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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439223/outer-hair-cell-and-auditory-nerve-function-in-speech-recognition-in-quiet-and-in-background-noise
#1
Richard Hoben, Gifty Easow, Sofia Pevzner, Mark A Parker
The goal of this study was to describe the contribution of outer hair cells (OHCs) and the auditory nerve (AN) to speech understanding in quiet and in the presence of background noise. Fifty-three human subjects with hearing ranging from normal to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were assayed for both speech in quiet (Word Recognition) and speech in noise (QuickSIN test) performance. Their scores were correlated with OHC function as assessed via distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and AN function as measured by amplitude, latency, and threshold of the VIIIth cranial nerve Compound Action Potential (CAP) recorded during electrocochleography (ECochG)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437273/assessing-sensorineural-hearing-loss-using-various-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emission-stimulus-conditions
#2
Daniel B Putterman, Douglas H Keefe, Lisa L Hunter, Angela C Garinis, Denis F Fitzpatrick, Garnett P McMillan, M Patrick Feeney
OBJECTIVES: An important clinical application of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) is to evaluate cochlear outer hair cell function for the purpose of detecting sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Double-evoked TEOAEs were measured using a chirp stimulus, in which the stimuli had an extended frequency range compared to clinical tests. The present study compared TEOAEs recorded using an unweighted stimulus presented at either ambient pressure or tympanometric peak pressure (TPP) in the ear canal and TEOAEs recorded using a power-weighted stimulus at ambient pressure...
April 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432353/severe-hearing-loss-and-outer-hair-cell-death-in-homozygous-foxo3-knockout-mice-after-moderate-noise-exposure
#3
Felicia Gilels, Stephen T Paquette, Holly J Beaulac, Anwen Bullen, Patricia M White
Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a disease that affects millions of Americans. Identifying genetic pathways that influence recovery from noise exposure is an important step forward in understanding NIHL. The transcription factor Foxo3 integrates the cellular response to oxidative stress and plays a role in extending lifespan in many organisms, including humans. Here we show that Foxo3 is required for auditory function after noise exposure in a mouse model system, measured by ABR. Absent Foxo3, outer hair cells are lost throughout the middle and higher frequencies...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422190/current-carried-by-the-slc26-family-member-prestin-does-not-flow-through-the-transporter-pathway
#4
Jun-Ping Bai, Iman Moeini-Naghani, Sheng Zhong, Fang-Yong Li, Shumin Bian, Fred J Sigworth, Joseph Santos-Sacchi, Dhasakumar Navaratnam
Prestin in the lateral membrane of outer hair cells, is responsible for electromotility (EM) and a corresponding nonlinear capacitance (NLC). Prestin's voltage sensitivity is influenced by intracellular chloride. A regulator of intracellular chloride is a stretch-sensitive, non-selective conductance within the lateral membrane, GmetL. We determine that prestin itself possesses a stretch-sensitive, non-selective conductance that is largest in the presence of thiocyanate ions. This conductance is independent of the anion transporter mechanism...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420960/contralateral-inhibition-of-click-and-chirp-evoked-human-compound-action-potentials
#5
Spencer B Smith, Jeffery T Lichtenhan, Barbara K Cone
Cochlear outer hair cells (OHC) receive direct efferent feedback from the caudal auditory brainstem via the medial olivocochlear (MOC) bundle. This circuit provides the neural substrate for the MOC reflex, which inhibits cochlear amplifier gain and is believed to play a role in listening in noise and protection from acoustic overexposure. The human MOC reflex has been studied extensively using otoacoustic emissions (OAE) paradigms; however, these measurements are insensitive to subsequent "downstream" efferent effects on the neural ensembles that mediate hearing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420953/using-cochlear-microphonic-potentials-to-localize-peripheral-hearing-loss
#6
Karolina K Charaziak, Christopher A Shera, Jonathan H Siegel
The cochlear microphonic (CM) is created primarily by the receptor currents of outer hair cells (OHCs) and may therefore be useful for identifying cochlear regions with impaired OHCs. However, the CM measured across the frequency range with round-window or ear-canal electrodes lacks place-specificity as it is dominated by cellular sources located most proximal to the recording site (e.g., at the cochlear base). To overcome this limitation, we extract the "residual" CM (rCM), defined as the complex difference between the CM measured with and without an additional tone (saturating tone, ST)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418107/a-new-path-in-defining-light-parameters-for-hair-growth-discovery-and-modulation-of-photoreceptors-in-human-hair-follicle
#7
Serena Buscone, Andrei N Mardaryev, Bianca Raafs, Jan W Bikker, Carsten Sticht, Norbert Gretz, Nilofer Farjo, Natallia E Uzunbajakava, Natalia V Botchkareva
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Though devices for hair growth based on low levels of light have shown encouraging results, further improvements of their efficacy is impeded by a lack of knowledge on the exact molecular targets that mediate physiological response in skin and hair follicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of selected light-sensitive receptors in the human hair follicle and to study the impact of UV-free blue light on hair growth ex vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of Opsin receptors in human skin and hair follicles has been characterized using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence approaches...
