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Prostatic cancer treatment

Jeff M Michalski, Jennifer Moughan, James Purdy, Walter Bosch, Deborah W Bruner, Jean-Paul Bahary, Harold Lau, Marie Duclos, Matthew Parliament, Gerard Morton, Daniel Hamstra, Michael Seider, Michael I Lock, Malti Patel, Hiram Gay, Eric Vigneault, Kathryn Winter, Howard Sandler
Importance: Optimizing radiation therapy techniques for localized prostate cancer can affect patient outcomes. Dose escalation improves biochemical control, but no prior trials were powered to detect overall survival (OS) differences. Objective: To determine whether radiation dose escalation to 79.2 Gy compared with 70.2 Gy would improve OS and other outcomes in prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: The NRG Oncology/RTOG 0126 randomized clinical trial randomized 1532 patients from 104 North American Radiation Therapy Oncology Group institutions March 2002 through August 2008...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Marc Pretze, Andreas Hien, Matthias Raedle, Ralf Schirrmacher, Carmen Wängler, Björn Wängler
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have widely been used for 70 years in cancer treatment, but only in the last 15 years the focus has been on specific AuNPs with homogeneous size and shape for various areas in science. They constitute a perfect platform for multi-functionalization and therefore enable the enhancement of target affinity. Here we report on the development of tumor specific AuNPs as diagnostic tools intended for the detection of prostate cancer via fluorescence imaging and positron emission tomography (PET)...
March 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Giorgio Ivan Russo, Simone Bier, Jörg Hennenlotter, Gunthild Beger, Lucretia Pavlenco, Jens van de Flierdt, Siegfried Hauch, Moritz Maas, Simon Walz, Steffen Rausch, Jens Bedke, Giuseppe Morgia, Arnulf Stenzl, Tilman Todenhöfer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of circulating tumour cells (CTC) at different stages of prostate cancer (PC) using the ProstateCancerDetect kit. Moreover, we aimed to assess the expression of transcripts that are specific for cancer stem cells (AdnaTest StemCell) and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CTC (AdnaTest EMT) as well as additional genes that are known to promote PC progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we included 81 patients who underwent treatment for PC between 07/2014 and 02/2015, including A) 18 patients (22...
March 15, 2018: BJU International
Junchao Chen, Clara Oromendia, Joshua A Halpern, Karla V Ballman
PURPOSE: Recent years have brought many changes in the management of localized prostate cancer as national screening guidelines have been updated and diagnostic practice patterns evolved. We sought to better understand how the changing landscape influenced treatment utilization in the United States. METHODS: We used the SEER database in this retrospective analysis of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer between 2004 and 2013. We evaluated utilization of primary treatment modalities over time with descriptive and trend analyses, and examined treatment utilization by cancer risk group and age at diagnosis...
March 14, 2018: Prostate
Marc A Furrer, Antoni Vilaseca, Renato B Corradi, Silvan Boxler, George N Thalmann, Daniel P Nguyen
BACKGROUND: A growing number of men undergo repeat biopsies prior to radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. However, the long-term impact of repeat biopsies on functional outcomes in this patient population remains unelucidated. Thus, we compared functional outcomes between patients who underwent single biopsy versus repeat biopsies before radical prostatectomy. METHODS: From 1996 to 2015, 1015 consecutive patients underwent radical prostatectomy, and subsequently had urinary continence and erectile function assessed for >2 years follow-up...
March 14, 2018: Prostate
Stephanie N David, Shanna A Arnold Egloff, Rajen Goyal, Peter E Clark, Sharon Phillips, Lan L Gellert, Omar Hameed, Giovanna A Giannico
BACKGROUND: Membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2 (MAGI2) promotes the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Recent studies suggest that dysregulation of this signaling pathway has a role in prostate carcinogenesis. Our study aims to determine the prognostic significance of MAGI2 expression in prostate cancer. METHODS: Tissue microarrays from 51 radical prostatectomy cases including benign prostatic tissue, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and adenocarcinoma were constructed...
