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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135512/cytokeratin-profile-of-basal-cell-carcinomas-according-to-the-degree-of-sun-exposure-and-to-the-anatomical-localization
#1
Ma Reyes García-de-la-Fuente, Maria Santacana, Joan Valls, Felip Vilardell, José Manuel Fernández Armenteros, Ramon Pujol, Eloi Gari, Josep Manel Casanova
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) seems to originate from ultraviolet light-induced mutations involving the bulge or the outer sheath of the hair follicle cells. However, the etiopathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of these tumors in nonphotoexposed and in hairless areas remain unclear. The cytokeratin (CK) profile (including CK5/6, CK7, CK14, CK15, CK17, and CK19) from a series of different BCC subtypes developing in sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed areas, including hairless regions, was evaluated. The authors have observed that CK7 expression in BCC is associated with the anatomical localization of the tumor and its sun-exposition, but not with other factors such as histological subtype...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130354/delivery-of-adeno-associated-viral-vectors-in-adult-mammalian-inner-ear-cell-subtypes-without-auditory-dysfunction
#2
Yong Tao, Mingqian Huang, Yilai Shu, Adam Ruprecht, Hongyang Wang, Yong Tang, Luk H Vandenberghe, Qiuju Wang, Guangping Gao, Wei-Jia Kong, Zheng-Yi Chen
Hearing loss, including genetic hearing loss, is one of the most common forms of sensory deficits in human with limited options of treatment. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer has been shown to effectively recover auditory functions in mouse models of genetic deafness when delivered at neonatal stages. However, the mouse cochlea is still developing at those time points whereas in human the newborn inner ears are already fully mature. For effective gene therapy to treat genetic deafness, it is necessary to determine whether or not AAV-mediated therapy can be equally effective in the fully mature mouse inner ear without causing damages to the inner ear...
November 12, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123134/divergent-proliferation-patterns-of-distinct-human-hair-follicle-epithelial-progenitor-niches-in-situ-and-their-differential-responsiveness-to-prostaglandin-d2
#3
Talveen S Purba, Michael Peake, Bessam Farjo, Nilofer Farjo, Ranjit K Bhogal, Gail Jenkins, Ralf Paus
Human scalp hair follicles (hHF) harbour several epithelial stem (eHFSC) and progenitor cell sub-populations organised into spatially distinct niches. However, the constitutive cell cycle activity of these niches remains to be characterized in situ. Therefore, the current study has studied these characteristics of keratin 15+ (K15), CD200+ or CD34+ cells within anagen VI hHFs by immunohistomorphometry, using Ki-67 and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). We quantitatively demonstrate in situ the relative cell cycle inactivity of the CD200+/K15+ bulge compared to other non-bulge CD34+ and K15+ progenitor compartments and found that in each recognized eHFSC/progenitor niche, proliferation associates negatively with eHFSC-marker expression...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122423/efferent-modulation-of-pre-neural-and-neural-distortion-products
#4
S B Smith, K Ichiba, D S Velenovsky, B Cone
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and distortion product frequency following responses (DPFFRs) are respectively pre-neural and neural measurements associated with cochlear nonlinearity. Because cochlear nonlinearity is putatively linked to outer hair cell electromotility, DPOAEs and DPFFRs may provide complementary measurements of the human medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex, which directly modulates outer hair cell function. In this study, we first quantified MOC reflex-induced DPOAE inhibition at spectral fine structure peaks in 22 young human adults with normal hearing...
