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Wildlife stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817724/from-the-animal-house-to-the-field-are-there-consistent-individual-differences-in-immunological-profile-in-wild-populations-of-field-voles-microtus-agrestis
#1
Elena Arriero, Klara M Wanelik, Richard J Birtles, Janette E Bradley, Joseph A Jackson, Steve Paterson, Mike Begon
Inbred mouse strains, living in simple laboratory environments far removed from nature, have been shown to vary consistently in their immune response. However, wildlife populations are typically outbreeding and face a multiplicity of challenges, parasitological and otherwise. In this study we seek evidence of consistent difference in immunological profile amongst individuals in the wild. We apply a novel method in this context, using longitudinal (repeated capture) data from natural populations of field voles, Microtus agrestis, on a range of life history and infection metrics, and on gene expression levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804950/non-invasive-assessment-of-adrenocortical-function-as-a-measure-of-stress-in-the-endangered-golden-langur
#2
Jatin Sarmah, Chaya R Hazarika, Elizabeth V Berkeley, Stefanie B Ganswindt, Andre Ganswindt
The golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an endangered primate endemic to northern India and Bhutan. The main stressors to the species are habitat degradation and fragmentation. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) analysis is a powerful tool for assessing stress associated with environmental disturbances in wildlife. However, interspecific differences in glucocorticoid metabolism require careful selection of the antibody used in their quantification. The goals of this study were to: 1) validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to determine fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the golden langur and 2) compare fGCM concentrations between golden langurs living under different environmental conditions...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802692/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-rna-seq-expression-analysis-in-blood-from-beluga-whales-of-bristol-bay-ak
#3
Jeanine S Morey, Kathy A Burek Huntington, Michelle Campbell, Tonya M Clauss, Caroline E Goertz, Roderick C Hobbs, Denise Lunardi, Amanda J Moors, Marion G Neely, Lori H Schwacke, Frances M Van Dolah
Assessing the health of marine mammal sentinel species is crucial to understanding the impacts of environmental perturbations on marine ecosystems and human health. In Arctic regions, beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, are upper level predators that may serve as a sentinel species, potentially forecasting impacts on human health. While gene expression profiling from blood transcriptomes has widely been used to assess health status and environmental exposures in human and veterinary medicine, its use in wildlife has been limited due to the lack of available genomes and baseline data...
August 9, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798409/using-blubber-explants-to-investigate-adipose-function-in-grey-seals-glycolytic-lipolytic-and-gene-expression-responses-to-glucose-and-hydrocortisone
#4
Kimberley A Bennett, Kelly J Robinson, Simon E W Moss, Sebastian Millward, Ailsa J Hall
Adipose tissue is fundamental to energy balance, which underpins fitness and survival. Knowledge of adipose regulation in animals that undergo rapid fat deposition and mobilisation aids understanding of their energetic responses to rapid environmental change. Tissue explants can be used to investigate adipose regulation in wildlife species with large fat reserves, when opportunities for organismal experimental work are limited. We investigated glucose removal, lactate, glycerol and NEFA accumulation in media, and metabolic gene expression in blubber explants from wild grey seals...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782534/variation-in-adrenal-and-thyroid-hormones-with-life-history-stage-in-juvenile-northern-elephant-seals-mirounga-angustirostris
#5
J A Jelincic, M S Tift, D S Houser, D E Crocker
The classical approach to quantifying the impact of stressors on wildlife is through characterization of hormones associated with the generalized stress response. However, interpretation of hormone data can be difficult due to the range of natural variation within a species and potential confounds of individual and life-history variables. Blood adrenal and thyroid hormones were measured in 144 chemically immobilized yearling northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to characterize variation between sexes and across semiannual haul-outs...
August 3, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767708/physiological-stress-and-hendra-virus-in-flying-foxes-pteropus-spp-australia
#6
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, Craig Smith, David Mayer, Ina Smith, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox) and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox) appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757434/adrenal-responses-of-large-whales-integrating-fecal-aldosterone-as-a-complementary-biomarker-to-glucocorticoids
#7
Elizabeth A Burgess, Kathleen E Hunt, Scott D Kraus, Rosalind M Rolland
Until now, physiological stress assessment of large whales has predominantly focused on adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) measures. Elevated GC concentrations in feces (fGC) are known to reflect stressful disturbances, such as fishing gear entanglement and human-generated underwater noise, in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). However, there can be considerable variation in GC production as a function of sex and life history stage, which may confound the interpretation of fGC levels. Additionally, GC antibodies used in immunoassays can cross-react with other fecal metabolites (i...
