keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Wildlife stress

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651661/high-arctic-lemmings-remain-reproductively-active-under-predator-induced-elevated-stress
#1
Dominique Fauteux, Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux, Rupert Palme, Rudy Boonstra
Non-consumptive effects of predation have rarely been assessed in wildlife populations even though their impact could be as important as lethal effects. Reproduction of individuals is one of the most important demographic parameters that could be affected by predator-induced stress, which in turn can have important consequences on population dynamics. We studied non-consumptive effects of predation on the reproductive activity (i.e., mating and fertilization) of a cyclic population of brown lemmings exposed to intense summer predation in the Canadian High Arctic...
April 12, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627396/characterization-of-circulating-steroid-hormone-profiles-in-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms
#2
Thomas M Galligan, Lori H Schwacke, Dorian S Houser, Randall S Wells, Teri Rowles, Ashley S P Boggs
Systemic steroid hormone measurements are often used in the assessment of reproductive, developmental, and stress physiology in vertebrates. In protected wildlife, such as the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), these measures can provide critical information about health and fitness to aid in effective conservation and management. Circulating steroid hormone concentrations are typically measured by immunoassays, which have imperfect specificity and are limited to the measurement of a single hormone per assay...
April 5, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582590/gap-analysis-of-mycoplasma-bovis-disease-diagnosis-and-control-an-aid-to-identify-future-development-requirements
#3
M J Calcutt, I Lysnyansky, K Sachse, L K Fox, R A J Nicholas, R D Ayling
There is a worldwide problem of disease caused by Mycoplasma (M.) bovis in cattle; it has a significant detrimental economic and animal welfare impact on cattle rearing. Infection can manifest as a plethora of clinical signs including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, otitis media and genital disorders that may result in infertility and abortion. Current diagnosis and control information are reviewed and analysed to identify gaps in knowledge of the causative organism in respect of the disease pathology, diagnosis and control methods...
March 27, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563662/understanding-immune-function-as-a-pace-of-life-trait-requires-environmental-context
#4
REVIEW
B Irene Tieleman
This article provides a brief historical perspective on the integration of physiology into the concept of the pace of life of birds, evaluates the fit of immune function into this framework, and asks what it will take to fruitfully understand immune functioning of birds in pace of life studies in the future. In the late 1970s, physiology started to seriously enter avian life history ecology, with energy as the main currency of interest, inspired by David Lack's work in the preceding decades emphasizing how food availability explained life history variation...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531148/winter-feeding-of-elk-in-the-greater-yellowstone-ecosystem-and-its-effects-on-disease-dynamics
#5
REVIEW
Gavin G Cotterill, Paul C Cross, Eric K Cole, Rebecca K Fuda, Jared D Rogerson, Brandon M Scurlock, Johan T du Toit
Providing food to wildlife during periods when natural food is limited results in aggregations that may facilitate disease transmission. This is exemplified in western Wyoming where institutional feeding over the past century has aimed to mitigate wildlife-livestock conflict and minimize winter mortality of elk ( Cervus canadensis ). Here we review research across 23 winter feedgrounds where the most studied disease is brucellosis, caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus Traditional veterinary practices (vaccination, test-and-slaughter) have thus far been unable to control this disease in elk, which can spill over to cattle...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531144/livestock-abundance-predicts-vampire-bat-demography-immune-profiles-and-bacterial-infection-risk
#6
Daniel J Becker, Gábor Á Czirják, Dmitriy V Volokhov, Alexandra B Bentz, Jorge E Carrera, Melinda S Camus, Kristen J Navara, Vladimir E Chizhikov, M Brock Fenton, Nancy B Simmons, Sergio E Recuenco, Amy T Gilbert, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G Streicker
Human activities create novel food resources that can alter wildlife-pathogen interactions. If resources amplify or dampen, pathogen transmission probably depends on both host ecology and pathogen biology, but studies that measure responses to provisioning across both scales are rare. We tested these relationships with a 4-year study of 369 common vampire bats across 10 sites in Peru and Belize that differ in the abundance of livestock, an important anthropogenic food source. We quantified innate and adaptive immunity from bats and assessed infection with two common bacteria...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531143/reviewing-the-effects-of-food-provisioning-on-wildlife-immunity
