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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221941/the-hap-complex-governs-fumonisin-biosynthesis-and-maize-kernel-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-verticillioides
#1
John B Ridenour, Jonathon E Smith, Burton H Bluhm
Contamination of maize ( Zea mays ) with fumonisins produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a global concern for food safety. Fumonisins are a group of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube birth defects in humans and numerous toxicoses in livestock. Despite the importance of fumonisins in global maize production, the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis during kernel pathogenesis is poorly understood. The HAP complex is a conserved, heterotrimeric transcriptional regulator that binds the consensus sequence CCAAT to modulate gene expression...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216325/universal-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-therapeutic-antibodies
#2
REVIEW
Raffael Nachbagauer, Florian Krammer
BACKGROUND: Current influenza virus vaccines are effective when well matched to the circulating strains. Unfortunately, antigenic drift and the high diversity of potential emerging zoonotic and pandemic viruses make it difficult to select the right strains for vaccine production. This problem causes vaccine mismatches which lead to sharp drops in vaccine effectiveness and long response times in case of novel pandemic viruses. AIMS: To provide an overview of universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies in pre-clinical and clinical development...
February 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212588/colorectal-polypectomy-and-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-emr-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-clinical-guideline
#3
Monika Ferlitsch, Alan Moss, Cesare Hassan, Pradeep Bhandari, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Gregorios Paspatis, Rodrigo Jover, Cord Langner, Maxime Bronzwaer, Kumanan Nalankilli, Paul Fockens, Rawi Hazzan, Ian M Gralnek, Michael Gschwantler, Elisabeth Waldmann, Philip Jeschek, Daniela Penz, Denis Heresbach, Leon Moons, Arnaud Lemmers, Konstantina Paraskeva, Juergen Pohl, Thierry Ponchon, Jaroslaw Regula, Alessandro Repici, Matthew D Rutter, Nicholas G Burgess, Michael J Bourke
1 ESGE recommends cold snare polypectomy (CSP) as the preferred technique for removal of diminutive polyps (size ≤ 5 mm). This technique has high rates of complete resection, adequate tissue sampling for histology, and low complication rates. (High quality evidence, strong recommendation.) 2 ESGE suggests CSP for sessile polyps 6 - 9 mm in size because of its superior safety profile, although evidence comparing efficacy with hot snare polypectomy (HSP) is lacking. (Moderate quality evidence, weak recommendation...
February 17, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208298/surface-accessibility-and-dynamics-of-macromolecular-assemblies-probed-by-covalent-labeling-mass-spectrometry-and-integrative-modeling
#4
Carla Schmidt, Jamie A Macpherson, Andy M Lau, Ken Wei Tan, Franca Fraternali, Argyris Politis
Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an indispensable tool for investigating the architectures and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies. Here we show that covalent labeling of solvent accessible residues followed by their MS-based identification yields modeling restraints that allow mapping the location and orientation of subunits within protein assemblies. Together with complementary restraints derived from cross-linking and native MS, we built native-like models of four heterocomplexes with known subunit structures and compared them with available X-ray crystal structures...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203512/unusual-volar-pulp-location-of-glomus-tumor
#5
Ian A Rosner, Anne E Argenta, Kia M Washington
Glomus tumors are benign, painful growths originating from glomus bodies and comprise just 1% of tumors arising in the hand, with fewer than 10% in the volar pulp of digits. Hallmark symptoms of glomus tumors include hypersensitivity to cold, heightened pinprick sensitivity, and paroxysmal pain. We report a 72-year-old, right-hand dominant man who presented with pain in the left middle finger, localized to the tip. The fingertip was incredibly sensitive to touch, and his pain increased at night. He reported no recollection of trauma...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202468/the-crumbs_c-isoform-of-drosophila-shows-tissue-and-stage-specific-expression-and-prevents-light-dependent-retinal-degeneration
#6
Stephanie Spannl, Alexandra Kumichel, Sarita Hebbar, Katja Kapp, Marcos Gonzalez-Gaitan, Sylke Winkler, Rosana Blawid, Gregor Jessberger, Elisabeth Knust
Drosophila Crumbs (Crb) is a key regulator of epithelial polarity and fulfils a plethora of other functions, such as growth regulation, morphogenesis of photoreceptor cells and prevention of retinal degeneration. This raises the question how a single gene regulates such diverse functions, which in mammals are controlled by three different paralogs. Here, we show that in Drosophila different Crb protein isoforms are differentially expressed as a result of alternative splicing. All isoforms are transmembrane proteins that differ by just one EGF-like repeat in their extracellular portion...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198510/letter-partial-diallel-crosses-for-predicting-yield-of-semiexotic-maize-populations
#7
C M Silva, J B Miranda Filho, U C Mendes, E F Reis
In Brazil, the total production of maize has increased continuously due to the advances in technology but also to the new frontiers for the maize crop, including the expansion of the second crop (safrinha; usually maize after soybean). Therefore, the exploitation of new sources of germplasm seems to be imperative to attend the actual and future demands for modern cultivars adapted to the greatly variable environments available to the maize crop. The present study was based on a partial diallel (intergroup) cross to provide quantitative information on the potential of two groups of varieties (NAP - exotics and HG - local) and their combining abilities to direct the synthesis of new populations to be used in hybrid crosses or as a base for breeding programs...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198498/early-selection-of-sugarcane-using-path-analysis
#8
R P Barbosa, F Alcântara Neto, L M Gravina, G A Gravina, M G T Portela, A A C Bezerra
The aim of this study was to analyze sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) biometric and technological data, obtained at different timepoints, using path analysis. The experiment was conducted in União, PI, Brazil, and evaluated 12 sugarcane genotypes (RB036066, RB9438, RB935744, RB021764, RB021754, RB021534, RB966229, RB977540, RB863129, and RB987935, and the varieties RB92579 and RB867515 as controls) in a randomized block design with four replications. Data were collected at six timepoints that were spaced 30 days apart (90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 days)...
