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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105227/milia-may-originate-from-the-outermost-layers-of-the-hair-bulge-of-the-outer-root-sheath-a-case-report
#1
Ichiro Kurokawa, Ayako Kakuno, Airo Tsubura
It has been hypothesized that milia originate from the hair bulge of the outer root sheath. To elucidate the histogenesis of milia, an immunohistochemical study was performed using anti-keratin and anti-filaggrin antibodies to determine the levels of keratin and filaggrin expression. Keratin expression was evaluated using anti-keratin antibodies against K1, K7, K8, K10, K14, K15, K16, K17, K18, K19 and K20. K1 and K10 expression were detected in the suprabasal layers of the more superficial section of the cyst walls, but not in the deeper section of the cyst walls...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101341/influence-of-high-altitude-hypoxic-environments-on-the-survival-of-cochlear-hair-cells-and-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-rats
#2
Dongyan Fan, Hailong Ren, Dunzhu Danzeng, Haonan Li, Ping Wang
The aim of the present study was to observe the histological changes in the peripheral auditory system in rats at different time-points after relocating from low altitude to high altitude (3,600 m). The general physical condition of the rats was observed and cochlear tissue samples were obtained every month. The morphology and survival of the cochlear hair cells (HCs) were observed using cochlear surface preparation at 1, 30, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after moving to the plateau area. Changes in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) were detected at different time-points using immunofluorescence technology on frozen sections...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099203/evaluation-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-micrografts-demonstrate-induction-of-catagen-like-processes-during-storage
#3
Walter Krugluger, Karl Stiefsohn, Karl Moser, Claudia Moser, Katarina Laciak
BACKGROUND: Alterations of gene expression patterns may contribute to the commonly observed transient reduction of hair shaft elongation in hair restoration surgery. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the molecular causes, we evaluated changes in gene expression patterns in hair follicle micrografts during storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Micrografts with different amounts of adjacent connective tissue (regular, skinny, and chubby) were stored for different periods, and the expression of key genes was determined: dermal papilla (DP): FGF7, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), versican; outer root sheath: Krt15; inner root sheath: Krt 25; cuticula: Krt85; Henle layer: filaggrin; genes related to apoptosis and growth/differentiation: Caspase 3, Ovol1, and Foxo1...
January 17, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093303/chlorogenic-acid-rescues-sensorineural-auditory-function-in-a-diabetic-animal-model
#4
Bin Na Hong, Youn Hee Nam, Sang Ho Woo, Tong Ho Kang
Recently, many studies have reported that sensorineural hearing impairment related to neurological disorders may be caused by diabetes mellitus. However, to date, only a small number of studies have investigated the treatment of sensorineural hearing impairment. In the present study, the effects of chlorogenic acid on diabetic auditory pathway impairment were evaluated by neuro-electrical physiological measurements and morphological investigations. We have shown that CA efficiently prevents the progression of auditory pathway dysfunction caused by DM using auditory brainstem responses and auditory middle latency responses in mice...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089576/conditional-deletion-of-pejvakin-in-adult-outer-hair-cells-causes-progressive-hearing-loss-in-mice
#5
Suzan L Harris, Marcin Kazmierczak, Tina Pangršič, Prahar Shah, Nadiya Chuchvara, Alonso Barrantes-Freer, Tobias Moser, Martin Schwander
Mutations in the Pejvakin (Pjvk) gene cause autosomal recessive hearing loss DFNB59 with audiological features of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) or cochlear dysfunction. The precise mechanisms underlying the variable clinical phenotypes of DFNB59 remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mice with conditional ablation of the Pjvk gene in all sensory hair cells or only in outer hair cells (OHCs) show similar auditory phenotypes with early-onset profound hearing loss. By contrast, loss of Pjvk in adult OHCs causes a slowly progressive hearing loss associated with OHC degeneration and delayed loss of inner hair cells (IHCs), indicating a primary role for pejvakin in regulating OHC function and survival...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062185/allicin-protects-auditory-hair-cells-and-spiral-ganglion-neurons-from-cisplatin-induced-apoptosis
#6
Xianmin Wu, Xiaofei Li, Yongdong Song, He Li, Xiaohui Bai, Wenwen Liu, Yuechen Han, Lei Xu, Jianfeng Li, Daogong Zhang, Haibo Wang, Zhaomin Fan
Cisplatin is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug that is commonly used in the clinic. Ototoxicity is one of the major side effects of this drug, which caused irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Allicin, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, has been shown to exert various anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative activities in vitro and in vivo studies. We took advantage of C57 mice intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin alone or with cisplatin and allicin combined, to investigate whether allicin plays a protective role in vivo against cisplatin ototoxicity...
