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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929154/the-effectiveness-of-cytisine-versus-nicotine-replacement-treatment-for-smoking-cessation-in-the-russian-federation
#1
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Silvia S Martins, Natalie Walker
BACKGROUND: There is just one study comparing the effectiveness of cytisine and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation. In the Russian Federation, both products are widely available as over-the-counter medications. Data on the real-world use of these medications among the general population would be informative. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from a nationally representative household survey of adults aged ≥ 15 years from the Russian Federation (part of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data)...
June 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928942/interventions-to-decrease-short-term-peripheral-venous-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-impact-on-incidence-and-mortality
#2
Patrick Saliba, Ana Hornero, Guillermo Cuervo, Immaculada Grau, Emilio Jimenez, Damaris Berbel, Purificación Martos, Juan Manuel Verge, Cristian Tebe, Jose María Martínez-Sánchez, Evelyn Shaw, Laura Gavaldà, Jordi Carratalà, Miquel Pujol
BACKGROUND: Short-term peripheral venous catheters are a significant source of health-care acquired bloodstream infections and a preventable cause of death. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of interventions applied to reduce the incidence and mortality associated with short peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (PVCR-BSI). METHODS: The intervention included continuous PVCR-BSI surveillance, implementation of preventive measures related to catheter insertion and maintenance in accordance with evidence-based recommendations and the hospital's own data, front-line staff educational campaigns, and assessment of adherence to hospital guidelines by ward rounds...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928941/nosocomial-outbreak-of-candida-parapsilosis-sensu-stricto-fungemia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-china
#3
Lihua Qi, Weihong Fan, Xian Xia, Lu Yao, Lirui Liu, Haiyan Zhao, Xiangyong Kong, Jie Liu
BACKGROUND: Candida parapsilosis is a common agew2nt of fungemia, but few outbreaks of Candida parapsilosis infection have been reported in China. AIM: This study aimed to elaborate an outbreak of nosocomial Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto fungemia in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a comprehensive hospital in China from July to October 2017. METHODS: Epidemics and characteristics of fungemia cases were investigated. Surveillance samples were collected...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928913/simultaneous-detection-and-quantification-of-19-diarrhea-related-pathogens-with-a-quantitative-real-time-pcr-panel-assay
#4
Warawan Wongboot, Kazuhisa Okada, Siriporn Chantaroj, Watcharaporn Kamjumphol, Shigeyuki Hamada
Acute diarrheal diseases are causes of global public health concern, especially in developing countries. A variety of diarrhea-associated microbial species, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, have been recognized. Simplified methods for detecting a wide range of diarrheagenic enteric microbes can clarify the etiology and aid in the diagnosis of diarrheal diseases. Here, we report a quantitative real-time (q)PCR-based method for simultaneous detection of 24 targets from 19 microbes suspected of causing diarrhea in stool specimens...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928852/oxygen-use-after-lung-cancer-surgery
#5
Daniel G Nicastri, Naomi Alpert, Bian Liu, Andrea Wolf, Emanuela Taioli, Benjamin V Tran, Raja Flores
BACKGROUND: There are no published reports on predictors of oxygen (O2 ) use after lung cancer surgery. The prospect of O2 use following lung cancer surgery may affect a patient's therapy choice. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results -Medicare (SEER-Medicare) dataset was queried to identify patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer (stage I/II) who underwent surgical resection from 1994-2010. Patients with a second resection within 6 months of their first and those with preoperative O2 use were excluded...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928615/the-impact-of-intra-operative-cell-salvage-during-open-radical-prostatectomy
#6
Ned Kinnear, Bridget Heijkoop, Lina Hua, Derek B Hennessey, Daniel Spernat
Background: To examine the effect of intra-operative cell salvage (ICS) in open radical prostatectomy. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, all patients undergoing open radical prostatectomy for malignancy at our institution between 10/04/2013 and 10/04/2017 were enrolled. Patients were grouped and compared based on whether they received ICS. Primary outcomes were allogeneic transfusion rates, and disease recurrence. Secondary outcomes were complications and transfusion-related cost...
