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Acute respiratory disease syndrome

Sanni Kumar, Ena Gupta, Sanket Kaushik, Anupam Jyoti
Neutrophils are the forerunner in innate immunity by defending the host organisms against infectious pathogens. During such process, neutrophils reach the site of inflammation/infection and eliminate the pathogens by phagocytosis as well as by forming the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs trap and eradicate a number of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses. NETs consist of DNA which is decorated with histones and granular proteins such as neutrophil elastase (NE), gelatinase, myeloperoxidase...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Y Hodovanets, A Babintseva, L Agafonova, O Makarova, A Frunza
Newborns are especially prone to oxidative stress (OS). Many free radical-mediated diseases have been described in newborns including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, encephalopathy, and kidney injury. Objective of this work was to determine predictive and diagnostic value of urinary malondialdehyde (UMDA) as a marker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically sick full-term newborns. 67 critically sick full-term neonates were enrolled in the study including 31 newborns with AKI (group I) and 36 newborns without AKI (group II)...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Megan Clancy, Ryan McGhan, Jeremy Gitomer, Ana Marie Inocencio, Christina Aldrich, Roberto Iaderosa, Ryan Stevens
PURPOSE: A case report of fatal disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient treated with eculizumab is presented along with a review of literature suggesting a possible etiologic mechanism. SUMMARY: A 23-year-old man with a history of minimal change nephrotic syndrome was hospitalized for acute kidney injury and abdominal pain and swelling. He was found to have disseminated pneumococcal disease, including peritonitis, bacteremia, and pulmonic endocarditis. The patient developed evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, leading to a diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and was started on eculizumab...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Sindy M Villacrés, Shivanand S Medar, Scott I Aydin
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill children and develops in association with organ system dysfunction, with acute respiratory failure (ARF) one of the most common. We aim to study AKI in the pediatric ARF population. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on children aged 1 day to 18 years admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ARF between 2010 and 2013. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses utilizing Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon signed rank, χ2 , or Fisher's exact tests were performed to identify risk factors associated with AKI...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Magdalena Materniak-Kornas, Aneta Pluta, Katarzyna Podgórska, Jens Nielsen, Tomasz Stadejek, Jacek Kuźmak
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is the cause of reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in young pigs, which has been considered as one of the most costly diseases to the worldwide pig industry for almost 30 years. This study used microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of PBMCs from experimentally infected pigs to explore the patterns of immune dysregulation after infection with two East European PRRSV strains from subtype 2 (BOR and ILI) in comparison to a Danish subtype 1 strain (DAN)...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Samantha Paramore
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a high-mortality disease with limited treatment options. Optimization of gas exchange while limiting damage to the lungs is key. The use of neuromuscular blocking agents may limit hypoxemia while preventing ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using Ovid Medline and the exploded MeSH terms ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neuromuscular blockade, neuromuscular blocking agents, and paralytics...
June 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Marcelo L M Pereira, Claudio R F Marinho, Sabrina Epiphanio
Malaria is a serious disease and was responsible for 429,000 deaths in 2015. Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is one of the main clinical complications of severe malaria; it is characterized by a high mortality rate and can even occur after antimalarial treatment when parasitemia is not detected. Rodent models of ALI/ARDS show similar clinical signs as in humans when the rodents are infected with murine Plasmodium . In these models, it was shown that the induction of the enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is protective against severe malaria complications, including cerebral malaria and ALI/ARDS...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Atul Vijay Palkar, Ankit Gupta, Yonatan Greenstein, Eric Gottesman
Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who presented with haemoptysis, cough and worsening dyspnoea. An intracardiac mass was visualised on echocardiogram. He was treated for diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome but died from refractory hypoxaemic respiratory failure leading to cardiac arrest. The diagnosis of primary cardiac angiosarcoma with haemorrhagic pulmonary metastases leading to diffuse alveolar damage was confirmed on autopsy...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Philippe Moreau, Maria-Victoria Mateos, James R Berenson, Katja Weisel, Antonio Lazzaro, Kevin Song, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Mei Huang, Anita Zahlten-Kumeli, A Keith Stewart
BACKGROUND: Twice a week carfilzomib at 27 mg/m2 is approved for treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Phase 1/2 CHAMPION-1, the first study exploring once-weekly carfilzomib dosing, established the maximum tolerated dose at 70 mg/m2 in combination with dexamethasone. We aimed to compare progression-free survival in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma given once weekly carfilzomib or twice weekly carfilzomib. METHODS: In this prespecified interim analysis of the randomised, open-label, phase 3 A...
May 31, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Paul G Auwaerter
The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a coronavirus capable of causing acute respiratory illness. Laboratory confirmed MERS-CoV cases may be asymptomatic, have mild disease or life-threatening infection with a high case fatality rate. There are three patterns of transmission: sporadic community cases from presumed non-human exposure, family clusters arising from contact with the infected family index case, and healthcare-acquired infections among patients and from patients to healthcare workers...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Zhihong Yuan, Brahmchetna Bedi, Ruxana T Sadikot
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represent a heterogeneous group of lung diseases which continues to have a high morbidity and mortality. The molecular pathogenesis of ALI is being better defined; however, because of the complex nature of the disease molecular therapies have yet to be developed. Here we use a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced mouse model of acute septic lung injury to delineate the role of exosomes in the inflammatory response. Using this model, we were able to show that mice that are exposed to intraperitoneal LPS secrete exosomes in Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from the lungs that are packaged with miRNA and cytokines which regulate inflammatory response...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Y Feng
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 7.5% of patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of hospitals are likely diagnosed with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), and more than one-third of the affected patients die with this disease. Despite the improvement in patient care with the availability of mechanical ventilators, mortality among these patients is unabated. Even though many drugs proved effective in preclinical studies, none is efficacious clinically, and no pharmacological treatment is insight...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Vipul J Patel, Sreeja Biswas Roy, Hiren J Mehta, Myungsoo Joo, Ruxana T Sadikot
Introduction: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by acute inflammation, microvascular damage, and increased pulmonary vascular and epithelial permeability, frequently resulting in acute respiratory failure and death. Current best practice for ARDS involves "lung-protective ventilation," which entails low tidal volumes and limiting the plateau pressures in mechanically ventilated patients. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ARDS, little progress has been made in the development of specific therapies to combat injury and inflammation...
