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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238699/ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-of-the-caribbean-current-understanding-and-future-directions-for-more-comprehensive-surveillance
#1
REVIEW
Mathilde Gondard, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Roxanne A Charles, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Emmanuel Albina, Sara Moutailler
Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods of significant importance to human and veterinary medicine. They transmit a vast array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. Most epidemiological data on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in the West Indies are limited to common livestock pathogens such as Ehrlichia ruminantium, Babesia spp. (i.e., B. bovis and B. bigemina), and Anaplasma marginale, and less information is available on companion animal pathogens. Of note, human tick-borne diseases (TBDs) remain almost completely uncharacterized in the West Indies...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230645/pollution-evaluation-of-total-and-acid-leachable-trace-elements-in-surface-sediments-of-hooghly-river-estuary-and-sundarban-mangrove-wetland-india
#2
Priyanka Mondal, Amanda J Reichelt-Brushett, M P Jonathan, S B Sujitha, Santosh Kumar Sarkar
The present work investigated the spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of total and mild acid-leachable trace elements in surface sediments (top 0-10 cm; grain size ≤ 63 μm) along the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary and Sundarban Mangrove Wetland, India. The trace elements, analyzed by ICPMS, showed wide range of variations with the following descending order (mean values expressed in milligrams per kilogram): Fe (25,050 ± 4918) > Al (16,992 ± 4172) > Mn (517 ± 102) > Zn (53 ± 18) > Cu (33 ± 11) > Cr (29 ± 7) > Ni (27 ± 6) > Pb (14 ± 3) > As (5 ± 1) > Se (0...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223087/oxidative-stress-in-birds-along-a-nox-and-urbanisation-gradient-an-interspecific-approach
#3
Pablo Salmón, Emilie Stroh, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Maria von Post, Caroline Isaksson
Urbanisation is regarded as one of the most threatening global issues for wildlife, however, measuring its impact is not always straight forward. Oxidative stress physiology has been suggested to be a useful biomarker of health and therefore, a potentially important indicator of the impact that urban environmental stressors, especially air pollution, can have on wildlife. For example, nitrogen oxides (NOx), released during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, are highly potent pro-oxidants, thus predicted to affect either the protective antioxidants and/or cause oxidative damage to bio-molecules...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199102/effect-of-repeated-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-administration-on-reproductive-function-and-hair-cortisol-concentration-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-goats
#4
Natsumi Endo, Hiroaki Yamane, Larasati Puji Rahayu, Tomomi Tanaka
Measurement of the cortisol concentration in hair has been used as an index of chronic stress in several species including humans, wildlife and domestic animals. However, how accurately the cortisol concentration in hair reflects the changes in circulating cortisol concentrations has not been well documented. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of repeated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration on the reproductive function during the estrous cycle and hair cortisol concentrations in goats...
November 30, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194954/comt-val158-met-moderates-the-link-between-rank-and-aggression-in-a-non-human-primate
#5
Daria Raffaella Gutleb, Christian Roos, Angela Noll, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke
The COMT Val158 Met polymorphism is one of the most widely studied genetic polymorphisms in humans implicated in aggression and the moderation of stressful life event effects. We screened a wild primate population for polymorphisms at the COMT Val158 Met site and phenotyped them for aggression to test whether the human polymorphism exists and is associated with variation in aggressive behavior. Subjects were all adults from four study groups (37 males, 40 females) of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) in their natural habitat (Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand)...
December 1, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157914/population-sensitivities-of-animals-to-chronic-ionizing-radiation-model-predictions-from-mice-to-elephant
#6
Tatiana G Sazykina
Model predictions of population response to chronic ionizing radiation (endpoint 'morbidity') were made for 11 species of warm-blooded animals, differing in body mass and lifespan - from mice to elephant. Predictions were made also for 3 bird species (duck, pigeon, and house sparrow). Calculations were based on analytical solutions of the mathematical model, simulating a population response to low-LET ionizing radiation in an ecosystem with a limiting resource (Sazykina, Kryshev, 2016). Model parameters for different species were taken from biological and radioecological databases; allometric relationships were employed for estimating some parameter values...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050999/chemical-capture-of-impala-aepyceros-melampus-a-review-of-factors-contributing-to-morbidity-and-mortality
#7
REVIEW
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To review the factors that contribute to morbidity and mortality of impala undergoing chemical capture, and discuss how they are potentially mitigated. DATABASES USED: PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital records. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Impala are an important species of antelope in Africa and are often captured during management procedures, veterinary interventions and research projects...