October 26, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115640/off%C3%A2-target-effect-of-imatinib-and-nilotinib-on-human-vitamin-d3-metabolism
#5
Lysann Kroschwald, Meinolf Suttorp, Josephine Tabea Tauer, Nick Zimmermann, Claudia Günther, Andrea Bauer
Prolonged treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) including imatinib (IMA) or nilotinib (NIL), induces severe disturbances of bone metabolism in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. As vitamin D3 (VD3) is involved in the complex cycle of bone remodelling, the present study investigated in vitro, the influence of IMA and NIL on VD3 metabolism i) in HaCaT cells and ii) in cultured outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORS‑KC) from hair follicles of IMA treated children. Cells were incubated in the presence of IMA or NIL...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107847/the-fbn-rat-model-of-aging-investigation-of-abr-waveforms-and-ribbon-synapse-changes
#6
Rui Cai, Scott C Montgomery, Kaley A Graves, Donald M Caspary, Brandon C Cox
Age-related hearing loss is experienced by one-third of individuals aged 65 years and older and can be socially debilitating. Historically, there has been poor correlation between age-related threshold changes, loss of speech understanding, and loss of cochlear hair cells. We examined changes in ribbon synapse number at four different ages in Fisher Brown Norway rats, an extensively studied rat model of aging. In contrast to previous work in mice/Wistar rats, we found minimal ribbon synapse loss before 20 months, with significant differences in 24- and 28-month-old rats at 4 kHz...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104609/a-discrete-transition-zone-between-cuticle-and-cortex-layers-of-a-human-hair-fibre-changes-observed-in-the-presence-of-breast-cancer
#7
Donald Lyman, Paula Gerstmann
Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy of hair fibres shows a discrete transition zone (DTZ) between the hard protective cuticle layer and the softer elongated cortical cells of the cortex. The DTZ is composed of flattened orthocortical cells located on the outer perimeter of the cortex and appears to range in thickness between 2 and 3.6 μm. The inner surface of the DTZ, adjacent to the elongated cortical cells that make up the core of the hair fibre, is irregular. ATR-FT-IR analyses of these flattened orthocortical cells indicate major changes in the molecular structure of keratins found in this transition zone...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093662/tmc2-modifies-permeation-properties-of-the-mechanoelectrical-transducer-channel-in-early-postnatal-mouse-cochlear-outer-hair-cells
#8
Laura F Corns, Jing-Yi Jeng, Guy P Richardson, Corné J Kros, Walter Marcotti
The ability of cochlear hair cells to convert sound into receptor potentials relies on the mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels present in their stereociliary bundles. There is strong evidence implying that transmembrane channel-like protein (TMC) 1 contributes to the pore-forming subunit of the mature MET channel, yet its expression is delayed (~>P5 in apical outer hair cells, OHCs) compared to the onset of mechanotransduction (~P1). Instead, the temporal expression of TMC2 coincides with this onset, indicating that it could be part of the immature MET channel...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092611/modeling-signal-propagation-in-the-human-cochlea
#9
Stephen T Neely, Daniel M Rasetshwane
The level-dependent component of the latency of human auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to tonebursts decreases by about 38% for every 20-dB increase in stimulus level over a wide range of both frequency and level [Neely, Norton, Gorga, and Jesteadt (1998). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 87-97]. This level-dependence has now been simulated in an active, nonlinear, transmission-line model of cochlear mechanics combined with an adaptation stage. The micromechanics in this model are similar to previous models except that a dual role is proposed for the tectorial membrane (TM): (1) passive sharpening the tuning of sensory-cell inputs (relative to basilar-membrane vibrations) and (2) providing an optimal phase shift (relative to basilar-membrane vibrations) of outer-hair-cell feedback forces, so that amplification is restricted to a limited range of frequencies...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081354/the-eversible-tentacle-organs-of-polyommatus-caterpillars-lepidoptera-lycaenidae-morphology-fine-structure-sensory-supply-and-functional-aspects
#10
W Gnatzy, M Jatho, T Kleinteich, S N Gorb, R Hustert
In their late (3(th) and 4th) larval stages, caterpillars of the myrmecophilous lycaenid (Lepidoptera) species Polyommatus coridon and P.icarus respectively, possess on their 8th abdominal segment two eversible so called tentacle organs (TOs). Previous histological and behavioural results have proposed that the TOs may release a volatile substance that elicits "excited runs" in attendant ants. In our study we investigated for the first time the temporal in- and eversion pattern of TOs. Using nerve tracing, Micro-CT, light- and electron microscopy techniques we studied (i) the histology of the 8th abdominal segment, (ii) the fine structure of the cuticular and cellular apparatus of the TOs, (iii) the attachment sites of the retractor muscle of each TO and (iv) the fine structure of the long slender tentacle hairs which are exposed to the outside, when the TOs are everted and fold back into the TO-sac during inversion...
