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Tianhua Yang, Jian Wang, Bingshuo Li, Xingping Kai, Wanli Xing, Rundong Li
This study extended previous work investigating two-step liquefaction by supercritical ethanol of rice straw under CO2 atmosphere at temperatures of 270-345 °C. Subcritical CO2 -subcritical ethanol (SubCO2 -SubEtOH) pretreatment decreased the content of lignin in the rice stalk from 22.94 to 21.43 wt%. The results showed that although oxygen-transfer reaction, transesterification, carbonylation, and other reactions may occur with the supercritical CO2 -supercritical ethanol (ScCO2 -ScEtOH) liquefaction reactions, transesterification was the main reaction...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
B A Kadashev, A N Konovalov, L I Astaf'eva, P L Kalinin, M A Kutin, I S Klochkova, D V Fomichev, O I Sharipov, D N Andreev
The pituitary stalk (PS) is a relatively thin bundle connecting the hypophyseal stalk to the pituitary gland; it consists of both axons of the hypothalamic nuclei (terminating in the neurohypophysis) and the system of portal vessels. Compression of the PS by a space-occupying lesion or its transection (forced or intended) during surgery may lead to the development of endocrine disorders: hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and hyperprolactinemia. The modern literature lacks studies evaluating the severity of endocrine disorders depending on the PS condition before and after surgery...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Aitor Nogales, Michael S Piepenbrink, Jiong Wang, Sandra Ortega, Madhubanti Basu, Christopher F Fucile, John J Treanor, Alexander F Rosenberg, Martin S Zand, Michael C Keefer, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, James J Kobie
Influenza's propensity for antigenic drift and shift, and to elicit predominantly strain specific antibodies (Abs) leaves humanity susceptible to waves of new strains with pandemic potential for which limited or no immunity may exist. Subsequently new clinical interventions are needed. To identify hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes that if targeted may confer universally protective humoral immunity, we examined plasmablasts from a subject that was immunized with the seasonal influenza inactivated vaccine, and isolated a human monoclonal Ab (mAb), KPF1...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kyle K Jensen, Karen Y Oh, Anne M Kennedy, Roya Sohaey
Intrauterine linear echogenicity (ILE) is a common ultrasonographic finding in the gravid uterus and has variable causes and variable maternal and fetal outcomes. Correctly categorizing ILE during pregnancy is crucial for guiding surveillance and advanced imaging strategies. Common causes of ILE include membranes in multiple gestations, uterine synechiae with amniotic sheets, and uterine duplication anomalies. Less common causes include circumvallate placenta, chorioamniotic separation, and hemorrhage between membranes...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Kathryn A Jacobs, Julie Gavard
Endothelial cells have the capacity to shift between states of quiescence and angiogenesis. The early stage of angiogenesis, sprouting, occurs with the synchronized activities of tip cells, which lead the migration of the sprout, and stalk cells, which elongate this vessel sprout. Here, we describe a method to study in vitro this early and rapid stage of sprouting angiogenesis.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kyung Hwan Kim, Yong Hwy Kim, Yun-Sik Dho, Jung Hee Kim, Sang Duk Hong, Jung Won Choi, Ho Jun Seol, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Chul-Kee Park, Doo-Sik Kong
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in endoscopic techniques, retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas are difficult to remove completely, because the low-lying optic chiasm often provides an obstacle to endoscopic endonasal approach. This study aimed to identify the endoscopic surgical outcomes of the retrochiasmatic CP and resolve the issues related to the low-lying optic chiasm. METHODS: The authors reviewed 154 consecutive patients with craniopharyngioma who underwent endonasal endoscopic resection from February 2009 to April 2017 at two independent institutions...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Xianhua Wang, Jing Wu, Yingquan Chen, Adisak Pattiya, Haiping Yang, Hanping Chen
Wet torrefaction (WT) possesses some advantages over dry torrefaction (DT). In this study, a comparative analysis of torrefied corn stalk from WT and DT was conducted along with an investigation of their pyrolysis properties under optimal conditions for biomass pyrolysis polygeneration. Compared with DT, WT removed 98% of the ash and retained twice the amount of hydrogen. The impacts of DT and WT on the biomass macromolecular structure was also found to be different using two-dimensional perturbation correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-PCIS)...
February 27, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Juliane Lokau, Christoph Garbers
Interleukin (IL)-11 is a multifunctional cytokine that was traditionally recognized for its hematopoietic and anti-inflammatory functions, but has recently been shown also to be involved in tumorigenesis. IL-11 signaling is initiated by binding of the cytokine to the IL-11 receptor (IL-11R), which is not directly involved in signaling, but required for IL-11 binding to the signal-transducing receptor glycoprotein (gp)130. In classic signaling, IL-11 binds to the membrane-bound IL-11R in order to initiate signal transduction...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ana Margarida Monteiro, Olinda Marques, Sofia Martins, Ana Antunes
The authors report a case of a 15-year-old girl with hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk interruption syndrome diagnosed in the neonatal period. The patient was admitted to the emergency room with impaired consciousness and hypoglycaemia. The day before, she increased her water intake to about 1.5 L to perform a pelvic ultrasound. In the following hours, she developed vomiting and food refusal. Blood analysis revealed hypoglycaemia, hyponatraemia, decreased serum osmolality and normal urinary density. Hyponatraemia and adrenal crisis were managed with a gradual but slow resolution of consciousness and electrolytic balance...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Bin Tang, Limin Xiao, Shenhao Xie, Guanlin Huang, Zhigang Wang, Dongwei Zhou, Erming Zeng, Tao Hong
OBJECTIVES: Removal of recurrent or residual symptomatic craniopharyngiomas is more challenging than the primary surgery. The extended endoscopic endonasal (EEE) approach has been proposed an alternative surgical route for removal of various suprasellar tumors including craniopharyngiomas currently. In this study, we summarized the operative experience and described the feasibility and advantages of this technique in recurrent or residual symptomatic craniopharyngiomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 15 patients (9 males and 6 females) whom underwent EEE approach between April 2012 and February 2017, were included in this study...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Mengdi Yang, Yi Sun, Jing Sun, Zhiyu Wang, Yiyi Zhou, Guangyu Yao, Yifeng Gu, Huizhen Zhang, Hui Zhao
Despite recent advances in targeted and immune-based therapies, the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) with bone metastasis (BM) remains a challenge. First, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in LUAD with BM, and then matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to identify these proteins. Second, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to identify mutations in these differentially expressed proteins and Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM Plotter) was used to generate survival curves for the analyzed cases...
