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Acute respiratory disease syndrome

Valentina Talarico, Monica Aloe, Alice Monzani, Roberto Miniero, Gianni Bona
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy defined by thrombocytopenia, non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. HUS is typically classified into two primary types: 1) HUS due to infections, often associated with diarrhea (D+HUS, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli-HUS), with the rare exception of HUS due to a severe disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus; 2) HUS related to complement, such HUS is also known as "atypical HUS" and is not diarrhea associated (D-HUS, aHUS); but recent studies have shown other forms of HUS, that can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Shearwood McClelland, Joseph F Baker, Justin S Smith, Breton G Line, Thomas J Errico, Christopher P Ames, R Shay Bess
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting over time to result in reduced mobility. The impact of PD on spinal fusion has yet to be addressed on a nationwide level. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2001 to 2012 was used for analysis. Admissions with spinal fusion of two or more vertebrae (ICD-9 codes=81.62, 81.63 and 81.64) were included and then stratified based on the presence or absence of PD (ICD-9 code=332.0); patients with cancer (ICD-9 codes=140-239) or trauma (ICD-9 codes=805...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Michele Carron
Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIV, compared with standard medical therapy, improves survival and reduces complications in selected patients with ARF. NIV represents the first-line intervention for some forms of ARF, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The use of NIV is also well supported for immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for infectious complications from endotracheal intubation...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Mine Düzgöl, Gülcihan Özek, Nuri Bayram, Yeşim Oymak, Ahu Kara, Bengü Demirağ, Tuba Hilkay Karapınar, Yılmaz Ay, Canan Vergin, İlker Devrim
Primary Varicella Zoster Virus infection is a benign self-limited disease. In this study, we aimed to review our experience with focusing on the outcome and treatment of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in pediatric malignancy patients. During the study period; a total of 41 patients with pediatric malignancy had been hospitalized with the diagnosis of VZV infection. All the patients were treated with intravenous acyclovir for a median of 7 days (ranging from 5 to 21 days). The calculated attributable delay of chemotherapy due to VZV infections was 8 days (ranging from 2 to 60 days)...
October 18, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Linfeng Qian, Junnan Zheng, Hongfei Xu, Liping Shi, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: Patients with respiratory failure caused by H7N9 may benefit from veno-venous, veno-arterial, and veno-veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. CASE SUMMARY: A 55-year-old male patient was suffering from H7N9-caused acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). He had a mechanical mitral and aortic valve replacement surgery and was using warfarin for anticoagulation. After prolonged mechanical ventilation, oxygen saturation was not improved...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mauro R Tucci, Eduardo L V Costa, Maria A M Nakamura, Caio C A Morais
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is commonly used to prevent endotracheal intubation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure who fail an NIV trial carry a worse prognosis as compared to those who succeed. Additional factors are also knowingly associated with worse outcomes: higher values of ICU severity score, presence of severe sepsis, and lower ratio of arterial oxygen tension to fraction of inspired oxygen. However, it is still unclear whether NIV failure is responsible for the worse prognosis or if it is merely a marker of the underlying disease severity...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Cyril Garrouste, Dany Anglicheau, Nassim Kamar, Claire Bachelier, Joseph Rivalan, Bruno Pereira, Sophie Caillard, Julien Aniort, Philippe Gatault, Martin Soubrier, Johnny Sayegh, Charlotte Colosio, Anthony Buisson, Eric Thervet, Nicolas Bouvier, Anne Elisabeth Heng
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) therapy has improved the prognosis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. It appears to be well-tolerated by liver-transplant patients. However, their use and their safety in kidney-transplant patients have yet to be determined.In this retrospective study, we identified 16 adult kidney-transplant patients aged 46.5 years (34-51.8) who received anti-TNFα therapy from 7 kidney transplantation centers. The indications for this treatment included: chronic inflammatory bowel disease (n = 8), inflammatory arthritis (n = 5), AA amyloidosis (n = 1), psoriasis (n = 1), and microscopic polyangiitis (n = 1)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Karla Köpke, Kerstin Prahm, Silke Buda, Walter Haas
BACKGROUND: Every year epidemic waves of influenza and other acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause a highly variable burden of disease in the population. Thus, assessment of the situation and adaptation of prevention strategies have to rely on real time syndromic surveillance. OBJECTIVE: We have established an ICD-10-based electronic system allowing rapid capture and transmission of information on ARI (SEED(ARI)), in Germany. Here we report the evaluation of this new system based on results of the syndromic and virologic surveillance carried out by the working group on influenza in Germany (AGI)...
October 13, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Christos Panayi, Nagui Antoun, Richard Sandford
A 44-year-old woman with a history of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, a rare inherited neoplasia syndrome, presented acutely to hospital with a productive cough, symptoms of respiratory tract infection and odynophagia (painful swallowing). A chest X-ray confirmed right-sided pneumonia. Investigation of the persistent odynophagia using barium swallow revealed aspiration of the contrast into the lungs and suggested a neurological cause for her chest infection. Clinical assessment and speech and language therapy confirmed a pseudobulbar palsy...