#7
REVIEW
Tomas Strandin, Simon A Babayan, Kristian M Forbes
While urban expansion increasingly encroaches on natural habitats, many wildlife species capitalize on anthropogenic food resources, which have the potential to both positively and negatively influence their responses to infection. Here we examine how food availability and key nutrients have been reported to shape innate and adaptive immunity in wildlife by drawing from field-based studies, as well as captive and food restriction studies with wildlife species. Examples of food provisioning and key nutrients enhancing immune function were seen across the three study type distinctions, as were cases of trace metals and pharmaceuticals impairing the immunity of wildlife species...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500547/a-new-large-scale-index-aced-for-assessing-traffic-noise-disturbance-on-wildlife-stress-response-in-a-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus-population
#8
Carlos Iglesias-Merchan, Fernando Horcajada-Sánchez, Luis Diaz-Balteiro, Gema Escribano-Ávila, Carlos Lara-Romero, Emilio Virgós, Aimara Planillo, Isabel Barja
Anthropogenic noise is a growing ubiquitous and pervasive pollutant as well as a recognised stressor that spreads throughout natural ecosystems. However, there is still an urgent need for the assessment of noise impact on natural ecosystems. This article presents a multidisciplinary study which made it possible to isolate noise due to road traffic to evaluate it as a major driver of detrimental effects on wildlife populations. A new indicator has been defined: AcED (the acoustic escape distance) and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) were extracted from roe deer faecal samples as a validated indicator of physiological stress in animals moving around in two low-traffic roads that cross a National Park in Spain...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464278/biochemical-responses-in-freshwater-fish-exposed-to-insecticide-propoxur
#9
Carjone Rosa Gonçalves, Aline Teixeira Marins, Aline Monique Blank do Amaral, Jossiele Leitemperger, Eduardo Stringini Severo, Bibiana Silveira Moraes, Renato Zanella, Vania Lucia Loro
Although designed to control pests selectively, there is some evidence that environmental contamination by pesticides increases risks for humans and wildlife. In the present study, we evaluated biomarkers of oxidative stress in Astyanax jacuhiensis exposed to (5, 15 and 30 µg L-1 ) of carbamate Propoxur (PPX) for 96 h. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) in liver and gills showed reduced activity in all PPX concentrations tested. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities reduced in brain and muscle at concentrations 15 and 30 µg L-1 of PPX...
February 20, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459828/nature-based-tourism-elicits-a-phenotypic-shift-in-the-coping-abilities-of-fish
#10
Benjamin Geffroy, Bastien Sadoul, Amine Bouchareb, Sylvain Prigent, Jean-Paul Bourdineaud, Maria Gonzalez-Rey, Rosana N Morais, Maritana Mela, Lucélia Nobre Carvalho, Eduardo Bessa
Nature-based tourism is gaining extensive popularity, increasing the intensity and frequency of human-wildlife contacts. As a consequence, behavioral and physiological alterations were observed in most exposed animals. However, while the majority of these studies investigated the effects of punctual exposure to tourists, the consequences of constant exposition to humans in the wild remains overlooked. This is an important gap considering the exponential interest for recreational outdoor activities. To infer long-term effects of intensive tourism, we capitalized on Odontostilbe pequira , a short-lived sedentary Tetra fish who spends its life close to humans, on which it feeds on dead skin...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413384/advection-of-karenia-brevis-blooms-from-the-florida-panhandle-towards-mississippi-coastal-waters
#11
Inia M Soto, Mustafa Kemal Cambazoglu, Adam D Boyette, Kristina Broussard, Drew Sheehan, Stephan D Howden, Alan M Shiller, Brian Dzwonkowski, Laura Hode, Patrick J Fitzpatrick, Robert A Arnone, Paul F Mickle, Kimberly Cressman
Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis have been documented along coastal waters of every state bordering the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Some Gulf Coast locations, such as Florida and Texas, suffer from recurrent intense and spatially large blooms, while others such as Mississippi seem to rarely observe them. The main objective of this work is to understand the dynamics that led to the K. brevis bloom in Mississippi coastal waters in fall 2015. Blooms of K. brevis from the Florida Panhandle region are often advected westward towards the Mississippi-Alabama coast; however there is interannual variability in their presence and intensity in Mississippi coastal waters...