July 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734215/dna-damage-and-cytotoxicity-induced-on-common-carp-by-pollutants-in-water-from-an-urban-reservoir-mad%C3%A3-n-reservoir-a-case-study
#8
I Pérez-Coyotl, C Martínez-Vieyra, M Galar-Martínez, L M Gómez-Oliván, S García-Medina, H Islas-Flores, R Pérez-Pasten Borja, E Gasca-Pérez, K A Novoa-Luna, O Dublán-García
Madín Reservoir provides a substantial amount of drinking water to two municipalities close to Mexico City metropolitan area. However, it receives untreated wastewater discharges from domestic sources in the towns of Nuevo Madín and others, as well as diverse pollutants which are hauled by the Río Tlalnepantla from its upper reaches, so that the xenobiotics in the reservoir are highly diverse in terms of type and quantity. Previous studies showed that MR is contaminated with xenobiotics such as Al, Hg and Fe, as well as NSAIDs, at concentrations exceeding the limits established for aquatic life protection...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727532/evacuation-of-pets-during-disasters-a-public-health-intervention-to-increase-resilience
#9
Robin Chadwin
During a disaster, many pet owners want to evacuate their pets with them, only to find that evacuation and sheltering options are limited or nonexistent. This disregard for companion animal welfare during a disaster can have public health consequences. Pet owners may be stranded at home, unwilling to leave their pets behind. Others refuse evacuation orders or attempt to reenter evacuation sites illegally to rescue their animals. Psychopathologies such as grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder are associated with pet abandonment during an evacuation...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665607/european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris-as-sentinels-of-urban-air-pollution-a-comprehensive-approach-from-noninvasive-to-post-mortem-investigation
#10
Michelle A North, David W Kinniburgh, Judit E G Smits
Urban, traffic-related air pollution remains a concern to health-care and environmental professionals, with mounting evidence connecting diverse disease conditions with exposure. Wildlife species such as European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) cohabit urban neighborhoods and may serve as sentinels for these contaminants. In this novel approach, we use passive, personal-type air samplers to provide site-specific measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, or BTEX), and account for the effects of confounding environmental factors when teasing out the responses to exposure...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655460/bioaccumulation-of-metals-and-biomarkers-of-environmental-stress-in-parablennius-sanguinolentus-pallas-1814-sampled-along-the-italian-coast
#11
Margherita Ferrante, Anna Maria Pappalardo, Venera Ferrito, Valentina Pulvirenti, Carmelo Fruciano, Alfina Grasso, Salvatore Sciacca, Concetta Tigano, Chiara Copat
Heavy metal pollution is one of the greatest threats to the ecosystems because it degrades the habitat and is potentially toxic to wildlife and human populations. In the last few decades, bioaccumulation studies performed with a multimarker approach have been a valuable tool for the investigation of environmental and animal safety. We perform an analysis of a benthic teleost fish species - Parablennius sanguinolentus - sampled at several Italian coastal sites with different degrees of anthropogenic pressure...
June 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649323/individual-based-analysis-of-hair-corticosterone-reveals-factors-influencing-chronic-stress-in-the-american-pika
#12
Matthew D Waterhouse, Bryson Sjodin, Chris Ray, Liesl Erb, Jennifer Wilkening, Michael A Russello
Glucocorticoids are often measured in wildlife to assess physiological responses to environmental or ecological stress. Hair, blood, saliva, or fecal samples are generally used depending on the timescale of the stress response being investigated and species-specific considerations. Here, we report the first use of hair samples to measure long-term corticosterone levels in the climate-sensitive American pika (Ochotona princeps). We validated an immunoassay-based measurement of corticosterone extracted from hair samples and compared corticosterone estimates obtained from plasma, hair, and fecal samples of nine pikas...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644080/determination-of-gastrointestinal-transit-times-in-barred-owls-strix-varia-by-contrast-fluoroscopy
#13
Grayson A Doss, Jackie M Williams, Christoph Mans
Contrast imaging studies are routinely performed in avian patients when an underlying abnormality of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is suspected. Fluoroscopy offers several advantages over traditional radiography and can be performed in conscious animals with minimal stress and restraint. Although birds of prey are commonly encountered as patients, little is known about GI transit times and contrast imaging studies in these species, especially owls. Owls are commonly encountered in zoological, educational, and wildlife settings...
