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Hepatitis C in prison

Adam L Beckman, Alyssa Bilinski, Ryan Boyko, George M Camp, A T Wall, Joseph K Lim, Emily A Wang, R Douglas Bruce, Gregg S Gonsalves
Prisoners bear much of the burden of the hepatitis C epidemic in the United States. Yet little is known about the scope and cost of treating hepatitis C in state prisons-particularly since the release of direct-acting antiviral medications. In the forty-one states whose departments of corrections reported data, 106,266 inmates (10 percent of their prisoners) were known to have hepatitis C on or about January 1, 2015. Only 949 (0.89 percent) of those inmates were being treated. Prices for a twelve-week course of direct-acting antivirals such as sofosbuvir and the combination drug ledipasvir/sofosbuvir varied widely as of September 30, 2015 ($43,418-$84,000 and $44,421-$94,500, respectively)...
October 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Sinisa Skocibusic, Marko Martinac, Jurica Arapovic, Svjetlana Grgic, Jadranka Nikolic, Dino Hasanagic, Milenko Bevanda, Jelena Ravlija
INTRODUCTION: Use of intravenous heroin carries a risk of serious medical conditions, including acquiring blood-borne infections. Therefore, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represent a threat for people who inject drugs (PWID). The objectives of this study were to determine the extent and characteristics of risk factors for acquiring HBV and HCV infection in PWID included in opiate substitution treatment in the southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Belinda K Mössner, Benjamin Staugaard, Janne Jensen, Søren Thue Lillevang, Peer B Christensen, Dorte Kinggaard Holm
AIM: To detect chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in dried blood spot (DBS) and compare these samples to venous blood sampling in real-life. METHODS: We included prospective patients with known viral infections from drug treatment centers, a prison and outpatient clinics and included blood donors as negative controls. Five drops of finger capillary blood were spotted on filter paper, and a venous blood sample was obtained...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Simon Graham, Mary-Ellen Harrod, Jenny Iversen, Jane Simone Hocking
CONTEXT: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) account for approximately 3% of the Australian population. They have the poorest health, economic and social outcomes. Higher notification rates of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) have been reported among Aboriginal compared with non-Aboriginal people. The identification of Aboriginal people in national surveillance has some weaknesses, with only four of the eight jurisdictions included in national reporting. To address some of these limitations, we aim to estimate the pooled prevalence of anti-HCV among Aboriginal people in Australia...
July 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
Lise Lafferty, Carla Treloar, Tony Butler, Jill Guthrie, Georgina M Chambers
BACKGROUND: Social capital has been shown to be a valuable resource for improving health outcomes. However, it has received little attention in the prison setting. Dimensions of social capital in mainstream society are likely to function differently among inmates in prison. This study seeks to identify and understand social capital dimensions among incarcerated men living with hepatitis C. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted across three correctional centres in New South Wales with 30 male inmates living with hepatitis C...
2016: Health & Justice
Stephanie Coward, Laura Leggett, Gilaad G Kaplan, Fiona Clement
OBJECTIVES: With the developments of near-cures for hepatitis C virus (HCV), who to screen has become a high-priority policy issue in many western countries. Cost-effectiveness of screening programmes should be one consideration when developing policy. The objective of this work is to synthesise the cost-effectiveness of HCV screening programmes. SETTING: A systematic review was completed. 5 databases were searched until May 2016 (NHSEED, MEDLINE, the HTA Health Technology Assessment Database, EMBASE, EconLit)...