October 25, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078349/requirement-of-zinc-transporter-zip10-for-epidermal-development-implication-of-the-zip10-p63-axis-in-epithelial-homeostasis
#11
Bum-Ho Bin, Jinhyuk Bhin, Mikiro Takaishi, Koh-Ei Toyoshima, Saeko Kawamata, Kana Ito, Takafumi Hara, Takashi Watanabe, Tarou Irié, Teruhisa Takagishi, Su-Hyon Lee, Haeng-Sun Jung, Sangchul Rho, Juyeon Seo, Dong-Hwa Choi, Daehee Hwang, Haruhiko Koseki, Osamu Ohara, Shigetoshi Sano, Takashi Tsuji, Kenji Mishima, Toshiyuki Fukada
Skin tissues, in particular the epidermis, are severely affected by zinc deficiency. However, the zinc-mediated mechanisms that maintain the cells that form the epidermis have not been established. Here, we report that the zinc transporter ZIP10 is highly expressed in the outer root sheath of hair follicles and plays critical roles in epidermal development. We found that ZIP10 marked epidermal progenitor cell subsets and that ablating Zip10 caused significant epidermal hypoplasia accompanied by down-regulation of the transactivation of p63, a master regulator of epidermal progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068588/potential-protective-effect-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-acoustic-trauma-an-experimental-study-using-scanning-electron-microscopy
#12
Servet Ada, Deniz Hanci, Seçkin Ulusoy, Djanan Vejselova, Dilek Burukoglu, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Cemal Cingi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been associated with pathological processes involved in acoustic trauma. OBJECTIVES: In this prospective experimental study, we investigated the potential preventive effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in rats exposed to acoustic trauma (AT). Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) evaluations were performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Healthy Wistar albino rats (n = 18) were divided into 3 groups: group 1 (control group, n = 6), group 2 (acoustic trauma group, n = 6), and group 3 (AT+NAC group, n = 6)...
September 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065096/changes-in-serum-prestin-concentration-after-exposure-to-cisplatin
#13
Benjamin Liba, James Naples, Elizabeth Bezyk, Charlene Campbell, Michael Mei, Kourosh Parham
HYPOTHESIS: There are temporal changes in the outer-hair-cell-specific protein, prestin, in the blood after administration of low-dose cisplatin. METHODS: Two rodent models of ototoxicity were used. After control and baseline data collection, mice (n = 30) and guinea pigs (n = 10), respectively, were treated with cisplatin at 8 mg/kg. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded on Days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after treatment. Five mice were sacrificed at each time point and serum samples were obtained...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059194/role-of-neuropilin-1-semaphorin-3a-signaling-in-the-functional-and-morphological-integrity-of-the-cochlea
#14
Pezhman Salehi, Marshall X Ge, Usha Gundimeda, Leah Michelle Baum, Homero Lael Cantu, Joel Lavinsky, Litao Tao, Anthony Myint, Charlene Cruz, Juemei Wang, Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Carolina Abdala, Matthew William Kelley, Takahiro Ohyama, Thomas Matthew Coate, Rick A Friedman
Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) encodes the transmembrane cellular receptor neuropilin-1, which is associated with cardiovascular and neuronal development and was within the peak SNP interval on chromosome 8 in our prior GWAS study on age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in mice. In this study, we generated and characterized an inner ear-specific Nrp1 conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line because Nrp1 constitutive knockouts are embryonic lethal. In situ hybridization demonstrated weak Nrp1 mRNA expression late in embryonic cochlear development, but increased expression in early postnatal stages when cochlear hair cell innervation patterns have been shown to mature...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056431/effects-of-surgical-lesions-on-choline-acetyltransferase-activity-in-the-cat-cochlea
#15
Mark J Frilling, Gregory J Wiet, Donald A Godfrey, Judy A Parli, Jon D Dunn, C David Ross
Although it is well established that the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the enzyme for acetylcholine synthesis) in the mammalian cochlea is associated with its olivocochlear innervation, the distribution of this innervation in the cochlea varies somewhat among mammalian species. The quantitative distribution of ChAT activity in the cochlea has been reported for guinea pigs and rats. The present study reports the distribution of ChAT activity within the organ of Corti among the three turns of the cat cochlea and the effects of removing olivocochlear innervation either by a lateral cut aimed to totally transect the left olivocochlear bundle or a more medial cut additionally damaging the superior olivary complex on the same side...