March 9, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Naohito Urakami, Takehiro Jimbo, Yuka Sakuma, Masayuki Imai
We investigated the effects of lipid geometry on vesicle division using coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations. When the vesicle is composed of zero and negative spontaneous curvature lipids (ZSLs and NSLs), the difference in their molecular spontaneous curvatures destabilizes the neck of the limiting shape vesicle. In the vesicle division pathway, the neck developed into the stalk intermediates. The stalk was broken when the NSLs were expelled from the stalk. Free energy analysis shows that the coupling between the lipid geometry and the Gaussian rigidity is responsible for the observed vesicle division...
March 8, 2018: Soft Matter
Fuyu Wang, Jiashu Zhang, Peng Wang, Tao Zhou, Xianghui Meng, Jinli Jiang
The preservation of pituitary stalk during surgery is very important for neurosurgeons. Sometimes, it is hard to identify the pituitary stalk in the operation. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract (HHT) projects through the pituitary stalk to the posterior pituitary gland. If the HHT can be identified, the position of pituitary stalk will be visualized. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking technique has been widely used for the quantitative assessment of the white matter integrity and thus may be suitable for the evaluation of the HHT...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jingjing Jiang, Hongling Wen, Miaomiao Chi, Ying Liu, Jingxue Liu, Zhankui Cao, Li Zhao, Yanyan Song, Na Liu, Lianli Chi, Zhiyu Wang
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) is an important respiratory pathogen that causes the majority of viral pneumonia of infants and young children. hPIV3 can infect host cells through the synergistic action of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and the homotypic fusion (F) protein on the viral surface. HN protein plays a variety of roles during the virus invasion process, such as promoting viral particles to bind to receptors, cleaving sialic acid, and activating the F protein. Crystal structure research shows that HN tetramer adopted a "heads-down" conformation, at least two heads dimmer on flank of the four-helix bundle stalk, which forms a symmetrical interaction interface...
March 7, 2018: Virus Genes
A O Mikhaylina, O S Kostareva, E Y Nikonova, M B Garber, S V Tishchenko
The conserved two-domain ribosomal protein (r-protein) L1 is a structural part of the L1 stalk of the large ribosomal subunit and regulates the translation of the operon that comprises its own gene. The regulatory properties of the bacterial r-protein L1 have only been studied in detail for Escherichia coli; however, there were no such studies for other bacteria, in particular, Thermus thermophilus and Thermotoga maritima, which are more evolutionarily ancient. It is known that domain I of the r-protein L1 might have regulatory properties of the whole protein...
January 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Yong-Qiang Zhao, Dan-Li Mu, Di Wang, Ying-Li Han, Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Spermatogenesis represents one of the most complicated morphological transformation procedures. During this process, the assembly and maintenance of the flagella and intracellular transport of membrane-bound organelles required KIF3A and KIF3B. Our main goal was to test KIF3A and KIF3B location during spermatogenesis of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. We cloned complete cDNA of KIF3A/3B from the testis of B. pectinirostris by PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The predicted secondary and tertiary structures of B...
March 6, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Samara Pillay, Helen M Byrne, Philip K Maini
Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels form from existing vessels. During angiogenesis, tip cells migrate via diffusion and chemotaxis, new tip cells are introduced through branching, loops form via tip-to-tip and tip-to-sprout anastomosis, and a vessel network forms as endothelial cells, known as stalk cells, follow the paths of tip cells (a process known as the snail-trail). Using a mean-field approximation, we systematically derive one-dimensional non-linear continuum models from a lattice-based cellular automaton model of angiogenesis in the corneal assay, explicitly accounting for cell volume...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Christopher S Anderson, Sandra Ortega, Francisco A Chaves, Amelia M Clark, Hongmei Yang, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
In-Won Lee, Young-Il Kim, Gyo-Jin Lim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Jae Si, Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Se Mi Kim, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Min-Suk Song, Young-Ki Choi
Recent canine influenza outbreaks have raised concerns about the generation of pathogenic variants that may pose a threat to public health. Here, we examine avian-like H3N2 canine influenza viruses (CIVs) isolated from 2009 to 2013 in South Korea from dogs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses are closely related to strains previously isolated from dogs in Korea and China. However, molecular characterization demonstrated non-synonymous mutations between the canine viruses, particularly in the putative H3 antigenic sites, NA stalk regions, and in the internal genes of the 2012-2013 isolates compared with the 2009 isolate...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Netsiri Dumrongpisutikul, Ammarut Chuajak, Sukalaya Lerdlum
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for neuroradiologic evaluation of patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD). OBJECTIVES: To compare pituitary height and morphology at MRI between patients with IGHD and controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in pediatric patients, 3 years-15 years old, who had had brain MRI with non-contrast-enhanced midsagittal T1-weighted images. These images were measured for pituitary height and morphology of the pituitary gland including shape, stalk and posterior pituitary bright spot was evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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