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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917658/multiple-events-of-gene-manipulation-via-in-pouch-electroporation-in-a-marsupial-model-of-mammalian-forebrain-development
#1
Annalisa Paolino, Laura R Fenlon, Peter Kozulin, Linda J Richards, Rodrigo Suárez
BACKGROUND: The technique of in utero electroporation has been widely used in eutherians, such as mice and rats, to investigate brain development by selectively manipulating gene expression in specific neuronal populations. A major challenge, however, is that surgery is required to access the embryos, affecting animal survival and limiting the number of times it can be performed within the same litter. New method: Marsupials are born at an early stage of brain development as compared to eutherians...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#2
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912162/regional-cellular-environment-shapes-phenotypic-variations-of-hippocampal-and-neocortical-chandelier-cells
#3
Yugo Ishino, Michael J Yetman, Serena M Sossi, André Steinecke, Yasufumi Hayano, Hiroki Taniguchi
Different cortical regions processing distinct information, such as the hippocampus and the neocortex, share common cellular components and circuit motifs but form unique networks by modifying these cardinal units. Cortical circuits include diverse types of GABAergic interneurons (INs) that shape activity of excitatory principal neurons (PNs). Canonical IN types conserved across distinct cortical regions have been defined by their morphological, electrophysiological, and neurochemical properties. However, it remains largely unknown whether canonical IN types undergo specific modifications in distinct cortical regions and display "regional variants"...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911965/physiological-roles-of-cns-muscarinic-receptors-gained-from-knockout-mice
#4
REVIEW
Morgane Thomsen, Gunnar Sørensen, Ditte Dencker
Because the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes have overlapping distributions in many CNS tissues, and because ligands with a high degree of selectivity for a given subtype long remained elusive, it has been difficult to determine the physiological functions of each receptor. Genetically engineered knockout mice, in which one or more muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype has been inactivated, have been instrumental in identifying muscarinic receptor functions in the CNS, at the neuronal, circuit, and behavioral level...
September 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911172/androgens-mediate-sex-dependent-gonadotropin-expression-during-late-prenatal-development-in-the-mouse
#5
Michael J Kreisman, Christopher I Song, Kathleen Yip, Bryony V Natale, David R Natale, Kellie M Breen
Central organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is initiated during fetal life. At this critical time, gonadal hormones mediate sex-specific development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which then dictates reproductive physiology and behavior in adulthood. Although studies have investigated the effects of prenatal androgens on central factors influencing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, the impact of fetal androgens on gonadotrope function has been overlooked. In the current study, we demonstrated that gonadotropin gene expression and protein production were robustly elevated in female mice compared with males during late fetal development and that this sex difference was dependent on fetal androgens...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903044/engineering-synthetic-signaling-pathways-with-programmable-dcas9-based-chimeric-receptors
#6
Toni A Baeumler, Ahmed Ashour Ahmed, Tudor A Fulga
Synthetic receptors provide a powerful experimental tool for generation of designer cells capable of monitoring the environment, sensing specific input signals, and executing diverse custom response programs. To advance the promise of cellular engineering, we have developed a class of chimeric receptors that integrate a highly programmable and portable nuclease-deficient CRISPR/Cas9 (dCas9) signal transduction module. We demonstrate that the core dCas9 synthetic receptor (dCas9-synR) architecture can be readily adapted to various classes of native ectodomain scaffolds, linking their natural inputs with orthogonal output functions...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901289/distinct-stages-of-synapse-elimination-are-induced-by-burst-firing-of-ca1-neurons-and-differentially-require-mef2a-d
#7
Chia-Wei Chang, Julia Wilkerson, Carly Hale, Jay R Gibson, Kimberly M Huber
Experience and activity refine cortical circuits through synapse elimination, but little is known about the activity patterns and downstream molecular mechanisms that mediate this process. We used optogenetics to drive individual mouse CA1 hippocampal neurons to fire in theta frequency bursts to understand how cell autonomous, postsynaptic activity leads to synapse elimination. Brief (1hr) periods of postsynaptic bursting selectively depressed AMPA receptor (R) synaptic transmission, or silenced excitatory synapses, whereas more prolonged (24 hr) firing depressed both AMPAR and NMDAR EPSCs and eliminated spines, indicative of a synapse elimination...
September 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901288/multiple-conserved-cell-adhesion-protein-interactions-mediate-neural-wiring-of-a-sensory-circuit-in-c-elegans
#8
Byunghyuk Kim, Scott W Emmons
Nervous system function relies on precise synaptic connections. A number of widely-conserved cell adhesion proteins are implicated in cell recognition between synaptic partners, but how these proteins act as a group to specify a complex neural network is poorly understood. Taking advantage of known connectivity in C. elegans, we identified and studied cell adhesion genes expressed in three interacting neurons in the mating circuits of the adult male. Two interacting pairs of cell surface proteins independently promote fasciculation between sensory neuron HOA and its postsynaptic target interneuron AVG: BAM-2/neurexin-related in HOA binds to CASY-1/calsyntenin in AVG; SAX-7/L1CAM in sensory neuron PHC binds to RIG-6/contactin in AVG...