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928281/-immuno-transient-receptor-potential-ion-channels-the-role-in-monocyte-and-macrophage-mediated-inflammatory-responses
#7
REVIEW
Giorgio Santoni, Maria Beatrice Morelli, Consuelo Amantini, Matteo Santoni, Massimo Nabissi, Oliviero Marinelli, Angela Santoni
Monocytes and macrophages play important roles in health and disease. They have a central role in protecting the host, as they clear pathogens and modulate other immune cell functions through the production of regulatory molecules. Their functions include immune surveillance, bacterial killing, tissue remodeling and repair, clearance of cell debris and more. Macrophages can have beneficial and detrimental effects on the outcome of several diseases depending on the microenvironment and the activation state of cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928025/malaria-during-pregnancy-and-newborn-outcome-in-an-unstable-transmission-area-in-brazil-a-population-based-record-linkage-study
#8
Jamille Gregório Dombrowski, Rodrigo Medeiros de Souza, Natércia Regina Mendes Silva, André Barateiro, Sabrina Epiphanio, Lígia Antunes Gonçalves, Claudio Romero Farias Marinho
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in tropical regions, causing maternal anemia, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth, and low birth weight (LBW). The integration of the information systems on pregnancy and malaria could prove to be a useful method of improved decision making for better maternal-child health. METHODS: A population-based observational study acquired information retrospectively from all live births that occurred between 2006 and 2014 in Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brazil)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927958/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-gram-negative-bacilli-isolated-from-intra-abdominal-and-urinary-tract-infections-in-mexico-from-2009-to-2015-results-from-the-study-for-monitoring-antimicrobial-resistance-trends-smart
#9
Alfredo Ponce-de-Leon, Eduardo Rodríguez-Noriega, Rayo Morfín-Otero, Dora P Cornejo-Juárez, Juan C Tinoco, Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Carmen J Gaona-Tapia, M Lourdes Guerrero-Almeida, Alexandra Martin-Onraët, José Luis Vallejo Cervantes, José Sifuentes-Osornio
Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing worldwide concern, which poses unique challenges for the effective prevention and treatment of several infections, especially the ones triggered by organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Here, we present the surveillance results of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from intra-abdominal infections (IAI, n = 1,235) and urinary-tract infections (UTI, n = 2,682), collected in Mexico from 2009 to 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927955/the-association-between-race-and-survival-in-glioblastoma-patients-in-the-us-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Andrew Bohn, Alexander Braley, Pura Rodriguez de la Vega, Juan Carlos Zevallos, Noël C Barengo
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain cancer in adults with an incidence of 3.4 per 100,000, making up about 15% of all brain tumors. Inconsistent results have been published in regard differences in survival between white and black glioblastoma patients. The objective of this to study the association between race and in Glioblastoma patients in the USA during 2010-2014. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database were used to evaluate race/ethnicity (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islanders non-Hispanic (API)) and Hispanic) adults patients with first-time diagnosis of glioblastoma (International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition [ICD-O-3], codes C711-C714, and histology type 9440/3) from 2010-2014...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927916/antimicrobial-resistance-among-shigella-in-new-zealand
#11
Helen Heffernan, Rosemary Woodhouse, Chris Hewison, Jillian Sherwood
AIM: We undertook a national survey to provide current information on antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolated in New Zealand. METHODS: Diagnostic laboratories are requested to refer all Shigella isolates to the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) for epidemiological typing as part of the national surveillance of shigellosis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 263 non-duplicate Shigella isolates referred to ESR in 2015 and 2016 was tested...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927909/self-reported-concussions-from-playing-a-sport-or-being-physically-active-among-high-school-students-united-states-2017
#12
Lara DePadilla, Gabrielle F Miller, Sherry Everett Jones, Alexis B Peterson, Matthew J Breiding
Increased susceptibility to concussions and longer recovery times among high school athletes compared with older athletes (1) make concussions among youths playing a sport or being physically active an area of concern. Short-term and long-term sequelae of concussions can include cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes (1). Surveillance methods used to monitor concussions among youths likely underestimate the prevalence. Estimates assessed from emergency departments miss concussions treated outside hospitals, those generated using high school athletic trainer reports miss concussions sustained outside of school-based sports (2), and both sources miss medically untreated concussions...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927908/strategic-response-to-an-outbreak-of-circulating-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-type-2-syria-2017-2018
#13
Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Zubair Mufti Wadood, Thomas Moran, Fazal Ather, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Joanna Nikulin, Mohammad Al Safadi, Jane Iber, Laurel Zomahoun, Nidal Abourshaid, Hong Pang, Nikki Collins, Humayun Asghar, Obaid Ul Islam Butt, Cara C Burns, Derek Ehrhardt, Magdi Sharaf