2018: BioMed Research International
Konstantinos Bouchagier, Evangelos Solakis, Serafeim Klimopoulos, Theano Demesticha, Dimitrios Filippou, Panagiotis Skandalakis
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered as the gold standard in the treatment of gallbladder disease. Laparoscopy presents significant advantages including decreased hospital stay, better aesthetic results, faster rehabilitation, less pain, reduced cost, and increased patient satisfaction. The complications' prevalence is low; however, the overall serious complication rate seems to be higher compared to open cholecystectomy, despite the increasing experience. Diaphragmatic injury following laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an extremely rare complication, and a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary to diagnose this situation that has a variety of clinical presentations and might be life-threatening...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
Hiroshi Okamoto, Ko Onodera, Rikiya Kamba, Yusuke Taniyama, Tadashi Sakurai, Takahiro Heishi, Jin Teshima, Makoto Hikage, Chiaki Sato, Shota Maruyama, Yu Onodera, Hirotaka Ishida, Takashi Kamei
Background: The mortality rate of spontaneous esophageal rupture remains 20% to 40% due to severe respiratory failure. We have performed thoracoscopic surgery for esophageal disease at our department since 1994. Sivelestat sodium hydrate reportedly improves the pulmonary outcome in the patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of thoracoscopic surgery and perioperative administration of sivelestat sodium hydrate for spontaneous esophageal rupture in 12 patients who underwent thoracoscopy at our department between 2002 and 2014...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Yu Hara, Masaharu Shinkai, Masataka Taguri, Kenjiro Nagai, Satoru Hashimoto, Takeshi Kaneko
Background: Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an essential enzyme in heme catabolism and has been proposed as a biomarker of lung disease prognosis. We modified a commercial HO-1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit to achieve higher sensitivity and evaluated if serum HO-1 could be a biomarker to predict the prognosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 15 healthy volunteers to validate the modified ELISA...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
A Martín, O Ortega, M Roca, M Arús, P Clavé
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a newly defined geriatric syndrome that causes nutritional and respiratory complications in older hospitalized patients. Following hospital discharge, OD also causes hospital readmission and mortality in this population. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the effect of a minimal-massive intervention (MMI) in reducing nutritional and respiratory complications in older hospitalized patients with OD. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: An open label trial was performed on 186 hospitalized older patients (>70y) with OD; 62 of these patients with OD were treated with the MMI and paired by sex, age, functionality, comorbidities and body mass index with two controls...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Mingxia Ji, Tiejiang Chen, Baiming Wang, Mengyan Chen, Qianqian Ding, Lingchao Chen, Yuejuan Fang, Xiaofang Yu, Yanzhen Chen, Xiaohua Wang, Yiyue He, Yong Jiang
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a disease that seriously threatens human life and health. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of ulinastatin combined with mechanical ventilation on oxygen metabolism, inflammation and stress response, as well as the antioxidant capacity of ARDS. Eighty patients with ARDS treated in Yiwu Central Hospital from January, 2015 to December, 2016 were enrolled in the present study and divided into the observation (n=40) and control (n=40) groups, using a random number table...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ji Soo Park, Yun Jung Choi, Young Tae Kim, Samina Park, Jong-Hee Chae, June Dong Park, Yeon Jin Cho, Woo-Sun Kim, Moon-Woo Seong, Sung-Hye Park, Dohee Kwon, Doo Hyun Chung, Dong In Suh
Mutations of the surfactant protein (SP)-C gene ( SFTPC ) have been associated with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and childhood interstitial lung disease (ILD). If accurate diagnosis and proper management are delayed, irreversible respiratory failure demanding lung transplantation may ensue. A girl was born at term but was intubated and given exogenous surfactant due to RDS. Cough and tachypnea persisted, and symptoms rapidly progressed at 16 months of age despite treatment with antibiotics, oral prednisolone, methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and intravenous immunoglobulin...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Emmanuel Martinod, Kader Chouahnia, Dana M Radu, Pascal Joudiou, Yurdagul Uzunhan, Morad Bensidhoum, Ana M Santos Portela, Patrice Guiraudet, Marine Peretti, Marie-Dominique Destable, Audrey Solis, Sabiha Benachi, Anne Fialaire-Legendre, Hélène Rouard, Thierry Collon, Jacques Piquet, Sylvie Leroy, Nicolas Vénissac, Joseph Santini, Christophe Tresallet, Hervé Dutau, Georges Sebbane, Yves Cohen, Sadek Beloucif, Alexandre C d'Audiffret, Hervé Petite, Dominique Valeyre, Alain Carpentier, Eric Vicaut
Importance: Airway transplantation could be an option for patients with proximal lung tumor or with end-stage tracheobronchial disease. New methods for airway transplantation remain highly controversial. Objective: To establish the feasibility of airway bioengineering using a technique based on the implantation of stented aortic matrices. Design, Setting, and Participants: Uncontrolled single-center cohort study including 20 patients with end-stage tracheal lesions or with proximal lung tumors requiring a pneumonectomy...
May 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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