February 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411206/the-toxicity-of-a-mixture-of-two-antiseptics-triclosan-and-triclocarban-on-reproduction-and-growth-of-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Anna Katharina Vingskes, Nicole Spann
Many widely used healthcare products contain antiseptics, whose persistence in aquatic environments, soils, and sediments leads to the contamination of ecosystems and adversely affects wildlife. Recently, the impact not only of high but also low doses of contaminants and mixtures of several chemicals has become a focus of concern. In this study, toxicity tests of the antiseptics triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) were performed in an aquatic test medium using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Nominal concentrations of TCS and TCC were tested in separate single-substance toxicity tests (96-h-exposure), focussing on growth and reproduction endpoints...
February 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409969/challenges-pitfalls-and-surprises-development-and-validation-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-for-enzyme-immunoassay-of-the-steroid-1%C3%AE-hydroxycorticosterone-in-elasmobranch-species
#13
Catharine J Wheaton, Natalie D Mylniczenko, John M Rimoldi, Rama S V S Gadepalli, R Hart, Bobbi R O'Hara, Andrew N Evans
Sharks and rays are popular species used in wildlife ecotourism and aquariums to educate the public on the behavior, ecology and conservation challenges of elasmobranchs. To understand long-term physiological health and welfare under varying social and husbandry conditions, we developed and validated an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure stress/ionoregulatory hormones in managed and semi-free range southern rays (Hypanus americanus). Banked serum and interrenal samples from 27 female rays managed at Disney's The Seas with Nemo and Friends® and Castaway Cay were used to evaluate measurement of 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1αOHB) relative to corticosterone (B)...
January 31, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392606/effects-of-cadmium-on-photosynthesis-of-schima-superba-young-plant-detected-by-chlorophyll-fluorescence
#14
Jingjing Chu, Fan Zhu, Xiaoyong Chen, Huizi Liang, Renjie Wang, Xuxu Wang, Xinhao Huang
Contamination by heavy metals has become a serious environmental pollution issue today due to its potential threat to plant, wildlife, and human health. Photosynthesis, a process in which light energy is used to produce sugar and other organic compounds, is sensitive to heavy metals. In the present study, the response of photosynthetic process and carbon assimilation of Schima superba was investigated under cadmium (Cd) stress. Three Cd concentrations (0, 300, and 600 mg kg-1) were used designated as control (CK), low Cd (L1), and high Cd treatment (L2) of plants...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340618/mitochondrial-toxicity
#15
Joel N Meyer, Jessica H Hartman, Danielle F Mello
Recent decades have seen a rapid increase in reported toxic effects of drugs and pollutants on mitochondria. Researchers have also documented many genetic differences leading to mitochondrial diseases, currently reported to affect ∼1 person in 4,300, creating a large number of potential gene-environment interactions in mitochondrial toxicity. We briefly review this history, and then highlight cutting-edge areas of mitochondrial research including the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in signaling; increased understanding of fundamental biological processes involved in mitochondrial homeostasis (DNA maintenance and mutagenesis, mitochondrial stress response pathways, fusion and fission, autophagy and biogenesis, and exocytosis); systemic effects resulting from mitochondrial stresses in specific cell types; mitochondrial involvement in immune function; the growing evidence of long-term effects of mitochondrial toxicity; mitochondrial-epigenetic cross-talk; and newer approaches to test chemicals for mitochondrial toxicity...
