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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645748/developmental-and-genetic-mechanisms-of-neural-circuit-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Maria Antonietta Tosches
No matter how a nervous system is genetically built, natural selection acts on the functional outcome of its activity. To understand how nervous systems evolve, it is essential to analyze how their functional units - the neural circuits - change and adapt over time. Different developmental and genetic mechanisms participate to the structural evolution of neural circuits. These mechanisms involve regulatory changes at the level of different gene sets. Functional constraints on neural circuit evolution suggest that these mechanisms are not employed randomly, and that the evolution of neuroanatomy might be biased...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644712/comparative-analysis-of-behavioral-and-transcriptional-variation-underlying-co2-sensory-neuron-function-and-development-in-drosophila
#2
Jia Wern Pan, Joi McLaughlin, Haining Yang, Charles Leo, Paula Rambarat, Sumie Okuwa, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Sabrina Clark, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages...
June 23, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643166/structural-disorder-in-plant-proteins-where-plasticity-meets-sessility
#3
REVIEW
Alejandra A Covarrubias, Cesar L Cuevas-Velazquez, Paulette S Romero-Pérez, David F Rendón-Luna, Caspar C C Chater
Plants are sessile organisms. This intriguing nature provokes the question of how they survive despite the continual perturbations caused by their constantly changing environment. The large amount of knowledge accumulated to date demonstrates the fascinating dynamic and plastic mechanisms, which underpin the diverse strategies selected in plants in response to the fluctuating environment. This phenotypic plasticity requires an efficient integration of external cues to their growth and developmental programs that can only be achieved through the dynamic and interactive coordination of various signaling networks...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#4
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639422/medaka-and-zebrafish-contactin1-mutants-as-a-model-for-understanding-neural-circuits-for-motor-coordination
#5
Miki Takeuchi, Chikako Inoue, Akiko Goshima, Yusuke Nagao, Koichi Shimizu, Hiroki Miyamoto, Takashi Shimizu, Hisashi Hashimoto, Shigenobu Yonemura, Atsuo Kawahara, Yutaka Hirata, Masayuki Yoshida, Masahiko Hibi
A spontaneous medaka ro mutant shows abnormal wobbling and rolling swimming behaviors. By positional cloning, we mapped the ro locus to a region containing the gene encoding Contactin1b (Cntn1b), which is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-superfamily domain-containing membrane-anchored protein. The ro mutant had a deletion in the cntn1b gene that introduced a premature stop codon. Furthermore, cntn1b mutants generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system and trans-heterozygotes of the CRISPR mutant allele and ro had abnormal swimming behavior, indicating that the cntn1b gene was responsible for the ro-mutant phenotype...
June 22, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633563/mammalian-synthetic-biology-engineering-biological-systems
#6
Joshua B Black, Pablo Perez-Pinera, Charles A Gersbach
The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633050/the-adenosine-mediated-neuronal-glial-homeostatic-sleep-response
#7
REVIEW
Robert W Greene, Theresa E Bjorness, Ayako Suzuki
Slow wave activity (SWA) during slow wave sleep (SWS) is the best indicator of the sleep homeostasis. The intensity of the SWA observed during SWS that follows prolonged waking is directly correlated with the duration of prior waking and its intensity decays during SWS suggesting a buildup and a resolution of sleep need. This sleep-homeostasis related SWA results from a buildup and decay of extracellular adenosine that acts at neuronal adenosine A1 receptors to facilitate SWA and is metabolized by adenosine kinase found in glia...
June 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632163/melatonin-as-a-novel-interventional-candidate-for-fragile-x-syndrome-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#8
REVIEW
Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sookyoung Park, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr) gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631858/sensory-response-in-host-and-engrafted-astrocytes-of-adult-brain-in-vivo
#9
REVIEW
Kuan Zhang, Xiaowei Chen
Rapid advances in Ca(2+) imaging techniques enable us to simultaneously monitor the activities of hundreds of astrocytes in the intact brain, thus providing a powerful tool for understanding the functions of both host and engrafted astrocytes in sensory processing in vivo. These techniques include both improved Ca(2+) indicators and advanced optical recording methods. Astrocytes in multiple cortical and sub-cortical areas are able to respond to the corresponding sensory modalities. These sensory stimuli produce astrocytic Ca(2+) responses through different cellular mechanisms...
June 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631008/regulation-of-neural-circuit-formation-by-protocadherins
#10
REVIEW
Stacey L Peek, Kar Men Mah, Joshua A Weiner
The protocadherins (Pcdhs), which make up the most diverse group within the cadherin superfamily, were first discovered in the early 1990s. Data implicating the Pcdhs, including ~60 proteins encoded by the tandem Pcdha, Pcdhb, and Pcdhg gene clusters and another ~10 non-clustered Pcdhs, in the regulation of neural development have continually accumulated, with a significant expansion of the field over the past decade. Here, we review the many roles played by clustered and non-clustered Pcdhs in multiple steps important for the formation and function of neural circuits, including dendrite arborization, axon outgrowth and targeting, synaptogenesis, and synapse elimination...
