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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093338/a-virus-like-particle-vaccination-strategy-expands-its-tolerance-to-h3n2-antigenic-drift-by-enhancing-neutralizing-antibodies-against-hemagglutinin-stalk
#1
Ji-Rong Yang, Chieh-Yu Cheng, Chih-Yuan Chen, Chao-Hua Lin, Chuan-Yi Kuo, Hsiang-Yi Huang, Fu-Ting Wu, Yu-Chih Yang, Chia-Ying Wu, Ming-Tsan Liu, Pei-Wen Hsiao
Seasonal influenza viruses impact public health annually due to their continual evolution. However, the current inactivated seasonal vaccines provide poor protection against antigenically drifted viruses and require periodical reformulation through hit-and-miss predictions about which strains will circulate during the next season. To reduce the impact caused by vaccine mismatch, we investigated the drift-tolerance of virus-like particles (VLP) as an improved vaccine candidate. The cross-protective humoral immunity elicited by the H3N2-VLP vaccine constructed for the 2011-2012 season was examined against viruses isolated from 2010 to 2015 in Taiwan evolving chronologically through clades 1, 4, 5, 3B and 3C, as well as viruses that were circulating globally in 2005, 2007 and 2009...
January 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089911/atypical-composition-and-structure-of-the-mitochondrial-dimeric-atp-synthase-from-euglena-gracilis
#2
K N Sathish Yadav, Héctor V Miranda-Astudillo, Lilia Colina-Tenorio, Fabrice Bouillenne, Hervé Degand, Pierre Morsomme, Diego González-Halphen, Egbert J Boekema, Pierre Cardol
Mitochondrial respiratory-chain complexes from Euglenozoa comprise classical subunits described in other eukaryotes (i.e. mammals and fungi) and subunits that are restricted to Euglenozoa (e.g. Euglena gracilis and Trypanosoma brucei). Here we studied the mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase (or Complex V) from the photosynthetic eukaryote E. gracilis in detail. The enzyme was purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure and its subunit composition was resolved by a three-dimensional gel electrophoresis (BN/SDS/SDS)...
January 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089805/surgical-outcomes-of-endoscopic-endonasal-skull-base-surgery-of-craniopharyngiomas-evaluated-according-to-the-degree-of-hypothalamic-extension
#3
Shigetoshi Yano, Takuichiro Hide, Naoki Shinojima
OBJECTIVE: Sparing the hypothalamus following craniopharyngiomas treatment is a prerequisite to ensure a good quality of life. In this study, the functional prognosis of craniopharyngioma following Endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery (EES) was examined in function of the degree of hypothalamic extension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cases of craniopharyngioma treated by EES were categorized according to Puget's classification using preoperative and postoperative MRI...
January 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079188/proteome-response-of-chicken-embryo-fibroblast-cells-to-recombinant-h5n1-avian-influenza-viruses-with-different-neuraminidase-stalk-lengths
#4
Yongtao Li, Fan Ming, Huimin Huang, Kelei Guo, Huanchun Chen, Meilin Jin, Hongbo Zhou
The variation on neuraminidase (NA) stalk region of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus results in virulence change in animals. In our previous studies, the special NA stalk-motif of H5N1 viruses has been demonstrated to play a significant role in the high virulence and pathogenicity in chickens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of viruses with different NA stalk remain poorly understood. This study presents a comprehensive characterization of the proteome response of chicken cells to recombinant H5N1 virus with stalk-short NA (rNA-wt) and the stalkless NA mutant virus (rSD20)...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078797/in-situ-incubation-of-iron-sulfur-mineral-reveals-a-diverse-chemolithoautotrophic-community-and-a-new-biogeochemical-role-for-thiomicrospira
#5
Roman A Barco, Colleen L Hoffman, Gustavo A Ramírez, Brandy M Toner, Katrina J Edwards, Jason B Sylvan
Sulfide mineral precipitation occurs at mid-ocean ridge (MOR) spreading centers, both in the form of plume particles and seafloor massive sulfide structures. A common constituent of MOR is the iron-bearing sulfide mineral pyrrhotite, which was chosen as a substrate for in-situ incubation studies in shallow waters of Catalina Island, CA to investigate the colonization of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Microbial community datasets were obtained from in-situ incubated pyrrhotite, allowing for direct comparison to microbial communities of iron-sulfides from active and inactive chimneys in deep-sea environments...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077631/vaccine-efficacy-of-an-inactivated-chimeric-ha-h9-h5n2-avian-influenza-virus-and-its-suitability-for-the-marker-vaccine-strategy