2016: BMJ Open
E J Aspinall, W Mitchell, J Schofield, A Cairns, S Lamond, P Bramley, S E Peters, H Valerio, J Tomnay, D J Goldberg, P R Mills, S T Barclay, A Fraser, J F Dillon, N K Martin, M Hickman, S J Hutchinson
Prisoners are a priority group for hepatitis C (HCV) treatment. Although treatment durations will become shorter using directly acting antivirals (DAAs), nearly half of prison sentences in Scotland are too short to allow completion of DAA therapy prior to release. The purpose of this study was to compare treatment outcomes between prison- and community-based patients and to examine the impact of prison release or transfer during therapy. A national database was used to compare treatment outcomes between prison treatment initiates and a matched community sample...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Jasmina Simonović Babić, Ksenija Bojović, Dragan Delić, Nataga Katanić, Nikola Mitrović, Jovan Malinić
INTRODUCTION: Seroprevlence of chronic hepatitis C viral infection in correctional facilities ranges from 16% to 49%. However, there are only very limited data available on the course of hepatitis C viral infection and outcomes oftreatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in correctional settings. The aim ofthis study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of use of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment in the Serbian correctional setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of the patients with hepatitis C hospitalized in the Special Hospital for Prisoners in Belgrade (Serbia) during 2007-2013...
March 2016: Medicinski Pregled
Kathryn Jack, Natalie Islip, Paul Linsley, Brian Thomson, Anne Patterson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the views of prison officers in an English category B male prison about people in prison being tested and treated for hepatitis C. BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C testing and treatment in English prisons remains low with the reasons being poorly understood. Prison officers are in continuous contact with prisoners so might observe factors that may influence people in prisons' choice in whether to accept hepatitis C testing and treatment. DESIGN: A qualitative design within an interpretative framework was employed...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Ingrid A Binswanger, Patrick J Blatchford, Simon J Forsyth, Marc F Stern, Stuart A Kinner
OBJECTIVES: People in prison may be at high risk for infectious diseases and have an elevated risk of death immediately after release compared with later; their risk of death is elevated for at least a decade after release. We compared rates, characteristics, and prison-related risk factors for infectious disease-related mortality among people released from prisons in Queensland, Australia, and Washington State, United States, regions with analogous available data. METHODS: We analyzed data from retrospective cohort studies of people released from prison in Queensland (1997-2007, n=37,180) and Washington State (1999-2009, n=76,208) and linked identifiers from each cohort to its respective national death index...
July 2016: Public Health Reports
Lauren J Stockman, James Greer, Ryan Holzmacher, Beth Dittmann, Scott A Hoftiezer, Lori E Alsum, Audrey Prieve, Ryan P Westergaard, Sheila M Guilfoyle, James M Vergeront
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among young adults is rising in Wisconsin. We examined the prevalence of HCV infection among male and female inmates entering two Wisconsin prisons and evaluated existing and alternate risk-based strategies for identifying HCV infection at intake. METHODS: We added HCV testing to the intake procedures for all 1,239 adults prison entrants at the Wisconsin Department of Corrections (WDOC) from November 3, 2014, to January 31, 2015...
July 2016: Public Health Reports
Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Stewart E Reid, Amee Schwitters, Lucas Wiessing, Nabila El-Bassel, Kate Dolan, Babak Moazen, Andrea L Wirtz, Annette Verster, Frederick L Altice
The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are higher in prisons than in the general population in most countries worldwide. Prisons have emerged as a risk environment for these infections to be further concentrated, amplified, and then transmitted to the community after prisoners are released. In the absence of alternatives to incarceration, prisons and detention facilities could be leveraged to promote primary and secondary prevention strategies for these infections to improve prisoners health and reduce risk throughout incarceration and on release...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
Frederick L Altice, Lyuba Azbel, Jack Stone, Ellen Brooks-Pollock, Pavlo Smyrnov, Sergii Dvoriak, Faye S Taxman, Nabila El-Bassel, Natasha K Martin, Robert Booth, Heino Stöver, Kate Dolan, Peter Vickerman
Despite global reductions in HIV incidence and mortality, the 15 UNAIDS-designated countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 constitute the only region where both continue to rise. HIV transmission in EECA is fuelled primarily by injection of opioids, with harsh criminalisation of drug use that has resulted in extraordinarily high levels of incarceration. Consequently, people who inject drugs, including those with HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis, are concentrated within prisons...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
Kate Dolan, Andrea L Wirtz, Babak Moazen, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Alison Galvani, Stuart A Kinner, Ryan Courtney, Martin McKee, Joseph J Amon, Lisa Maher, Margaret Hellard, Chris Beyrer, Fredrick L Altice