April 18, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415260/enhanced-processing-in-arrays-of-optimally-tuned-nonlinear-biomimetic-sensors-a-coupling-mediated-ringelmann-effect-and-its-dynamical-mitigation
#8
Alexander P Nikitin, Adi R Bulsara, Nigel G Stocks
Inspired by recent results on self-tunability in the outer hair cells of the mammalian cochlea, we describe an array of magnetic sensors where each individual sensor can self-tune to an optimal operating regime. The self-tuning gives the array its "biomimetic" features. We show that the overall performance of the array can, as expected, be improved by increasing the number of sensors but, however, coupling between sensors reduces the overall performance even though the individual sensors in the system could see an improvement...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414275/a-new-hypothesis-on-the-frequency-discrimination-of-the-cochlea
#9
Erdoğan Bulut, Cem Uzun, Levent Öztürk, Pınar Turan, Mehmet Kanter, Serap Arbak
OBJECTIVE: Medial olivocochlear efferent (MOCE) neurons innervate outer hair cells (OHCs) of the cochlea, which in turn leads to basilar membrane motion. We hypothesized that MOCE-induced alterations in basilar membrane motion, independent of traveling waves, is responsible for the cochlear frequency discrimination of sound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven guinea pigs underwent bilateral otoscopic and audiologic evaluations under general anesthesia. The study comprised two parts...
April 17, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384320/direct-administration-of-2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin-into-guinea-pig-cochleae-effects-on-physiological-and-histological-measurements
#10
J T Lichtenhan, K Hirose, C A Buchman, R K Duncan, A N Salt
2-Hydroxypropyl-Beta-Cyclodextrin (HPβCD) can be used to treat Niemann-Pick type C disease, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis. But, a consequence is that HPβCD can cause hearing loss. HPβCD was recently found to be toxic to outer hair cells (OHCs) in the organ of Corti. Previous studies on the chronic effects of in vivo HPβCD toxicity did not know the intra-cochlear concentration of HPβCD and attributed variable effects on OHCs to indirect drug delivery to the cochlea. We studied the acute effects of known HPβCD concentrations administered directly into intact guinea pig cochleae...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367981/cochlear-gene-therapy-with-ancestral-aav-in-adult-mice-complete-transduction-of-inner-hair-cells-without-cochlear-dysfunction
#11
Jun Suzuki, Ken Hashimoto, Ru Xiao, Luk H Vandenberghe, M Charles Liberman
The use of viral vectors for inner ear gene therapy is receiving increased attention for treatment of genetic hearing disorders. Most animal studies to date have injected viral suspensions into neonatal ears, via the round window membrane. Achieving transduction of hair cells, or sensory neurons, throughout the cochlea has proven difficult, and no studies have been able to efficiently transduce sensory cells in adult ears while maintaining normal cochlear function. Here, we show, for the first time, successful transduction of all inner hair cells and the majority of outer hair cells in an adult cochlea via virus injection into the posterior semicircular canal...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365859/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-collective-and-individual-cell-migration-regulate-epithelial-changes-in-the-amikacin-damaged-organ-of-corti
#12
Sabine Ladrech, Michel Eybalin, Jean-Luc Puel, Marc Lenoir
Characterizing the microenvironment of a damaged organ of Corti and identifying the basic mechanisms involved in subsequent epithelial reorganization are critical for improving the outcome of clinical therapies. In this context, we studied the expression of a variety of cell markers related to cell shape, cell adhesion and cell plasticity in the rat organ of Corti poisoned with amikacin. Our results indicate that, after severe outer hair cell losses, the cytoarchitectural reorganization of the organ of Corti implicates epithelial-mesenchymal transition mechanisms and involves both collective and individual cell migratory processes...