March 14, 2018: Prostate
Keisuke Usui, Keisuke Sasai, Koichi Ogawa
This study aimed to verify the validity of generating treatment plans for volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a dose calculation algorithm in Acuros XB (Eclipse version 13.6; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) based on deterministically solving the linear Boltzmann transport equations. Four different classes were applied to prostate MR images: MRW (all water equivalent); MRW+B (water and bone); MRS+B (soft tissue and bone); and MRS+B+G (soft tissue, bone, and rectal gas)...
March 14, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Kambiz Rahbar, Ali Afshar-Oromieh, Martin Bögemann, Stefan Wagner, Michael Schäfers, Lars Stegger, Matthias Weckesser
PURPOSE: PSMA-targeted PET in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) has a significant impact on treatment decisions. By far the most frequently used PSMA ligand is68 Ga-labelled PSMA-11. However, due to the availability of larger amounts of activity,18 F-labelled PSMA ligands are of major interest. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biodistribution and performance of the novel18 F-labelled ligand PSMA-1007 at two different time points. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included 40 consecutive patients (mean age 68...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Suk Young Lee, Sang Hee Choi
Intravesical BCG therapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) is considered the most effective treatment for prophylaxis against the recurrence of high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, and generally well tolerated and infectious complication are rare. We reported a case of granulomatous prostatitis is a patient who had undergone intravesical BCG therapy due to non-invasive superficial urothelial carcinoma of bladder. This patient was diagnosed by prostate biopsy because of PSA elevation without any other voiding symptoms and abnormal abscess pocket in transrectal ultrasonography...
March 2018: Urology Case Reports
Muhammad Shuja, Ayman A Elghazaly, Asif Iqbal, Reham Mohamed, Amal Marie, Mutahir A Tunio, Moamen M Aly, Ali Balbaid, Mushabbab Asiri
Introduction Bone metastasis (BM) is a major complication of many solid tumors like breast, prostate, lung and renal cancers. BM leads to serious sequelae of pain, fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. Radiotherapy has an established role in relieving pain caused by BM. Worldwide different radiotherapy schedules are being used for BM. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of single fraction palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastases. Methods Between April 2014 and April 2017, single fraction radiotherapy was used to treat 73 patients in our institution...
January 8, 2018: Curēus
Masato Yasui, Yoriko Hasegawa, Takashi Kawahara, Yohei Kumano, Yasuhide Miyoshi, Nobuaki Matsubara, Hiroji Uemura
Abiraterone acetate (AA), a CYP17 inhibitor, now has a crucial role in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and previous studies have reported several prognostic clinical factors for AA treatment. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has also been investigated for a CRPC treatments in a few reports, however it has not been identified to be a prognostic factor for AA treatment in Japanese patients. The present study aimed to assess the association of the baseline NLR with the overall survival (OS) in CPRC patients treated by AA...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Masumeh Sanaei, Fraidoon Kavoosi, Ali Valiani, Mohamed Amin Ghobadifar
Background: One of the main causes of mortality is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which accounts for the third leading cause of deaths and one in forty deaths worldwide. The flavonoids, natural antioxidant compounds, account for a major group of polyphenolic compounds. One of the major isoflavones in soybean is genistein (GE) which can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. Isoflavones, major type of phenolic materials, derived from dietary plants and medicinal herbs play a significant role in cancer prevention and treatment...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Michael V Fiandalo, John J Stocking, Elena A Pop, John H Wilton, Krystin M Mantione, Yun Li, Kristopher M Attwood, Gissou Azabdaftari, Yue Wu, David S Watt, Elizabeth M Wilson, James L Mohler
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is palliative and prostate cancer (CaP) recurs as lethal castration-recurrent/resistant CaP (CRPC). One mechanism that provides CaP resistance to ADT is primary backdoor androgen metabolism, which uses up to four 3α-oxidoreductases to convert 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (DIOL) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The goal was to determine whether inhibition of 3α-oxidoreductase activity decreased conversion of DIOL to DHT. Protein sequence analysis showed that the four 3α-oxidoreductases have identical catalytic amino acid residues...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Tony Tong-Lin Wu, Yat-Ching Tong, I-Hung Chen, Ho-Shan Niu, Yingxiao Li, Juei-Tang Cheng