September 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900415/perinatal-western-diet-consumption-leads-to-profound-plasticity-and-gabaergic-phenotype-changes-within-hypothalamus-and-reward-pathway-from-birth-to-sexual-maturity-in-rat
#9
Julie Paradis, Pierre Boureau, Thomas Moyon, Sophie Nicklaus, Patricia Parnet, Vincent Paillé
Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD)] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900413/impaired-cerebellum-to-primary-motor-cortex-associative-plasticity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#10
Ming-Kuei Lu, Jui-Cheng Chen, Chun-Ming Chen, Jeng-Ren Duann, Ulf Ziemann, Chon-Haw Tsai
BACKGROUND: Functional perturbation of the cerebellum (CB)-motor cortex (M1) interactions may underlie pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Recently, M1 motor excitability can be bidirectionally modulated in young subjects by corticocortical paired associative stimulation (PAS) on CB and contralateral M1 with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), probably through the cerebello-dentato-thalamo-cortical (CDTC) circuit...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899917/activity-dependent-dysfunction-in-visual-and-olfactory-sensory-systems-in-mouse-models-of-down-syndrome
#11
Christopher M William, Lubna Saqran, Matthew A Stern, Charles L Chiang, Scott Herrick, Aziz Rangwala, Mark W Albers, Matthew P Frosch, Bradley T Hyman
Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in the refinement of circuitry during postnatal development and may be disrupted in conditions that cause intellectual disability such as Down syndrome (DS). To test this hypothesis, visual cortical plasticity was assessed in Ts65Dn mice that harbor a chromosomal duplication syntenic to human chromosome 21q. We find that Ts65Dn mice demonstrate a defect in ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) following monocular deprivation. This phenotype is similar to that of transgenic mice that express amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is duplicated in DS and in Ts65DN mice; however, normalizing APP gene copy number in Ts65Dn mice fails to rescue plasticity...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898779/ozone-cathode-microbial-desalination-cell-an-innovative-option-to-bioelectricity-generation-and-water-desalination
#12
Abdolmajid Gholizadeh, Ali Asghar Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein Salmani, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush
Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new approach of water desalination methods, which is based on ionic species removal from water in proportion to the electric current generated by bacteria. However, the low current generation and insufficient deionization in this technology have created challenges to improve the process. Here, the performance of MDC using ozone as a new electron acceptor (O3-MDC) was evaluated versus another operated independently with oxygen (O2-MDC). Results showed the maximum open-circuit voltages of 628 and 1331 mV for 20 g L(-1) NaCl desalination in O2-MDC and O3-MDC, respectively...
September 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894736/synthetic-gene-expression-circuits-for-designing-precision-tools-in-oncology
#13
REVIEW
Angela Re
Precision medicine in oncology needs to enhance its capabilities to match diagnostic and therapeutic technologies to individual patients. Synthetic biology streamlines the design and construction of functionalized devices through standardization and rational engineering of basic biological elements decoupled from their natural context. Remarkable improvements have opened the prospects for the availability of synthetic devices of enhanced mechanism clarity, robustness, sensitivity, as well as scalability and portability, which might bring new capabilities in precision cancer medicine implementations...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892060/a-functional-genomics-predictive-network-model-identifies-regulators-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Lauren A Peters, Jacqueline Perrigoue, Arthur Mortha, Alina Iuga, Won-Min Song, Eric M Neiman, Sean R Llewellyn, Antonio Di Narzo, Brian A Kidd, Shannon E Telesco, Yongzhong Zhao, Aleksandar Stojmirovic, Jocelyn Sendecki, Khader Shameer, Riccardo Miotto, Bojan Losic, Hardik Shah, Eunjee Lee, Minghui Wang, Jeremiah J Faith, Andrew Kasarskis, Carrie Brodmerkel, Mark Curran, Anuk Das, Joshua R Friedman, Yoshinori Fukui, Mary Beth Humphrey, Brian M Iritani, Nicholas Sibinga, Teresa K Tarrant, Carmen Argmann, Ke Hao, Panos Roussos, Jun Zhu, Bin Zhang, Radu Dobrin, Lloyd F Mayer, Eric E Schadt
A major challenge in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the integration of diverse IBD data sets to construct predictive models of IBD. We present a predictive model of the immune component of IBD that informs causal relationships among loci previously linked to IBD through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using functional and regulatory annotations that relate to the cells, tissues, and pathophysiology of IBD. Our model consists of individual networks constructed using molecular data generated from intestinal samples isolated from three populations of patients with IBD at different stages of disease...