April 1, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350869/in-vitro-skin-models-to-study-epithelial-regeneration-from-the-hair-follicle
#13
Nkemcho Ojeh, Baki Akgül, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Mike Philpott, Harshad Navsaria
The development of dermal equivalents (DEs) for the treatment of burns has contributed toward efficient wound closure. A collagen-glycosaminoglycan DE (C-GAG) grafted with hair follicles converted a full-thickness wound to partial-thickness resulting in complete wound closure and restored hair. In this study we compared the ability of both intact pilosebaceous units (PSU) or truncated hair follicles (THF) to regenerate a multilayered epidermis in vitro when implanted into de-epidermalized dermis (DED) or C-GAG with the epidermis generated in vivo using C-CAG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346477/disruption-of-sorcs2-reveals-differences-in-the-regulation-of-stereociliary-bundle-formation-between-hair-cell-types-in-the-inner-ear
#14
Andrew Forge, Ruth R Taylor, Sally J Dawson, Michael Lovett, Daniel J Jagger
Behavioural anomalies suggesting an inner ear disorder were observed in a colony of transgenic mice. Affected animals were profoundly deaf. Severe hair bundle defects were identified in all outer and inner hair cells (OHC, IHC) in the cochlea and in hair cells of vestibular macular organs, but hair cells in cristae were essentially unaffected. Evidence suggested the disorder was likely due to gene disruption by a randomly inserted transgene construct. Whole-genome sequencing identified interruption of the SorCS2 (Sortilin-related VPS-10 domain containing protein) locus...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344071/exposure-to-diphtheria-toxin-during-the-juvenile-period-impairs-both-inner-and-outer-hair-cells-in-c57bl-6-mice
#15
Hiroyuki Konishi, Nobutaka Ohgami, Aika Matsushita, Yuki Kondo, Yuki Aoyama, Masaaki Kobayashi, Taku Nagai, Shinya Ugawa, Kiyofumi Yamada, Masashi Kato, Hiroshi Kiyama
Diphtheria toxin (DT) administration into transgenic mice that express the DT receptor (DTR) under control of specific promoters is often used for cell ablation studies in vivo. Because DTR is not expressed in mice, DT injection has been assumed to be nontoxic to cells in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that DT application during the juvenile stage leads to hearing loss in wild-type mice. Auditory brainstem response measurement showed severe hearing loss in C57BL/6 mice administered DT during the juvenile period, and the hearing loss persisted into adulthood...
March 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344061/compartmentation-of-mitochondrial-and-oxidative-metabolism-in-growing-hair-follicles-a-ring-of-fire
#16
John J Lemasters, Venkat K Ramshesh, Gregory L Lovelace, John Lim, Graham D Wright, Duane Harland, Thomas L Dawson
Little is known about the energetics of growing hair follicles, particularly in the mitochondrially abundant bulb. Here, mitochondrial and oxidative metabolism was visualized by multiphoton and light sheet microscopy in cultured bovine hair follicles and plucked human hairs. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretory granules were assessed with parameter-indicating fluorophores. In growing follicles, lower bulb epithelial cells had high viability, and mitochondria were polarized...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332931/unitary-ototoxic-gentamicin-exposure-may-not-disrupt-the-function-of-cochlear-outer-hair-cells-in-mice
#17
Ning Zhao, XuHui Tai, LiJie Zhai, Lin Shi, DaiShi Chen, Bo Yang, Fei Ji, Kun Hou, ShiMing Yang, ShuSheng Gong, Ke Liu
BACKGROUND: Previous study showed that mild ototoxic exposure could induce a reversible hearing impairment, and the loss and secondary incomplete recovery of cochlear ribbon synapses could be responsible for the hearing loss. However, it remains unclear whether cochlear outer hair cells' (OHCs) functions are affected. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the function of OHCs are also affected significantly after the ototoxic exposure. METHODS: Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg concentration of gentamicin daily for 14 days...
March 23, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324846/novel-alk5-inhibitor-tp0427736-reduces-tgf-%C3%AE-%C3%A3-induced-growth-inhibition-in-human-outer-root-sheath-cells-and-elongates-anagen-phase-in-mouse-hair-follicles
#18
Takumi Naruse, Mari Aoki, Natsuko Fujimoto, Seiji Arase, Hajimu Oura, Yasuji Ueda, Akiko Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Androgenic alopecia (AGA) occurs as a result of the contraction of the anagen phase because of the action of androgens on hair follicles. TGF-β production from dermal papillae is enhanced by androgens, and growth inhibition of hair-follicle cells is induced by TGF-β, and the hair cycle progresses from the anagen phase to the catagen phase. We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo potency of the newly identified ALK5 inhibitor TP0427736 {6-[4-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]-1,3-benzothiazole}...
January 25, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303411/identifying-the-origin-of-effects-of-contralateral-noise-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions-in-unanesthetized-mice
#19
Yingyue Xu, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jonathan H Siegel
Descending neural pathways in the mammalian auditory system are known to modulate the function of the peripheral auditory system. These pathways include the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) and the acoustic reflex pathways mediating middle ear muscle (MEM) contractions. Based on measurements in humans (Marks and Siegel, companion paper), we applied a sensitive method to attempt to differentiate MEM and MOC reflexes using contralateral acoustic stimulation in mice under different levels of anesthesia...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283078/distortion-product-otoacoustic-emissions-in-young-adult-and-geriatric-cats
#20
George M Strain, Kain A McGee
Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age...
March 2017: Veterinary Journal
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