#6
Se Mi Kim, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Min-Suk Song, Young Ki Choi
: In order to produce a dual effective vaccine against H9 and H5 avian influenza viruses that aligns with the DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) strategy, we generated a chimeric H9/H5N2 recombinant vaccine which expressed the whole HA1 region of A/CK/Korea/04163/04 H9N2 and HA2 region of recent HPAI A/MD/Korea/W452/14 H5N8 viruses. The Chimeric H9/H5N2 virus showed similar in vitro and in vivo growth properties and virulence to the LPAI H9 influenza virus. An inactivated vaccine based on this chimeric virus induced serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies against both H9 and H5 viruses, but only induced cross-reactive hemmaglutination inhibition (HI) antibody against H9 viruses...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073340/a-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-putative-pathogenicity-genes-in-the-host-specific-sibling-species-colletotrichum-graminicola-and-colletotrichum-sublineola
#7
E A S Buiate, K V Xavier, N Moore, M F Torres, M L Farman, C L Schardl, L J Vaillancourt
BACKGROUND: Colletotrichum graminicola and C. sublineola cause anthracnose leaf and stalk diseases of maize and sorghum, respectively. In spite of their close evolutionary relationship, the two species are completely host-specific. Host specificity is often attributed to pathogen virulence factors, including specialized secondary metabolites (SSM), and small-secreted protein (SSP) effectors. Genes relevant to these categories were manually annotated in two co-occurring, contemporaneous strains of C...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070828/hypofractionated-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-pituitary-metastases
#8
Haemin Chon, KyoungJun Yoon, Do Hoon Kwon, Chang Jin Kim, Min-Seon Kim, Young Hyun Cho
Pituitary metastases (PMs) are uncommon, representing only 1% of pituitary lesions. The diagnosis of PMs can be challenging and an optimal management remains to be determined. Here, we present a pilot clinical study on the efficacy and safety of hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with an optimized dosimetric plan in treating PMs. Between June 2013 and December 2014, seven consecutive patients (4 men and 3 women; median age 62 years) had been diagnosed with PMs based on their characteristic clinical and radiological features and subsequently treated using hypofractionated SRS...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070500/chimeric-influenza-haemagglutinins-generation-and-use-in-pseudotype-neutralization-assays
#9
Francesca Ferrara, Nigel Temperton
Recently chimeric influenza haemagglutinins (cHAs) have been generated as potential 'universal' vaccination antigens and as tools to identify HA stalk-directed antibodies via their use as antigens in ELISA, and virus or pseudotype-based neutralization assays. The original methods [1], [2] used for their generation require the amplification of regions of interest (head and stalk) using primers containing SapI sites and subsequent cloning into pDZ plasmid. This requires precise primer design, checking for the absence of SapI sites in the sequence of interest, and multi-segment ligation...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067953/complex-genetic-architecture-underlies-maize-tassel-domestication
#10
Guanghui Xu, Xufeng Wang, Cheng Huang, Dingyi Xu, Dan Li, Jinge Tian, Qiuyue Chen, Chenglong Wang, Yameng Liang, Yaoyao Wu, Xiaohong Yang, Feng Tian
Maize (Zea mays) tassels underwent profound morphological changes during maize domestication and improvement. Although a number of genes affecting maize inflorescence development have been identified, the genetic basis of the morphological changes in maize tassels since domestication is not well understood. Here, using a large population of 866 maize-teosinte BC2 S3 recombinant inbred lines genotyped using 19 838 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, we performed high-resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for five tassel morphological traits...