September 11, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889197/changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-locus-coeruleus-amygdala-circuitry-in-inhibitory-avoidance-ptsd-model
#15
Esther L Sabban, Lidia I Serova, Elizabeth Newman, Nurit Aisenberg, Irit Akirav
The locus coeruleus (LC)-amygdala circuit is implicated in playing a key role in responses to emotionally arousing stimuli and in the manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined changes in gene expression of a number of important mediators of the LC-amygdala circuitry in the inhibition avoidance model of PTSD. After testing for basal acoustic startle response (ASR), rats were exposed to a severe footshock (1.5 mA for 10 s) in the inhibitory avoidance apparatus. They were given contextual situational reminders every 5 day for 25 days...
September 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889007/selective-deletion-of-the-oxytocin-gene-remodels-the-number-and-shape-of-dendritic-spines-in-the-medial-amygdala-of-males-with-and-without-sexual-experience
#16
Roberta Oriques Becker, Alberto A Rasia-Filho, Márcia Giovenardi
Oxytocin has central actions that modulate synaptic plasticity and the occurrence of social behavior in rodents. The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) composes a sexually dimorphic neural circuit for the display of male sexual behavior. Local dendritic spines are notably plastic and affected by context-dependent social stimuli. Here, we examined the effects of the selective deletion of the OT gene (OTKO) in the number and shape of Golgi-impregnated dendritic spines in the MePD of näive and sexually experienced (SexExp) male mice (n=6 each group)...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888667/preimmunization-with-a-heat-killed-preparation-of-mycobacterium-vaccae-enhances-fear-extinction-in-the-fear-potentiated-startle-paradigm
#17
James H Fox, James E Hassell, Philip H Siebler, Mathew R Arnold, Andrew K Lamb, David G Smith, Heidi E W Day, Tessa M Smith, Emma M Simmerman, Alexander A Outzen, Kaley S Holmes, Christopher J Brazell, Christopher A Lowry
The hygiene hypothesis or "Old Friends" hypothesis proposes that inflammatory diseases are increasing in modern urban societies, due in part to reduced exposure to microorganisms that drive immunoregulatory circuits, and a failure to terminate inappropriate inflammatory responses. Inappropriate inflammation is also emerging as a risk factor for trauma-related, anxiety, and affective disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is characterized as persistent re-experiencing of the trauma after a traumatic experience...
September 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888073/selective-decline-of-neurotrophin-and-neurotrophin-receptor-genes-within-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-and-hippocampus-proper-correlation-with-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathology-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Stephen D Ginsberg, Michael H Malek-Ahmadi, Melissa J Alldred, Shaoli Che, Irina Elarova, Yinghua Chen, Freddy Jeanneteau, Thorsten M Kranz, Moses V Chao, Scott E Counts, Elliott J Mufson
Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, a major component of the medial temporal lobe memory circuit, are selectively vulnerable during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cellular mechanism(s) underlying degeneration of these neurons and the relationship to cognitive performance remains largely undefined. Here, we profiled neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor gene expression within microdissected CA1 neurons along with regional hippocampal dissections from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD using laser capture microdissection (LCM), custom-designed microarray analysis, and qPCR of CA1 subregional dissections...
September 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886967/class-i-hdacs-control-a-jip1-dependent-pathway-for-kinesin-microtubule-binding-in-cardiomyocytes
#19
Weston W Blakeslee, Ying-Hsi Lin, Matthew S Stratton, Philip D Tatman, Tianjing Hu, Bradley S Ferguson, Timothy A McKinsey
Class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors block hypertrophy and fibrosis of the heart by suppressing pathological signaling and gene expression programs in cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. The impact of HDAC inhibition in unstressed cardiac cells remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that treatment of cultured cardiomyocytes with small molecule HDAC inhibitors leads to dramatic induction of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein-1 (JIP1) mRNA and protein expression. In contrast to prior findings, elevated levels of endogenous JIP1 in cardiomyocytes failed to significantly alter JNK signaling or cardiomyocyte hypertrophy...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882542/applications-of-optobiology-in-intact-cells-and-multicellular-organisms
#20
REVIEW
John S Khamo, Vishnu V Krishnamurthy, Savanna R Sharum, Payel Mondal, Kai Zhang
Temporal kinetics and spatial coordination of signal transduction in cells are vital for cell fate determination. Tools that allow for precise modulation of spatiotemporal regulation of intracellular signaling in intact cells and multicellular organisms remain limited. The emerging optobiological approaches use light to control protein-protein interaction in live cells and multicellular organisms. Optobiology empowers light-mediated control of diverse cellular and organismal functions such as neuronal activity, intracellular signaling, gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
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