of innate immunity are understudied in DS. Furthermore, elevated Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are well documented in individuals with DS, further exacerbating inflammatory processes. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are often precursors of subsequent tissue destruction and pathologies, which affect a majority of persons with DS...
September 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jinghua Hu, Mengchun Pan, Jiafei Hu, Sizhong Li, Dixiang Chen, Wugang Tian, Kun Sun, Qingfa Du, Yuan Wang, Long Pan, Weihong Zhou, Qi Zhang, Peisen Li, Junping Peng, Weicheng Qiu, Jikun Zhou
Magnetic modulation methods especially Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) modulation can improve the sensitivity of magnetoresistive (MR) sensors dramatically, and pT level detection of Direct Current (DC) magnetic field can be realized. While in a Low Frequency Alternate Current (LFAC) magnetic field measurement situation, frequency measurement is limited by a serious spectrum aliasing problem caused by the remanence in sensors and geomagnetic field, leading to target information loss because frequency indicates the magnetic target characteristics...
September 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Xin Hao, Shengping He, Huijun Wang, Tingting Han
Increasing greenhouse gas concentration and ozone depletion are generally considered two important factors that affect the variability of the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). Here, we find that the first leading mode of sea surface temperature (SST) variability (rotated empirical orthogonal functions) shows a long-term upward trend from 1901 to 2004 and is closely related to the AAO index that is obtained using the observationally constrained reanalysis data. Further, regressions of the sea level pressure and the 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies, against the principle component associated with the long-term SST anomalies, display a seesaw behavior between the middle and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in austral winter, which is similar to the high polarity of the AAO...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
A A Sonzogni, E A McCutchan, A C Hayes
Current predictions for the antineutrino yield and spectra from a nuclear reactor rely on the experimental electron spectra from ^{235}U, ^{239}Pu, ^{241}Pu and a numerical method to convert these aggregate electron spectra into their corresponding antineutrino ones. In the present work we investigate quantitatively some of the basic assumptions and approximations used in the conversion method, studying first the compatibility between two recent approaches for calculating electron and antineutrino spectra. We then explore different possibilities for the disagreement between the measured Daya Bay and the Huber-Mueller antineutrino spectra, including the ^{238}U contribution as well as the effective charge and the allowed shape assumption used in the conversion method...
September 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yuhei Yokoyama, Masaaki Sato, Mitsugu Omasa, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: Building surgical strategies for complex lung anomalies such as congenital pulmonary venolobar syndrome is difficult because of their rarity and variance. Using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), we can determine strategies safely. We describe a 27-year-old man with multifocal pulmonary malformations who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) using 3D-CT. CASE PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old man presented with hemoptysis associated with complex pulmonary malformations, including a triple-arched vein connecting the superior and inferior pulmonary veins with partial drainage into the inferior vena cava, a systemic and numerous arterial supply to the right lower lobe from the abdominal aorta, abnormal lobulation, and a tracheal bronchus in the right lung...
September 25, 2017: Surgical Case Reports
Magdi H Yacoub, Ahmed Afifi, Hesham Saad, Heba Aguib, Ahmed ElGuindy
Surgical relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) requires more than septal myectomy. The procedure is currently the gold standard for all symptomatic HCM patients except those with comorbidities. The operation requires an individualized approach to restore the sophisticated functions of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) without injury to the surrounding vital structures. The procedure should be tailored to deal with all the varied components of the obstruction including fibrous trigones, accessory tissues, and papillary muscle fusion...
July 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Alexandra Gemitzi, Venkat Lakshmi
Groundwater is a resilient water source and its importance is even greater in periods of drought. Areas such as the Mediterranean where adverse climate change effects are expected are bell-weather locations for groundwater depletion and are of considerable interest. The present study evaluates renewable groundwater stress (RGS) as the ratio of groundwater use to groundwater availability, quantifying use as the trend in gravity recovery and climate experiment-derived (GRACE) subsurface anomalies (ΔGWtrend ) and renewable groundwater availability as mean annual recharge...
September 22, 2017: Ground Water
Neil Craton, Haitham Ali, Stephane Lenoski
Our understanding of the diverse physiological manifestations of concussion is changing rapidly. This has an influence on the clinical assessment of patients who have sustained a concussion. The 2017 Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport states that numerous post-injury clinical findings, such as cognitive deficits, post-traumatic headaches, dizziness, difficulties with oculomotor function, and depression have all been associated with a poorer prognosis in concussed patients. This demonstrates that there are several potential clinical manifestations after head injury warranting clinical evaluation...
September 16, 2017: Brain Sciences
A J Agopian, Jane A Evans, Philip J Lupo
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs...
September 19, 2017: Birth defects research
Hasnain Mehdi Jafri, Xingqiao Ma, Congpeng Zhao, Deshan Liang, Houbing Huang, Zhuhong Liu, Long-Qing Chen
Time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations were solved by finite difference scheme for a superconducting sample in steady and oscillating magnetic fields for three-dimensional geometry. Dynamic behaviour of penetrating and leaving magnetic vortices in superconductor with the oscillating magnetic field was simulated. Carrier concentration density and the average magnetization of the sample were studied as a function of external oscillating magnetic field. Anomalies in carrier concentration at certain magnetic field values were observed and discussed...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
M Á Aloy, J E Adsuara, P Cerdá-Durán, M Obergaulinger, J J Esteve-Taboada, T Ferrer-Blasco, R Montés-Micó
Measuring the eye's mechanical properties in vivo and with minimally invasive techniques can be the key for individualized solutions to a number of eye pathologies. The development of such techniques largely relies on a computational modelling of the eyeball and, it optimally requires the synergic interplay between experimentation and numerical simulation. In Astrophysics and Geophysics the remote measurement of structural properties of the systems of their realm is performed on the basis of (helio-)seismic techniques...
2017: PloS One
Chitralekha Patra, Naveen G Singh, N Manjunatha, Anand Bhatt
First described in 1908, anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery is a very rare congenital anomaly. Here, the right coronary artery is usually enlarged and has a normal origin from aorta. Numerous collaterals connect the two coronary arteries over right ventricular outflow tract or interventricular septum. It is one of the most common causes of myocardial ischaemia and infarction in children.
August 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Julien Moyé, Tanguy Picard-Lesteven, Lahcen Zouhri, Khalid El Amari, Mohamed Hibti, Abdelfattah Benkaddour
Many questions about the soil pollution due to mining activities have been analyzed by numerous methods which help to evaluate the dispersion of the Metallic Trace Elements (MTE) in the soil and stream sediments of the abandoned mine of Kettara (Morocco). The transport of these MTE could have an important role in the degradation of groundwater and the health of people who are living in the vicinity. The present paper aims to evaluate the groundwater samples from 15 hydrogeological wells. This evaluation concerns the hydrogeological parameters, pH, Electrical conductivity, temperature and the groundwater level, and the geochemical assessment of Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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