January 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067842/biological-importance-of-cotton-by-products-relative-to-chemical-constituents-of-the-cotton-plant
#11
REVIEW
Mary A Egbuta, Shane McIntosh, Daniel L E Waters, Tony Vancov, Lei Liu
Although cultivated for over 7000 years, mainly for production of cotton fibre, the cotton plant has not been fully explored for potential uses of its other parts. Despite cotton containing many important chemical compounds, limited understanding of its phytochemical composition still exists. In order to add value to waste products of the cotton industry, such as cotton gin trash, this review focuses on phytochemicals associated with different parts of cotton plants and their biological activities. Three major classes of compounds and some primary metabolites have been previously identified in the plant...
January 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063110/toward-the-next-step-in-g-protein-coupled-receptor-research-a-knowledge-driven-analysis-for-the-next-potential-targets-in-drug-discovery
#12
Koji Nagata, Yukie Katayama, Tomomi Sato, Yeondae Kwon, Takeshi Kawabata
More than 800 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes have been discovered in the human genome. Towards the next step in GPCR research, we performed a knowledge-driven analysis of orphan class-A GPCRs that may serve as novel targets in drug discovery. We examined the relationship between 61 orphan class-A GPCR genes and diseases using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database and the DDSS tool. The OMIM database contains data on disease-related variants of the genes. Particularly, the variants of GPR101, GPR161, and GPR88 are related to the genetic diseases: growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma 2, pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (not confirmed), and childhood-onset chorea with psychomotor retardation, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Structural and Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057864/adenylate-cyclase-a-acting-on-pka-mediates-induction-of-stalk-formation-by-cyclic-diguanylate-at-the-dictyostelium-organizer
#13
Zhi-Hui Chen, Reema Singh, Christian Cole, Hajara Mohammed Lawal, Christina Schilde, Melanie Febrer, Geoffrey J Barton, Pauline Schaap
Coordination of cell movement with cell differentiation is a major feat of embryonic development. The Dictyostelium stalk always forms at the organizing tip, by a mechanism that is not understood. We previously reported that cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), synthesized by diguanylate cyclase A (DgcA), induces stalk formation. Here we used transcriptional profiling of dgca- structures to identify target genes for c-di-GMP, and used these genes to investigate the c-di-GMP signal transduction pathway. We found that knockdown of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity in prestalk cells reduced stalk gene induction by c-di-GMP, whereas PKA activation bypassed the c-di-GMP requirement for stalk gene expression...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056371/combined-pretreatment-with-torrefaction-and-washing-using-torrefaction-liquid-products-to-yield-upgraded-biomass-and-pyrolysis-products
#14
Dengyu Chen, Jiaming Mei, Haiping Li, Yiming Li, Mengting Lu, Tingting Ma, Zhongqing Ma
This study presented an approach to upgrade biomass and pyrolysis products using a process based on torrefaction liquid washing combined with torrefaction pretreatment. The torrefaction of cotton stalk was first conducted at 250°C for 30min and then the resulting torrefaction liquid products were collected and reused to wash cottonstalk. The pyrolysis of the original and pretreated cotton stalk was performed at 500°C for 15min in a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that the combined pretreatment obviously reduced the metallic species in cotton stalk, decreased the water and acids contents while promoted phenols in bio-oil, declined the ash content in biochar, as well as improved the heating value of non-condensable gas...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053210/monitoring-mexican-rice-borer-lepidoptera-crambidae-populations-in-sugarcane-and-rice-with-conventional-and-electronic-pheromone-traps
#15
B E Wilson, J M Beuzelin, M T VanWeelden, T E Reagan, M O Way