February 8, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198063/conserved-versus-derived-patterns-of-controlled-cell-death-during-the-embryonic-development-of-two-species-of-onychophora-velvet-worms
#9
Sandra Treffkorn, Georg Mayer
Background Apoptosis is involved in various developmental processes, including cell migration and tissue and organ formation. Some of these processes are conserved across metazoans, while others are specific to particular taxa. Although the patterns of apoptosis have been investigated in arthropods, no corresponding data are available from one of their closest relatives, the Onychophora (velvet worms). Results We analyzed the patterns of apoptosis in embryos of two onychophoran species: the lecithotrophic/matrotrophic viviparous peripatopsid Euperipatoides rowelli, and the placentotrophic viviparous peripatid Principapillatus hitoyensis...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187575/stalked-jellyfishes-cnidaria-staurozoa-of-south-africa-with-the-description-of-i-calvadosia-i-i-lewisi-i-sp-nov
#10
Lucília S Miranda, George M Branch, Allen G Collins, Yayoi M Hirano, Antonio C Marques, Charles L Griffiths
Stalked jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Staurozoa) are cryptic, benthic animals, known mainly from polar and temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere. We describe a new species, Calvadosia lewisi, from South Africa and review the staurozoan fauna of the region. Three other species are previously known from South Africa: Calvadosia capensis (Carlgren, 1938); Depastromorpha africana Carlgren, 1935; and Lipkea stephensoni Carlgren, 1933, but all of these are known from very few records and have been poorly illustrated and documented to date...
February 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185824/uncovering-the-mask-of-the-simulium-feuerborni-complex-diptera-simuliidae-description-of-a-new-pseudocryptic-species-simulium-pairoti-from-malaysia
#11
Zubaidah Ya'cob, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun
A black fly species of the Simulium feuerborni species-group of Simulium (Nevermannia) from Cameron Highland, Peninsular Malaysia, previously regarded as S. feuerborni Edwards, originally described from East Java, is described as Simulium pairoti sp. nov. based on complete life stages. High intraspecific variations in the arrangement of the six pupal gill filaments, length of the stalk of the ventral paired filaments, and length of the anterodorsal projection of the cocoon, are noted in this species. This new species is readily distinguished from its congeners by having the characters of male genitalia with simple lamellate ventral plate, short inwardly-twisted styles, several parameral hooks, and a simple narrow median sclerite...
February 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180224/an-open-route-to-asymmetric-substituted-al-al-bonds-using-al-i-and-al-iii-precursors
#12
Bin Li, Subrata Kundu, Hongping Zhu, Helena Keil, Regine Herbst-Irmer, Dietmar Stalke, Gernot Frenking, Diego M Andrada, Herbert W Roesky
The reaction of LAl: (L = HC[C(Me)N(Ar)]2, Ar = 2,6-iPr2C6H3) and cAAC:→AlX3 (X = Cl, I) (cAAC = cyclic alkyl amino carbene) results in strikingly asymmetric Al(ii)-Al(ii) compounds LAl(X)-Al(X)2-cAAC [X = Cl (2a); I (2b)]. In these dialuminum(ii) compounds the two Al atoms bear different ligand environments. For a detailed insight into the structures, theoretical calculations were carried out.