January 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040033/selective-attentional-processes-in-cochlear-implant-recipients-measurements-of-the-attentional-filter
#7
Christofer Bester, Dona M P Jayakody, Geoffrey Hammond, Donald Robertson
In normal hearing subjects, detection of near-threshold tones in noise is influenced by signal certainty. Thus, tones that are presented more frequently than others, and/or are preceded by a clearly audible cue tone of the same frequency (target tones) are detected better than other tones (probe tones). This auditory attentional filter was examined in six cochlear implant (CI) recipients, using acoustic stimuli and direct programmed electrode stimulation. Three of the subjects showed no evidence of an attentional filter...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034618/adenosine-receptors-regulate-susceptibility-to-noise-induced-neural-injury-in-the-mouse-cochlea-and-hearing-loss
#8
Srdjan M Vlajkovic, Kaushi Ambepitiya, Meagan Barclay, Detlev Boison, Gary D Housley, Peter R Thorne
Our previous studies have shown that the stimulation of A1 adenosine receptors in the inner ear can mitigate the loss of sensory hair cells and hearing loss caused by exposure to traumatic noise. Here, we focus on the role of adenosine receptors (AR) in the development of noise-induced neural injury in the cochlea using A1AR and A2AAR null mice (A1AR(-/-) and A2AAR(-/-)). Wildtype (WT) and AR deficient mice were exposed to octave band noise (8-16 kHz, 100 dB SPL) for 2 hours to induce cochlear injury and hearing loss...
December 26, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030585/organ-of-corti-and-stria-vascularis-is-there-an-interdependence-for-survival
#9
Huizhan Liu, Yi Li, Lei Chen, Qian Zhang, Ning Pan, David H Nichols, Weiping J Zhang, Bernd Fritzsch, David Z Z He
Cochlear hair cells and the stria vascularis are critical for normal hearing. Hair cells transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, whereas the stria is responsible for generating the endocochlear potential (EP), which is the driving force for hair cell mechanotransduction. We questioned whether hair cells and the stria interdepend for survival by using two mouse models. Atoh1 conditional knockout mice, which lose all hair cells within four weeks after birth, were used to determine whether the absence of hair cells would affect function and survival of stria...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024288/asiaticoside-protects-cochlear-hair-cells-from-high-glucose-induced-oxidative-stress-via-suppressing-ages-rage-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#10
Ying Xing, Qiuhe Ji, Xiaomiao Li, Jie Ming, Nana Zhang, Dingjun Zha, Ying Lin
Asiaticoside (AC) has been known to have anti-oxidative activity, however, the effect of AC on the progression of high glucose-induced hearing loss has not been studied. This study aims to analyze the effect of AC on cochlear hair cells under the treatment of high glucose in vitro and the hearing function in vivo. The results of MTT showed that high glucose decreased the activity of HEI-OC1 cells, but AC increased the activity of HEI-OC1 cells compared with high glucose group. The results of flow cytometry showed that AC decreased the degree of apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose...
December 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013291/slc44a4-mutation-causes-autosomal-dominant-hereditary-postlingual-non-syndromic-mid-frequency-hearing-loss
#11
Zhaoxin Ma, Wenjun Xia, Fei Liu, Jing Ma, Shaoyang Sun, Jin Zhang, Nan Jiang, Xu Wang, Jiongjiong Hu, Duan Ma
Clinical, genetic, and functional investigations were performed to identify the causative mutation in a distinctive Chinese family with postlingual non-syndromic mid-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Whole-exome sequencing revealed SLC44A4, which encodes the choline transport protein, as the pathogenic gene in this family. In the zebrafish model, downregulation of slc44a4 using morpholinos led to significant abnormalities in zebrafish inner ear and lateral line neuromasts and contributed, to some extent, to disabilities in hearing and balance...
December 23, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012509/changes-in-the-inner-ear-structures-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#12
Henrique F Pauna, Rafael C Monsanto, Natsuko Kurata, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: Although prolonged use of antibiotics is very common in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, no studies have assessed the changes in both cochlear and peripheral vestibular systems in this population. METHODS: We used human temporal bones to analyze the density of vestibular dark, transitional, and hair cells in specimens from CF patients who were exposed to several types of antibiotics, as compared with specimens from an age-matched control group with no history of ear disease or antibiotic use...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007648/minocycline-attenuates-noise-induced-hearing-loss-in-rats
#13
Jing Zhang, Yong-Li Song, Ke-Yong Tian, Jian-Hua Qiu
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious health concern and prevention of hair cell death or therapeutic intervention at the early stage of NIHL is critical to preserve hearing. Minocycline is a semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline and has been shown to have otoprotective effects in ototoxic drug-induced hearing impairment, however, whether minocycline can protect against NIHL has not been investigated. The present study demonstrated elevated ABR (auditory brainstem response) thresholds and outer hair cell loss following traumatic noise exposure, which was mitigated by intraperitoneal administration of minocycline (45mg/kg/d) for 5 consecutive days...