May 18, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045433/integrated-mrna-and-microrna-transcriptome-analyses-reveal-regulation-of-thermal-acclimation-in-gymnocypris-przewalskii-a-case-study-in-tibetan-schizothoracine-fish
#8
Cunfang Zhang, Chao Tong, Fei Tian, Kai Zhao
Environmental acclimation is important episode in wildlife occupation of the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau (TP). Transcriptome-wide studies on thermal acclimation mechanism in fish species are rarely revealed in Tibetan Plateau fish at high altitude. Thus, we used mRNA and miRNA transcriptome sequencing to investigate regulation of thermal acclimation in larval Tibetan naked carp, Gymnocypris przewalskii. We first remodeled the regulation network of mRNA and miRNA in thermal acclimation, and then identified differential expression of miRNAs and target mRNAs enriched in metabolic and digestive pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038944/environmental-lead-and-wild-birds-a-review
#9
Robert J Williams, Steven D Holladay, Susan M Williams, Robert M Gogal
Lead is a persistent inorganic environmental pollutant that affects humans and animals worldwide. Avian species are especially susceptible to lead exposure through consumption of lead ammunition, lead fishing tackle, and other contaminated food sources such as aquatic species ingesting lead contaminated sediments in mining areas. Even with government regulations on the use of lead ammunition in many countries, including the United States, terrestrial, aquatic, predatory, and scavenger avian species are still at risk of exposure to potentially lethal concentrations of lead...
October 17, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030867/do-host-associated-gut-microbiota-mediate-the-effect-of-an-herbicide-on-disease-risk-in-frogs
#10
Sarah A Knutie, Caitlin Gabor, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
1.Environmental stressors, such as pollutants, can increase disease risk in wildlife. For example, the herbicide atrazine affects host defenses (e.g. resistance and tolerance) of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but the mechanisms for these associations are not always clear. Given that pollutants can alter the gut microbiota of hosts, which in turn can affect their health and immune systems, one potential mechanism by which pollutants could increase infection risk is by influencing host-associated microbiota...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988304/levels-of-plasma-and-fecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-following-an-acth-challenge-in-male-and-female-coyotes-canis-latrans
#11
Erika T Stevenson, Eric M Gese, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susannah S French
Knowledge of endocrine stress responses can be advantageous for understanding how animals respond to their environment. One tool in wildlife endocrinology is to measure the adrenocortical activity as a parameter of disturbance of animals. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) provide a noninvasive assessment of adrenocortical activity. Using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge administered to 28 captive coyotes (Canis latrans), we measured the levels of plasma cortisol, and fecal cortisol and corticosterone metabolites (i...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986081/blood-concentrations-of-pcbs-and-ddts-in-an-avian-predator-endemic-to-southern-africa-associations-with-habitat-electrical-transformers-and-diet
#12
Marie-Sophie Garcia-Heras, Beatriz Arroyo, Robert E Simmons, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Francois Mougeot
Persistent pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been highlighted as a cause of population decline in avian predators. Understanding patterns of OCs contamination can be crucial for the conservation of affected species, yet little is known on these threats to African raptors. Here we report on OC concentrations in an endangered predator endemic to southern Africa, the Black Harrier Circus maurus. Blood samples were collected in 2012-2014 from wild nestlings (n = 90) and adults (n = 23) in south-western South Africa, where agriculture and urbanization have developed rapidly since the 1950s...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964499/citizen-scientists-reveal-marine-litter-pollutes-arctic-beaches-and-affects-wild-life
#13
Melanie Bergmann, Birgit Lutz, Mine B Tekman, Lars Gutow
Recent data indicate accumulation areas of marine litter in Arctic waters and significant increases over time. Beaches on remote Arctic islands may be sinks for marine litter and reflect pollution levels of the surrounding waters particularly well. We provide the first quantitative data from surveys carried out by citizen scientists on six beaches of Svalbard. Litter quantities recorded by cruise tourists varied from 9-524gm(-2) and were similar to those from densely populated areas. Plastics accounted for >80% of the overall litter, most of which originated from fisheries...
September 28, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957800/association-of-anthropogenic-disturbances-and-intestinal-parasitism-in-ecuadorian-mantled-howler-monkeys-alouatta-palliata-aequatorialis
#14
William D Helenbrook, Stephen V Stehman, William M Shields, Christopher M Whipps
Forest disturbance and human encroachment have the potential to influence intestinal parasite communities in animal hosts by modifying nutritional health, physiological stress, host densities, contact rates, and ranging patterns. Anthropogenic disturbances also have the ability to affect the ecological landscape of parasitic disease, potentially impacting the health of both wildlife and people. Our research investigated the association of forest disturbance and human encroachment on intestinal parasite communities in mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis...