June 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630298/hypocretin-orexin-is-critical-in-sustaining-theta-gamma-rich-waking-behaviors-that-drive-sleep-need
#11
Anne Vassalli, Paul Franken
Hcrt gene inactivation in mice leads to behavioral state instability, abnormal transitions to paradoxical sleep, and cataplexy, hallmarks of narcolepsy. Sleep homeostasis is, however, considered unimpaired in patients and narcoleptic mice. We find that whereas Hcrt(ko/ko) mice respond to 6-h sleep deprivation (SD) with a slow-wave sleep (SWS) EEG δ (1.0 to 4.0 Hz) power rebound like WT littermates, spontaneous waking fails to induce a δ power reflecting prior waking duration. This correlates with impaired θ (6...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#12
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628196/molecular-mechanisms-of-experience-dependent-maturation-in-cortical-gabaergic-inhibition
#13
REVIEW
M Ridzwana Begum, Judy C G Sng
Critical periods (CP) in early postnatal life are periods of plasticity during which the neuronal circuitry is most receptive to environmental stimuli. These early experiences translate to a more permanent and sophisticated neuronal connection in the adult brain systems. Multiple studies have pointed to the development of inhibitory circuitry as one of the central factors for the onset of critical periods. We discuss several molecular mechanisms regulating inhibitory circuit maturation and CP, from gene transcription level to protein signaling level...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626222/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-renal-ageing
#14
REVIEW
Paul G Shiels, Dagmara McGuinness, Maria Eriksson, Jeroen P Kooman, Peter Stenvinkel
An ability to separate natural ageing processes from processes specific to morbidities is required to understand the heterogeneity of age-related organ dysfunction. Mechanistic insight into how epigenetic factors regulate ageing throughout the life course, linked to a decline in renal function with ageing, is already proving to be of value in the analyses of clinical and epidemiological cohorts. Noncoding RNAs provide epigenetic regulatory circuits within the kidney, which reciprocally interact with DNA methylation processes, histone modification and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625986/the-irr-and-rira-proteins-participate-in-a-complex-regulatory-circuit-and-act-in-concert-to-modulate-bacterioferritin-expression-in-ensifer-meliloti-1021
#15
Daniela Costa, Vanesa Amarelle, Claudio Valverde, Mark R O'Brian, Elena Fabiano
In this work we found that the bfr gene of the rhizobial species Ensifer meliloti, encoding a bacterioferritin iron storage protein, is involved in iron homeostasis and oxidative stress response. This gene is located downstream and overlapping the smc03787 ORF. No well predicted RirA or Irr boxes were found in the region immediately upstream the bfr gene although two presumptive RirA boxes and one presumptive Irr box were present in the putative promoter of smc03787 We demonstrate that bfr gene expression is enhanced under iron sufficient condition and that Irr and RirA modulate this expression...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625870/pax3-and-pax7-mediated-dbx1-regulation-orchestrates-the-patterning-of-intermediate-spinal-interneurons
#16
Chris Gard, Gloria Gonzalez Curto, Youcef El-Mokhtar Frarma, Elodie Chollet, Nathalie Duval, Valentine Auzié, Frédéric Auradé, Lisa Vigier, Frédéric Relaix, Alessandra Pierani, Frédéric Causeret, Vanessa Ribes
Transcription factors are key orchestrators of the emergence of neuronal diversity within the developing spinal cord. As such, the two paralogous proteins Pax3 and Pax7 regulate the specification of progenitor cells within the intermediate neural tube, by defining a neat segregation between those fated to form motor circuits and those involved in the integration of sensory inputs. To attain insights into the molecular means by which they control this process, we have performed detailed phenotypic analyses of the intermediate spinal interneurons (IN), namely the dI6, V0D, V0VCG and V1 populations in compound null mutants for Pax3 and Pax7...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625564/crispr-system-in-filamentous-fungi-current-achievements-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Huaxiang Deng, Ruijie Gao, Xiangru Liao, Yujie Cai
As eukaryotes, filamentous fungi share many features with humans, and they produce numerous active metabolites, some of which are toxic. Traditional genetic approaches are generally inefficient, but the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system that has been widely used for basic research on bacteria, mammals and plants offers a simple, fast, versatile technology for systemic research on filamentous fungi. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on Cas9 and its variants, different ways used to detect off-target, and different approaches used to express and transform the CRISPR complex...
June 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624275/nuclear-receptor-subfamily-1-group-h-member-2-lxrb-is-the-predominant-liver-x-receptor-subtype-regulating-transcription-of-2-major-lipogenic-genes-in-goat-primary-mammary-epithelial-cells
#18
H B Shi, C H Zhang, Z A Xu, X F Xu, Z B Lv, J Luo, J J Loor
In ruminants, recent research has identified a crucial role for liver X receptors (LXR) in regulating lipid metabolism in mammary cells. However, the differences between LXR subtypes in regulating ruminant lipid metabolism are unknown. We used overexpression and knockdown of LXRA and LXRB in goat primary mammary epithelial cells to distinguish subtype-specific regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA expression and their promoter activity. Incubation with siRNA targeting LXR decreased expression of LXRA and LXRB...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623594/ode-based-modeling-of-complex-regulatory-circuits
#19
Daniel D Seaton
Transcriptional regulatory circuits are often complex, consisting of many components and regulatory interactions. Mathematical modeling is an important tool for understanding the behavior of these circuits, and identifying gaps in our understanding of gene regulation. Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are a commonly used formalism for constructing mathematical models of complex regulatory networks. Here, I outline the steps involved in developing, parameterizing, and testing an ODE model of a gene regulatory network...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622629/bacterial-community-dynamics-in-a-cooling-tower-with-emphasis-on-pathogenic-bacteria-and-legionella-species-using-universal-and-genus-specific-deep-sequencing
#20
Rui P A Pereira, Jörg Peplies, Manfred G Höfle, Ingrid Brettar
Cooling towers are the major source of outbreaks of legionellosis in Europe and worldwide. These outbreaks are mostly associated with Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila, and its surveillance in cooling tower environments is of high relevance to public health. In this study, a combined NGS-based approach was used to study the whole bacterial community, specific waterborne and water-based bacterial pathogens, especially Legionella species, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This approach was applied to water from a cooling tower obtained by monthly sampling during two years...
June 6, 2017: Water Research
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