The prison setting presents not only challenges, but also opportunities, for the prevention and treatment of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis. We did a comprehensive literature search of data published between 2005 and 2015 to understand the global epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and tuberculosis in prisoners. We further modelled the contribution of imprisonment and the potential impact of prevention interventions on HIV transmission in this population. Of the estimated 10·2 million people incarcerated worldwide on any given day in 2014, we estimated that 3·8% have HIV (389 000 living with HIV), 15·1% have HCV (1 546 500), 4·8% have chronic HBV (491 500), and 2·8% have active tuberculosis (286 000)...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
Josiah D Rich, Curt G Beckwith, Alexandria Macmadu, Brandon D L Marshall, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Joseph J Amon, M-J Milloy, Maximilian R F King, Jorge Sanchez, Lukoye Atwoli, Frederick L Altice
The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and tuberculosis in incarcerated settings in addition to co-occurrence of one or more of these infections. Methods such as screening practices and provision of treatment during detainment periods are reviewed to identify the effect of community-based treatment when returning inmates into the general population...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
Antons Mozalevskis, Irina Eramova, Kelly Safreed-Harmon, Jeffrey V Lazarus
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics warrant a comprehensive response based on reliable population-level information about transmission, disease progression and disease burden, with national surveillance systems playing a major role. In order to shed light on the status of surveillance in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region outside of the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), we surveyed 18 countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Among the 10 countries that responded, the common features of many surveillance systems included mandatory surveillance, passive case-finding and the reporting of both acute and chronic HBV and HCV...
June 2, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Negar Rezaei, Sedigheh Amini-Kafiabad, Mahtab Maghsudlu, Hasan Abolghasemi
BACKGROUND: Due to blood screening and blood donor selection, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is expected to be lower among blood donors compared to the general population. The effective control of blood-transmitted infectious diseases should be one of the goals of public health. Thus, this case-control study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of HCV in a representative sample of blood donors in Iran. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on HCV-negative and on serologically confirmed HCV-positive donors across the country from 2009 to 2013...
July 2016: Transfusion
Antoine Jaquet, Gilles Wandeler, Judicaël Tine, Claver A Dagnra, Alain Attia, Akouda Patassi, Abdoulaye Ndiaye, Victor de Ledinghen, Didier K Ekouevi, Moussa Seydi, François Dabis
BACKGROUND: Prisoners represent a vulnerable population for blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections which can potentially lead to liver fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis. However, little is known about the prevalence of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors among inmates in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Screening of liver fibrosis was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of male inmates incarcerated in Lome, Togo and in Dakar, Senegal using transient elastography...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Marieke Heijnen, Ghina R Mumtaz, Laith J Abu-Raddad
INTRODUCTION: The status of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among incarcerated populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the links between prisons and the HIV epidemic are poorly understood. This review synthesized available HIV and HCV data in prisons in MENA and highlighted opportunities for action. METHODS: The review was based on data generated through the systematic searches of the MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2003 to December 15, 2015) and the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2011 to December 15, 2015)...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
David A Sheridan, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Fiona I Fenwick, Gail V Matthews, Tanya Applegate, Mark Douglas, Dermot Neely, Bev Askew, Gregory J Dore, Andrew R Lloyd, Jacob George, Margaret F Bassendine, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is bound to plasma lipoproteins and circulates as an infectious lipoviral particle (LVP). Experimental evidence indicates that LVPs have decreased susceptibility to antibody mediated neutralisation and higher infectivity. This study tested the hypothesis that LVPs are required to establish persistent infection, and conversely, low levels of LVP in recent HCV infection increase the probability of spontaneous HCV clearance. METHODS: LVP in non-fasting plasma was measured using the concentration of HCV RNA bound to large >100 nM sized lipoproteins after ex vivo addition of a lipid emulsion, that represented the maximum concentration of LVP (maxi-LVP)...
May 25, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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