Since the 1988 inception of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has occurred mostly through extensive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and through routine immunization services (1,2). However, because OPV contains live, attenuated virus, it carries the rare risk for reversion to neurovirulence. In areas with very low OPV coverage, prolonged transmission of vaccine-associated viruses can lead to the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), which can cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927906/interval-since-last-hiv-test-for-men-and-women-with-recent-risk-for-hiv-infection-united-states-2006-2016
#14
Marc A Pitasi, Kevin P Delaney, Emeka Oraka, Heather Bradley, Elizabeth A DiNenno, John T Brooks, Joseph Prejean
Since 2006, CDC has recommended routine screening of all persons aged 13-64 years for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and at least annual rescreening of persons at higher risk (1). However, national surveillance data indicate that many persons at higher risk for HIV infection are not screened annually, and delays in diagnosis persist (2). CDC analyzed 2006-2016 data from the General Social Survey (GSS)* and estimated that only 39.6% of noninstitutionalized U.S. adults had ever tested for HIV. Among persons ever tested, the estimated median interval since last test was 1,080 days or almost 3 years...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927901/health-care-access-and-receipt-of-clinical-diabetes-preventive-care-for-working-age-adults-with-diabetes-in-states-with-and-without-medicaid-expansion-results-from-the-2013-and-2015-brfss
#15
Huabin Luo, Zhuo Adam Chen, Lei Xu, Ronny A Bell
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether the recent Medicaid expansion, as a natural experiment, was associated with better access to care and, as a consequence, better receipt of clinical diabetes care services. METHODS: Data were from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The analytical sample included 20 708 working-age adults with diabetes aged 18 to 64 years from 22 states. The outcome variables included 4 measures of access to care and 4 measures of receipt of clinical diabetes care services...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927898/cost-analysis-of-3-concurrent-public-health-response-events-financial-impact-of-measles-outbreak-super-bowl-surveillance-and-ebola-surveillance-in-maricopa-county
#16
J Mac McCullough, Nicole Fowle, Tammy Sylvester, Melissa Kretschmer, Aurimar Ayala, Saskia Popescu, Jolie Weiss, Bob England
OBJECTIVE: To generate estimates of the direct costs of mounting simultaneous emergency preparedness and response activities to respond to 3 major public health events. DESIGN: A cost analysis was performed from the perspective of the public health department using real-time activity diaries and retrospective time and activity self-reporting, wage and fringe benefit data, and financial records to track costs. SETTING: Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) in Arizona...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927712/case-series-rheumatological-manifestations-attributed-to-exposure-to-libby-asbestiform-amphiboles
#17
Roger Diegel, Brad Black, Jean C Pfau, Tracy McNew, Curtis Noonan, Raja Flores
An increased risk for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID) has been reported in Libby, Montana, where extensive exposures to fibrous amphiboles occurred due to mining and use of asbestos-laden vermiculite. In addition, positive antinuclear autoantibody tests are associated with exposure to Libby Asbestiform Amphiboles (LAA) in both humans and mice. Among 6603 subjects who underwent health screening at the Center for Asbestos Related Diseases (CARD, Libby MT), 13.8% were diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, with prevalence values for the most common SAID being significantly higher than expected in the United States...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927680/exploring-substance-use-and-impaired-driving-among-adults-aged-21-years-and-older-in-the-us-2015
#18
Amy Jewett, Alexis B Peterson, Erin K Sauber-Schatz
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol or drug impaired driving can cause motor vehicle crashes, injuries, and death. Estimates of drug impaired driving are difficult to obtain. This study explores self-reported prevalence of and factors associated with alcohol, marijuana, and prescription opioid use and impaired driving among adults aged 21 years and older in the U.S. METHODS: Self-reported data from 3,383 adults in the 2015 Fall ConsumerStyles survey were analyzed. Respondents were asked about alcohol, marijuana, and prescription opioid use and driving while impaired in the last 30 days...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927663/accuracy-of-five-systems-for-self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-in-the-hands-of-adult-lay-users-and-professionals-applying-iso-15197-2013-accuracy-criteria-and-potential-insulin-dosing-errors
#19
Nina Jendrike, Annette Baumstark, Stefan Pleus, Christina Liebing, Ulrike Kamecke, Cornelia Haug, Guido Freckmann
OBJECTIVE: In this study, accuracy in the hands of intended users was evaluated for five self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) systems based on ISO 15197:2013, and possibly related insulin dosing errors were calculated. In addition, accuracy was assessed in the hands of study personnel Methods: For each system (Accu-Chek® Aviva Connect (A), Contour® Next One (B), FreeStyle Freedom Lite (C), GlucoMen® areo (D), OneTouch® Verio® (E)) one test strip lot was evaluated as required by ISO 15197:2013, clause 8...
June 21, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927657/subsidized-housing-and-adult-asthma-in-boston-2010-2015
#20
Amar J Mehta, Daniel P Dooley, John Kane, Margaret Reid, Snehal N Shah
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether subsidized housing, specifically public housing and rental assistance, is associated with asthma in the Boston, Massachusetts, adult population. METHODS: We analyzed a pooled cross-sectional sample of 9554 adults taking part in 3 Boston Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys from 2010 to 2015. We estimated odds ratios for current asthma in association with housing status (public housing development [PHD] resident, rental assistance [RA] renter, non-RA renter, nonrenter nonowner, homeowner as reference) in logistic regression analyses adjusting for year, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
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