March 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297811/fecal-cortisol-levels-in-scimitar-horned-oryx-oryx-dammah-reveals-differences-between-captive-environments
#16
Cassandra D Pauling, Scott E Lankford, Victoria L Jackson
Due to the intensive management of the scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, involving both captivity and reintroductions, understanding the stress associated with environmental situations this endangered species might experience would be particularly helpful. Fecal cortisol levels were measured across seasons, between captive management programs, and among varying reproductive states in animals held at Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ). A total of 72 samples were collected from FRWC and 69 samples were collected from KCZ...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290644/interactions-of-predominant-insects-and-diseases-with-climate-change-in-douglas-fir-forests-of-western-oregon-and-washington-u-s-a
#17
Michelle C Agne, Peter A Beedlow, David C Shaw, David R Woodruff, E Henry Lee, Steven P Cline, Randy L Comeleo
Forest disturbance regimes are beginning to show evidence of climate-mediated changes, such as increasing severity of droughts and insect outbreaks. We review the major insects and pathogens affecting the disturbance regime for coastal Douglas-fir forests in western Oregon and Washington State, USA, and ask how future climate changes may influence their role in disturbance ecology. Although the physiological constraints of light, temperature, and moisture largely control tree growth, episodic and chronic disturbances interacting with biological factors have substantial impacts on the structure and functioning of forest ecosystems in this region...
February 1, 2018: Forest Ecology and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250332/within-sample-variation-in-snowshoe-hare-faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolite-measurements
#18
Diana J R Lafferty, Alexander V Kumar, Sarah Whitcher, Klaus Hackländer, L Scott Mills
Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations are used increasingly as a non-invasive measure to index physiological stress experienced by diverse taxa. However, FGM may not be evenly distributed throughout a faecal mass or faecal pellet group. Moreover, within-sample variation in FGM measurements associated with different sampling and/or processing techniques is rarely reported despite potentially having important implications for inferring stress levels in free-ranging wildlife. Using a captive collection of snowshoe hares ( Lepus americanus ), we (i) assessed repeatability of FGM measurements (i...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238699/ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-of-the-caribbean-current-understanding-and-future-directions-for-more-comprehensive-surveillance
#19
REVIEW
Mathilde Gondard, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Roxanne A Charles, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Emmanuel Albina, Sara Moutailler
Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods of significant importance to human and veterinary medicine. They transmit a vast array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. Most epidemiological data on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in the West Indies are limited to common livestock pathogens such as Ehrlichia ruminantium, Babesia spp. (i.e., B. bovis and B. bigemina ), and Anaplasma marginale , and less information is available on companion animal pathogens. Of note, human tick-borne diseases (TBDs) remain almost completely uncharacterized in the West Indies...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230645/pollution-evaluation-of-total-and-acid-leachable-trace-elements-in-surface-sediments-of-hooghly-river-estuary-and-sundarban-mangrove-wetland-india
#20
Priyanka Mondal, Amanda J Reichelt-Brushett, M P Jonathan, S B Sujitha, Santosh Kumar Sarkar
The present work investigated the spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of total and mild acid-leachable trace elements in surface sediments (top 0-10 cm; grain size ≤ 63 μm) along the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary and Sundarban Mangrove Wetland, India. The trace elements, analyzed by ICPMS, showed wide range of variations with the following descending order (mean values expressed in milligrams per kilogram): Fe (25,050 ± 4918) > Al (16,992 ± 4172) > Mn (517 ± 102) > Zn (53 ± 18) > Cu (33 ± 11) > Cr (29 ± 7) > Ni (27 ± 6) > Pb (14 ± 3) > As (5 ± 1) > Se (0...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
keyword
keyword
79539
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"