2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936179/seasonal-variations-in-heart-rate-variability-as-an-indicator-of-stress-in-free-ranging-pregnant-przewalski-s-horses-e-ferus-przewalskii-within-the-hortob%C3%A3-gy-national-park-in-hungary
#15
Friederike Pohlin, Kristin Brabender, Gerhard Fluch, Gabrielle Stalder, Thierry Petit, Chris Walzer
Background: Ecosystems with seasonal fluctuations in climate and food availability present physiological challenges to resident mammals and may cause "stress." The two predominant physiological responses to stressors are (1) the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and (2) the modulation of the autonomic nervous system. To date, the primary indicator for "stress" in wildlife- and zoo animal research are glucocorticoid levels. By measuring the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity, particularly the vagal tone, heart rate variability (HRV) is presently emerging as a suitable indicator of "stress" in farm- and domestic animal research...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889183/recognizing-the-importance-of-an-all-inclusive-approach-to-brown-bear-conservation-now-and-into-the-future
#16
Karine E Pigeon, Etienne Cardinal, Gordon B Stenhouse, Steeve D Côté
In their critique of our recent article in Oecologia (Pigeon et al. Oecologia 181:1101-1116, 2016a) investigating the influence of ambient temperature on brown bear habitat selection, Ordiz et al. (2017, current issue) argue that we downplay the role of human disturbance on bear behavior, and that we wrongly report on the findings of Ordiz et al. (Oecologia 166:59-67, 2011). We argue that our previous article in Oecologia (Pigeon et al. 2016a) by no means downplays the influence of human factors on bear behavior, and that we correctly stated that Ordiz et al...
November 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879089/pathology-clinical-signs-and-tissue-distribution-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-experimentally-infected-reindeer-rangifer-tarandus
#17
Émilie Bouchard, Rajnish Sharma, Nicholas Bachand, Alvin A Gajadhar, Emily J Jenkins
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou) with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845717/characterization-and-minimization-of-the-stress-response-to-trapping-in-free-ranging-wolves-canis-lupus-insights-from-physiology-and-behavior
#18
Nuno Santos, Helena Rio-Maior, Mónia Nakamura, Sara Roque, Ricardo Brandão, Francisco Álvares
OBJECTIVES: Wildlife capture is an essential management tool that induces a reactive homeostasis response in the captured animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the reactive homeostatic response to trapping in free-ranging wolves and assess the mitigation achieved by reducing the duration of restraint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Making use of wolves captured for ecological research as a model for wildlife acute stress, we characterize 25 reactive homeostasis mediators and we assess the effect on these mediators of reducing the duration of restraint in trap by using remote trap activation alarms...
August 28, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817724/from-the-animal-house-to-the-field-are-there-consistent-individual-differences-in-immunological-profile-in-wild-populations-of-field-voles-microtus-agrestis
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Elena Arriero, Klara M Wanelik, Richard J Birtles, Janette E Bradley, Joseph A Jackson, Steve Paterson, Mike Begon
Inbred mouse strains, living in simple laboratory environments far removed from nature, have been shown to vary consistently in their immune response. However, wildlife populations are typically outbreeding and face a multiplicity of challenges, parasitological and otherwise. In this study we seek evidence of consistent difference in immunological profile amongst individuals in the wild. We apply a novel method in this context, using longitudinal (repeated capture) data from natural populations of field voles, Microtus agrestis, on a range of life history and infection metrics, and on gene expression levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804950/non-invasive-assessment-of-adrenocortical-function-as-a-measure-of-stress-in-the-endangered-golden-langur
#20
Jatin Sarmah, Chaya R Hazarika, Elizabeth V Berkeley, Stefanie B Ganswindt, Andre Ganswindt
The golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an endangered primate endemic to northern India and Bhutan. The main stressors to the species are habitat degradation and fragmentation. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) analysis is a powerful tool for assessing stress associated with environmental disturbances in wildlife. However, interspecific differences in glucocorticoid metabolism require careful selection of the antibody used in their quantification. The goals of this study were to: 1) validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to determine fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the golden langur and 2) compare fGCM concentrations between golden langurs living under different environmental conditions...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
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