June 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584096/marine-reserves-can-mitigate-and-promote-adaptation-to-climate-change
#14
Callum M Roberts, Bethan C O'Leary, Douglas J McCauley, Philippe Maurice Cury, Carlos M Duarte, Jane Lubchenco, Daniel Pauly, Andrea Sáenz-Arroyo, Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Rod W Wilson, Boris Worm, Juan Carlos Castilla
Strong decreases in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the reduction trajectory resolved within the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, even these decreases will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth, and additional steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect their capacity to supply vital goods and services. We discuss how well-managed marine reserves may help marine ecosystems and people adapt to five prominent impacts of climate change: acidification, sea-level rise, intensification of storms, shifts in species distribution, and decreased productivity and oxygen availability, as well as their cumulative effects...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547779/the-effects-of-environmental-and-visitor-variables-on-the-behavior-of-free-ranging-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta-in-captivity
#15
Courtney Collins, Ilse Corkery, Amy Haigh, Sean McKeown, Thomas Quirke, Ruth O'Riordan
The effect of the zoo environment on captive animals is an increasingly studied area of zoo research, with visitor effects and exhibit design recognized as two of the factors that can contribute to animal welfare in captivity. It is known that in some situations, visitors may be stressful to zoo-housed primates, and this may be compounded by environmental factors such as the weather, the time of day, and zoo husbandry routines. Exhibit design and proximity of the public are also known to influence behavioral response of primates to visitors; however, there is minimal research on free-ranging zoo animals, even though they are potentially subjected to intense interactions with visitors...
May 26, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545227/potential-use-of-chemoprotectants-against-the-toxic-effects-of-cyanotoxins-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, María Puerto, Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena, Ana I Prieto, Silvia Pichardo, Ángeles Jos, Alexandre Campos, Vitor Vasconcelos, Ana M Cameán
Cyanobacterial toxins, particularly microcystins (MCs) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), are responsible for toxic effects in humans and wildlife. In order to counteract or prevent their toxicity, various strategies have been followed, such as the potential application of chemoprotectants. A review of the main substances evaluated for this aim, as well as the doses and their influence on cyanotoxin-induced toxicity, has been performed. A search of the literature shows that research on MCs is much more abundant than research on CYN...
May 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490331/quantifying-capture-stress-in-free-ranging-european-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#17
Nikolaus Huber, Sebastian G Vetter, Alina L Evans, Petter Kjellander, Susanne Küker, Ulrika A Bergvall, Jon M Arnemo
BACKGROUND: To understand and reduce the concomitant effects of trapping and handling procedures in wildlife species, it is essential to measure their physiological impact. Here, we examined individual variation in stress levels in non-anesthetized European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), which were captured in box traps and physically restrained for tagging, biometrics and bio-sampling. In winter 2013, we collected venous blood samples from 28 individuals during 28 capture events and evaluated standard measurements for stress (heart rate, body temperature, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lactate and total cortisol)...
May 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472147/surface-reflectance-drives-nest-box-temperature-profiles-and-thermal-suitability-for-target-wildlife
#18
Stephen R Griffiths, Jessica A Rowland, Natalie J Briscoe, Pia E Lentini, Kathrine A Handasyde, Linda F Lumsden, Kylie A Robert
Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#19
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440430/perfluorooctanoic-acid-induces-oxidative-damage-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#20
Kwang Sik Suh, Eun Mi Choi, Yu Jin Kim, Soo Min Hong, So Yong Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Seungjoon Oh, Sung Woon Kim, Youngmi Kim Pak, Wonchae Choe, Suk Chon
Several environmental contaminants have been linked to the development of diabetes and increased diabetes‑associated mortality. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widely used perfluoroalkane found in surfactants and lubricants, and in processing aids used in the production of polymers. Furthermore, PFOA has been detected in humans, wildlife and the environment. The present study investigated the toxic effects of PFOA on rat pancreatic β‑cell‑derived RIN‑m5F cells. Cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, cytokine release and mitochondrial parameters, including membrane potential collapse, reduced adenosine triphosphate levels, cardiolipin peroxidation and cytochrome c release were assessed...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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