The therapeutic action of ginsenoside Rh2 on several cancer models has been reported. This study aimed to evaluate its apoptotic effect on prostate cancer and the underlying mechanism. Cultured DU145 cells were treated with Rh2 (5 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-4 M), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) antagonist GSK0660 (1 × 10-6 to 5 × 10-6 M); or small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PPAR-delta. The treatment effects were evaluated with cell viability assay, life/death staining and flow cytometry for apoptosis...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Qiuping Xiang, Yan Zhang, Jiaguo Li, Xiaoqian Xue, Chao Wang, Ming Song, Cheng Zhang, Rui Wang, Chenchang Li, Chun Wu, Yulai Zhou, Xiaohong Yang, Guohui Li, Ke Ding, Yong Xu
Prostate cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The bromodomain and extra terminal domain (BET) family proteins have emerged as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. A series of 2,2-dimethyl-2 H -benzo[ b ][1,4]oxazin-3(4 H )-one derivatives were designed and synthesized as selective bromodomain containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitors. The compounds potently inhibit BRD4(1) with nanomolar IC50 values and exhibit high selectivity over most non-BET subfamily members...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Peng Hao, Bo Kang, Guoqing Yao, Wenqi Hao, Feihong Ma
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) is frequently associated with cancer progression. Altered expression of miR-211 has been observed in various types of human cancer; however, its expression and role in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unknown. In the present study, the expression of miR-211 in PCa cell lines and tissues was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qPCR), revealing that miR-211 was downregulated in PCa cell lines and tissues. Further analysis revealed that low miR-211 was associated with the tumor stage and Gleason score...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Bin Chen, Wenqi Zhang, Bin Ji, Qingjie Ma, Dandan Li, Shi Gao
The present study aimed to determine the utility of99m Tc-3PRGD2 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) for the non-invasive monitoring of the response of integrin αv β3 expression to anti-angiogenic treatment with bevacizumab. Bevacizumab or vehicle therapy was performed in athymic nu/nu mice bearing A549 lung tumors (moderately high integrin αv β3 expression) or PC-3 prostate tumors (low integrin αv β3 expression) at a dose of 1 mg twice a week. The average tumor volume was 180±90 mm3 the day prior to baseline SPECT/CT...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Tao Liu, Yixiang Liao, Huangheng Tao, Jinmin Zeng, Gang Wang, Zhonghua Yang, Yongzhi Wang, Yu Xiao, Jiajie Zhou, Xinghuan Wang
Several studies have shown that transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), which has been regarded as a novel prostate-specific marker, serves a key role in processes such as the proliferation, viability and cell migration of prostate cancer cells. Efforts have been made to uncover the potential role of targeting TRPM8 in the management of prostate cancer; it has been verified that TRPM8-targeted blockade, either by RNA interference-mediated depletion or specific TRPM8 inhibitors, could reduce the rate of proliferation and proliferative fraction, and induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Rachana Patel, Janis Fleming, Ernest Mui, Carolyn Loveridge, Peter Repiscak, Arnaud Blomme, Victoria Harle, Mark Salji, Imran Ahmad, Katy Teo, Freddie C Hamdy, Ann Hedley, Niels van den Broek, Gillian Mackay, Joanne Edwards, Owen J Sansom, Hing Y Leung
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a lethal form of treatment-resistant prostate cancer and poses significant therapeutic challenges. Deregulated receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling mediated by loss of tumour suppressor Sprouty2 (SPRY2) is associated with treatment resistance. Using pre-clinical human and murine mCRPC models, we show that SPRY2 deficiency leads to an androgen self-sufficient form of CRPC Mechanistically, HER2-IL6 signalling axis enhances the expression of androgen biosynthetic enzyme HSD3B1 and increases SRB1-mediated cholesterol uptake in SPRY2-deficient tumours...
March 14, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Saira Khan, Veronica Hicks, Danielle Rancilio, Marvin Langston, Katina Richardson, Bettina F Drake
Long-term follow-up care among prostate cancer patients is important as biochemical recurrence can occur many years after diagnosis, with 20%-30% of men experiencing biochemical recurrence within 10 years of treatment. This study examined predictors of follow-up care among 1,158 radical prostatectomy patients, treated at the Washington University in St. Louis, within 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years post surgery. Predictors examined included age at surgery, race (Black vs. White), rural/urban status, education, marital status, and prostate cancer aggressiveness...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
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