October 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055051/opposing-expression-gradients-of-calcitonin-related-polypeptide-alpha-calca-cgrp%C3%AE-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-th-in-type-ii-afferent-neurons-of-the-mouse-cochlea
#16
Jingjing Sherry Wu, Pankhuri Vyas, Elisabeth Glowatzki, Paul Albert Fuchs
Type II spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are small caliber, unmyelinated afferents that extend dendritic arbors hundreds of microns along the cochlear spiral, contacting many outer hair cells (OHCs). Despite these many contacts, type II afferents are insensitive to sound and only weakly depolarized by glutamate release from OHCs. Recent studies suggest that type II afferents may be cochlear nociceptors, and can be excited by ATP released during tissue damage, by analogy to somatic pain-sensing C-fibers. The present work compares the expression patterns among cochlear type II afferents of two genes found in C-fibers: calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (Calca/Cgrpα), specific to pain-sensing C-fibers, and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), specific to low-threshold mechanoreceptive C-fibers, which was shown previously to be a selective biomarker of type II versus type I cochlear afferents (Vyas et al...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054590/double-fluorescent-labelling-of-a-bipolar-epithelial-cell-in-vitro-the-outer-hair-cell
#17
Csaba Harasztosi, Entcho Klenske, Susanne Badum, Emese Harasztosi, Anthony W Gummer
BACKGROUND: Fluorescence membrane markers are efficient tools for visualizing the dynamics of membrane recycling processes in living cells. The outer hair cell (OHC) - a bipolar epithelial cell in the cochlea - possesses endocytic activity at both its apical and basal poles. The best visual overview of transcytosis in the OHC is achieved when the cell is isolated, so that both the apical and the basal poles are in the same focal plane to allow confocal imaging. Until now, fluorescent markers were applied to the extracellular environment of isolated OHCs without distinguishing the apical and basal poles...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047191/wnt-signalling-pathways-in-skin-development-and-epidermal-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Anthony Veltri, Christopher Lang, Wen-Hui Lien
Mammalian skin and its appendages constitute the integumentary system forming a barrier between the organism and its environment. During development, skin epidermal cells divide rapidly and stratify into a multilayered epithelium, as well as invaginate downward in the underlying mesenchyme to form hair follicles (HFs). In postnatal skin, the interfollicular epidermal (IFE) cells continuously proliferate and differentiate while HFs undergo cycles of regeneration. Epidermal regeneration is fueled by epidermal stem cells (SCs) located in the basal layer of the IFE and the outer layer of the bulge in the HF...
October 19, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030089/knockdown-of-hif-1%C3%AE-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-outer-root-sheath-cells-exposed-to-hypoxia-in-vitro-an-involvement-of-shh-pathway
#19
Haihua Zhang, Weixiao Nan, Xingchao Song, Shiyong Wang, Huazhe Si, Guangyu Li
AIMS: Outer root sheath (ORS) is a highly proliferative component of a hair follicle. This study is performed to investigate whether hypoxia-induced elevation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a transcriptional activator, contributes to the outgrowth of ORS cells in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Hair follicles with intact ORS collected from 4-month old male American minks were cultured in normoxic or hypoxic condition (3% oxygen) for 7days. Primary ORS cells isolated from the mink hair follicles were exposed to hypoxia for 12, 24 or 48h, and their proliferation was analyzed with immunofluorescence assay using anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody...
October 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027038/rescue-of-outer-hair-cells-with-antisense-oligonucleotides-in-usher-mice-is-dependent-on-age-of-treatment
#20
Abhilash Ponnath, Frederic F Depreux, Francine M Jodelka, Frank Rigo, Hamilton E Farris, Michelle L Hastings, Jennifer J Lentz
The absence of functional outer hair cells is a component of several forms of hereditary hearing impairment, including Usher syndrome, the most common cause of concurrent hearing and vision loss. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatment of mice with the human Usher mutation, Ush1c c.216G>A, corrects gene expression and significantly improves hearing, as measured by auditory-evoked brainstem responses (ABRs), as well as inner and outer hair cell (IHC and OHC) bundle morphology. However, it is not clear whether the improvement in hearing achieved by ASO treatment involves the functional rescue of outer hair cells...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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