October 13, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Pablo G Sanchez, Chetan Pasrija, Matthew J Mulligan, Mandheer Wadhwa, Diana L Pratt, Tieluo Li, James S Gammie, Zachary N Kon, Si M Pham, Bartley P Griffith
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to create a reproducible lung injury model utilizing injection of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular products. Our goal was to characterize the pathophysiologic response to damage-associated molecular pattern mediated organ injury. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: There remain significant gaps in our understanding of acute respiratory distress syndrome, in part due to the lack of clinically applicable animal models of this disease. Animal models of noninfectious, tissue damage-induced lung injury are needed to understand the signals and responses associated with this injury...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Nathalia M Pinheiro, Fernanda P R Santana, Rafael Ribeiro Almeida, Marina Guerreiro, Milton A Martins, Luciana C Caperuto, Niels O S Câmara, Lislaine A Wensing, Vânia F Prado, Iolanda F L C Tibério, Marco Antônio M Prado, Carla M Prado
Nicotinic α-7 acetylcholine receptor (nAChRα7) is a critical regulator of cholinergic anti-inflammatory actions in several diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Given the potential importance of α7nAChR as a therapeutic target, we evaluated whether PNU-282987, an α7nAChR agonist, is effective in protecting the lung against inflammation. We performed intratracheal instillation of LPS to generate acute lung injury (ALI) in C57BL/6 mice. PNU-282987 treatment, either before or after ALI induction, reduced neutrophil recruitment and IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and IL-10 cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0...
October 11, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Valerie R Madden, Gretchen L Schoeffler
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinically significant thromboembolism as the result of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: A 3-year-old neutered female Boxer was evaluated for 2-week history of progressive respiratory difficulty and hemoptysis. A brief thoracic ultrasound performed shortly after presentation identified a presumed thrombus within the left atrium. Initial blood work revealed a marked eosinophilia 6.8 × 10(9) /L (6.8 × 10(3) /μL; reference interval, 0...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Hui Wang, XinCai Xiao, Jianyun Lu, Zongqiu Chen, Kuibiao Li, Hui Liu, Lei Luo, Ming Wang, ZhiCong Yang
BACKGROUND: Guangzhou reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of influenza A (H7N9) on January 10, 2014. A total of 25 cases were reported from the first wave of the epidemic until April 8, 2014. The fatality rate was much higher than in previous reports. The objective of the current work was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of A (H7N9) patients in Guangzhou and explore possible reasons for the high fatality rate. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological information regarding A (H7N9) cases in Guangzhou was collected through review of medical records and field research...
October 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
A Abubakar, M Malik, R G Pebody, A A Elkholy, W Khan, A Bellos, P Mala
There are gaps in the knowledge about the burden of severe respiratory disease in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This literature review was therefore conducted to describe the burden of epidemicand pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the Region which may help in the development of evidence-based disease prevention and control policies. Relevant published and unpublished reports were identified from searches of various databases; 83 documents fulfilled the search criteria. The infections identified included: ARI, avian influenza A(H5N1), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
L Enjuanes, S Zuñiga, C Castaño-Rodriguez, J Gutierrez-Alvarez, J Canton, I Sola
Virus vaccines have to be immunogenic, sufficiently stable, safe, and suitable to induce long-lasting immunity. To meet these requirements, vaccine studies need to provide a comprehensive understanding of (i) the protective roles of antiviral B and T-cell-mediated immune responses, (ii) the complexity and plasticity of major viral antigens, and (iii) virus molecular biology and pathogenesis. There are many types of vaccines including subunit vaccines, whole-inactivated virus, vectored, and live-attenuated virus vaccines, each of which featuring specific advantages and limitations...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
E Kindler, V Thiel, F Weber
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are the most severe coronavirus (CoV)-associated diseases in humans. The causative agents, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are of zoonotic origin but may be transmitted to humans, causing severe and often fatal respiratory disease in their new host. The two coronaviruses are thought to encode an unusually large number of factors that allow them to thrive and replicate in the presence of efficient host defense mechanisms, especially the antiviral interferon system...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Devin M Boe, Lisbeth A Boule, Elizabeth J Kovacs
The world is undergoing an unprecedented shift in demographics, with the number of individuals over the age of 60 projected to reach 2 billion or more by 2050, representing 22% of the global population. The elderly are at a higher risk for chronic disease and more susceptible to infection, due in part to age-related dysfunction of the immune system resulting from low-grade chronic inflammation known as "inflamm-aging". The innate immune system of older individuals exhibits a diminished ability to respond to microbial threats and clear infections, resulting in a greater occurrence of many infectious diseases in the elderly...
October 6, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Kevin Gipson, Ryan Avery, Heena Shah, Derek Pepiak, Rodolfo E Bégué, John Malone, Luke A Wall
Löffler syndrome, a fulminant eosinophilic pneumonitis associated with the larval migratory phase of human parasites, is rarely reported in the United States. A previously healthy 8-year-old male was hospitalized with tachypnea, cough, hypoxemia, and fever of one week's duration. History revealed exposure to pigs on his family's farm in southernmost Louisiana, where the patient was responsible for cleaning the farm's pigpens. His fingernails were soiled and extremely short, with the edge of the nail bed exposed secondary to onychophagia...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
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