December 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004290/quantitative-analysis-of-aquaporin-expression-levels-during-the-development-and-maturation-of-the-inner-ear
#14
Takushi Miyoshi, Taro Yamaguchi, Kiyokazu Ogita, Yasuko Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Hiroaki Ito, Taisuke Kobayashi, Takayuki Nakagawa, Juichi Ito, Koichi Omori, Norio Yamamoto
Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small membrane proteins that transport water molecules across the plasma membrane along the osmotic gradient. Mammals express 13 subtypes of AQPs, including the recently reported "subcellular AQPs", AQP11 and 12. Each organ expresses specific subsets of AQP subtypes, and in the inner ear, AQPs are essential for the establishment and maintenance of two distinct fluids, endolymph and perilymph. To evaluate the contribution of AQPs during the establishment of inner ear function, we used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to quantify the expression levels of all known AQPs during the entire development and maturation of the inner ear...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002082/long-term-synergistic-interaction-of-cisplatin-and-noise-induced-hearing-losses
#15
J Riley DeBacker, Ryan T Harrison, Eric C Bielefeld
OBJECTIVE: Past experiments in the literature have shown that cisplatin interacts synergistically with noise to create hearing loss. Much of the previous work on the synergistic interaction of noise and cisplatin tested exposures that occurred very close together in time. The present study assessed whether rats that have been exposed to cisplatin continue to show increased susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss months after conclusion of the cisplatin exposure. DESIGN: Thirty-two Fischer 344/NHsd rats were exposed to one of five conditions: (1) cisplatin exposure followed by immediate cochlear tissue harvest, (2) cisplatin exposure and a 20-week monitoring period before tissue harvest, (3) cisplatin exposure followed immediately by noise exposure, (4) cisplatin exposure followed by noise exposure 16 weeks later, and (5) noise exposure without cisplatin exposure...
December 19, 2016: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992391/auditory-brainstem-response-altered-in-humans-with-noise-exposure-despite-normal-outer-hair-cell-function
#16
Naomi F Bramhall, Dawn Konrad-Martin, Garnett P McMillan, Susan E Griest
OBJECTIVES: Recent animal studies demonstrated that cochlear synaptopathy, a partial loss of inner hair cell-auditory nerve fiber synapses, can occur in response to noise exposure without any permanent auditory threshold shift. In animal models, this synaptopathy is associated with a reduction in the amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The goal of this study was to determine whether higher lifetime noise exposure histories in young people with clinically normal pure-tone thresholds are associated with lower ABR wave I amplitudes...
January 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964936/musicianship-enhances-ipsilateral-and-contralateral-efferent-gain-control-to-the-cochlea
#17
Gavin M Bidelman, Amy D Schneider, Victoria R Heitzmann, Shaum P Bhagat
Human hearing sensitivity is easily compromised with overexposure to excessively loud sounds, leading to permanent hearing damage. Consequently, finding activities and/or experiential factors that distinguish "tender" from "tough" ears (i.e., acoustic vulnerability) would be important for identifying people at higher risk for hearing damage. To regulate sound transmission and protect the inner ear against acoustic trauma, the auditory system modulates gain control to the cochlea via biological feedback of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents, a neuronal pathway linking the lower brainstem and cochlear outer hair cells...
December 11, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931773/protective-effect-of-propofol-on-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#18
Jian Wen, Na Duan, Qiang Wang, Gui-Xia Jing, Ying Xiao
PURPOSE: Iatrogenic noise produced by mastoid or craniotomy drills may cause hearing damage, which is induced by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the reduction of cochlear blood flow (CoBF). This study investigated whether propofol could reduce noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in a guinea pig model. METHODS: Sixty-four male pigmented guinea pigs were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups: control, noise, propofol and propofol+noise. Propofol was infused intravenously for 20 min prior to noise exposure with a loading dose of 5 mg·kg(-1) for 5 min and a maintenance infusion of 20 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1) for 135 min...
December 5, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926851/energy-output-from-a-single-outer-hair-cell
#19
Kuni H Iwasa
Electromotility of outer hair cells (OHCs) has been extensively studied with in vitro experiments because of its physiological significance to the cochlear amplifier, which provides the exquisite sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the mammalian ear. However, these studies have been performed largely under load-free conditions or with static load, while these cells function in vivo in a dynamic environment, receiving electrical energy to enhance mechanical oscillation in the inner ear. This gap leaves uncertainties in addressing a key issue, how much mechanical energy an OHC provides...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925611/differential-expression-of-bcl-2-in-the-cochlea-and-auditory-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-of-age-related-hearing-loss
#20
Qiuhong Huang, Hao Xiong, Haidi Yang, Yongkang Ou, Zhigang Zhang, Suijun Chen, Yongyi Ye, Yiqing Zheng
Bcl-2, the first gene shown to be involved in apoptosis, is a potent regulator of cell survival and known to have protective effects against a variety of age-related diseases. However, the possible relationship between hearing and Bcl-2 expression in the cochlea or auditory cortex of C57BL/6 mice, a mouse model of age-related hearing loss, is still unknown. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis, our results show that Bcl-2 is strongly expressed in the inner hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons of young mice...
December 8, 2016: Audiology & Neuro-otology
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