The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., rice, Oryza sativa L., and other graminaceous crops in Texas and Louisiana. The ability of conventional and electronic pheromone traps to monitor E. loftini in sugarcane and rice habitats was evaluated in two separate 2-yr field studies. Bucket traps baited with a synthetic female sex pheromone monitored E. loftini populations in commercial sugarcane fields in Calcasieu and Jefferson Davis Parishes throughout the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046005/field-usable-lateral-flow-immunoassay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv
#16
Prabir Kumar Kulabhusan, Jyutika M Rajwade, Vimal Sugumar, Gani Taju, A S Sahul Hameed, Kishore M Paknikar
BACKGROUND: White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042029/binding-of-translation-elongation-factors-to-individual-copies-of-the-archaeal-ribosomal-stalk-protein-ap1-assembled-onto-ap0
#17
Takayoshi Honda, Hirotatsu Imai, Takahiro Suzuki, Tomohiro Miyoshi, Kosuke Ito, Toshio Uchiumi
Ribosomes in all organisms contain oligomeric and flexible proteins called stalks, which are responsible for the recruitment of translational GTPase factors to the ribosome. Archaeal ribosomes have three stalk homodimers (aP1)2 that constitute a heptameric complex with the anchor protein aP0. We investigated the factor binding ability of aP1 proteins assembled onto aP0, by gel-retardation assays. The isolated aP0(aP1)2(aP1)2(aP1)2 complex, as well as the form bound to the E. coli 50S core, as a hybrid 50S particle, interacted strongly with elongation factor aEF2, but weakly with aEF1A...
December 29, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040870/innovative-methods-to-generate-clean-sugar-stream-from-biomass-feedstocks-for-efficient-fermentation
#18
REVIEW
Jung-Eun Lee, Yadhu N Guragain, Krishna P Bastola, Praveen V Vadlani
Sorghum stalks were evaluated to generate clean sugars; enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of acid pretreated biomass was significantly low (12.3 g sugar/g pretreated biomass) compared to alkali method (49.1 g sugar/g pretreated biomass). Inhibitory compounds derived from acid pretreatment, such as hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) and furfural, were effectively removed using an appropriate detoxification method using 1% (w/v) activated charcoal. The resin mixture containing cationic exchangers (DOWEX 50WX8) and anionic exchangers (IRA 743) in 7:3 ratio at pH 2...
December 31, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035661/evidence-of-toothpick-groove-formation-in-neandertal-anterior-and-posterior-teeth
#19
Almudena Estalrrich, José Antonio Alarcón, Antonio Rosas
OBJECTIVES: During the microscopic examination of the Neandertal dentitions from El Sidrón (Spain) and Hortus (France), we found unusual fine parallel microstriations on the mesial and distal sides of all tooth types, near the cervix. As its appearance was similar to toothpick grooves described in other Homo species, it could correspond to early stages on its formation. To test this hypothesis we developed an experimental replication of a groove using grass stalks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparisons between 204 isolated Neandertal teeth and the two experimental dental specimens corroborate that the marks correspond to initial stages of toothpick groove formation, and we propose a five-grade recording scale that summarized the groove formation process...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035164/physico-chemical-properties-wax-composition-aroma-profiles-and-antioxidant-activity-of-granulated-non-centrifugal-sugars-from-sugarcane-cultivars-of-thailand
#20
Monthana Weerawatanakorn, Yonathan Asikin, Makoto Takahashi, Hajime Tamaki, Koji Wada, Chi-Tang Ho, Raweewan Chuekittisak
Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) is globally consumed and has various health benefits. It is mostly produced in hardened block form, which is less convenient than in granulated form for food applications. In terms of the traditional processing of NCS, preparation of granulated products is difficult due to the impurities found in the cane juice extracted from the whole stalk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize and determine the physico-chemical properties, wax composition (policosanols and long-chain aldehydes), volatile aroma profiles, and antioxidant activity of traditional NCS in granular form made from four different cane cultivars of Thailand...
November 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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