February 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179523/progesterone-based-contraceptives-reduce-adaptive-immune-responses-and-protection-against-sequential-influenza-a-virus-infections
#13
Olivia J Hall, Raffael Nachbagauer, Meghan S Vermillion, Ashley L Fink, Vanessa Phuong, Florian Krammer, Sabra L Klein
In addition to their intended use, progesterone (P4)-based contraceptives promote anti-inflammatory immune responses, yet their effects on the outcome of infectious diseases, including influenza A virus (IAV), are rarely evaluated. To evaluate their impact on immune responses to sequential IAV infections, adult female mice were treated with placebo or one of two progestins, P4 or levonorgestrel (LNG), and infected with mouse adapted (ma) H1N1 virus. Treatment with P4 or LNG reduced morbidity, but had no effect on pulmonary virus titers, during primary H1N1 infection as compared to placebo treatment...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179369/nmd3-is-a-structural-mimic-of-eif5a-and-activates-the-cpgtpase-lsg1-during-60s-ribosome-biogenesis
#14
Andrey G Malyutin, Sharmishtha Musalgaonkar, Stephanie Patchett, Joachim Frank, Arlen W Johnson
During ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, nascent subunits are exported to the cytoplasm in a functionally inactive state. 60S subunits are activated through a series of cytoplasmic maturation events. The last known events in the cytoplasm are the release of Tif6 by Efl1 and Sdo1 and the release of the export adapter, Nmd3, by the GTPase Lsg1. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structure of the 60S subunit bound by Nmd3, Lsg1, and Tif6. We find that a central domain of Nmd3 mimics the translation elongation factor eIF5A, inserting into the E site of the ribosome and pulling the L1 stalk into a closed position...
February 8, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179231/yellow-fever-stalks-brazil-in-zika-s-wake
#15
Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176782/recurring-rna-structural-motifs-underlie-the-mechanics-of-l1-stalk-movement
#16
Srividya Mohan, Harry F Noller
The L1 stalk of the large ribosomal subunit undergoes large-scale movements coupled to the translocation of deacylated tRNA during protein synthesis. We use quantitative comparative structural analysis to localize the origins of L1 stalk movement and to understand its dynamic interactions with tRNA and other structural elements of the ribosome. Besides its stacking interactions with the tRNA elbow, stalk movement is directly linked to intersubunit rotation, rotation of the 30S head domain and contact of the acceptor arm of deacylated tRNA with helix 68 of 23S rRNA...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176001/multilayer-gyroid-cubic-membrane-organization-in-green-alga-zygnema
#17
Ting Zhan, Wenhua Lv, Yuru Deng
Biological cubic membranes (CM), which are fluid membranes draped onto the 3D periodic parallel surface geometries with cubic symmetry, have been observed within subcellular organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and thylakoids. CM transition tends to occur under various stress conditions; however, multilayer CM organizations often appear associated with light stress conditions. This report is about the characterization of a projected gyroid CM in a transmission electron microscopy study of the chloroplast membranes within green alga Zygnema (LB923) whose lamellar form of thylakoid membrane started to fold into multilayer gyroid CM in the culture at the end of log phase of cell growth...
February 7, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167884/pathological-status-of-pyricularia-angulata-causing-blast-and-pitting-disease-of-banana-in-eastern-india
#18
Sangeetha Ganesan, Hari Shankar Singh, Srinivas Petikam, Debasish Biswal
Incidence of leaf blast on nursery plants and pitting disease on maturing banana bunches has been recorded in banana plantations during rainy season in Eastern India during 2014 to 2015. Taxonomical identification as well as DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of fungus isolated from affected tissue culture derived plantlets and fruits confirmed the pathogen to be Pyricularia angulata Hashioka "in both the cases". Koch's postulates were proved on young plantlets as well as on maturing fruits of cv...
February 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166154/intrathoracic-accessory-lobe-of-liver-masquerading-as-a-paraesophageal-mass
#19
Christopher Ball, Jason Wayne Wachsmann
Heterotopic liver tissue is a relatively rare finding, which has historically been discovered incidentally during surgery or at autopsy. However, we present a 28-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath and stabbing chest pain. An emergent CT angiogram of the chest was performed, which incidentally revealed a mediastinal paraesophageal mass. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound showed a hypoechoic area that appeared to connect to the liver. A liver/spleen scan with SPECT/CT with Tc sulfur colloid demonstrated that the mass was paraesophageal heterotopic liver tissue with a connection to the orthotropic liver by a small stalk...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163876/petiolate-wings-effects-on-the-leading-edge-vortex-in-flapping-flight
#20
Nathan Phillips, Kevin Knowles, Richard J Bomphrey
The wings of many insect species including crane flies and damselflies are petiolate (on stalks), with the wing planform beginning some distance away from the wing hinge, rather than at the hinge. The aerodynamic impact of flapping petiolate wings is relatively unknown, particularly on the formation of the lift-augmenting leading-edge vortex (LEV): a key flow structure exploited by many insects, birds and bats to enhance their lift coefficient. We investigated the aerodynamic implications of petiolation P using particle image velocimetry flow field measurements on an array of rectangular wings of aspect ratio 3 and petiolation values of P = 1-3...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
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