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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045433/integrated-mrna-and-microrna-transcriptome-analyses-reveal-regulation-of-thermal-acclimation-in-gymnocypris-przewalskii-a-case-study-in-tibetan-schizothoracine-fish
#1
Cunfang Zhang, Chao Tong, Fei Tian, Kai Zhao
Environmental acclimation is important episode in wildlife occupation of the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau (TP). Transcriptome-wide studies on thermal acclimation mechanism in fish species are rarely revealed in Tibetan Plateau fish at high altitude. Thus, we used mRNA and miRNA transcriptome sequencing to investigate regulation of thermal acclimation in larval Tibetan naked carp, Gymnocypris przewalskii. We first remodeled the regulation network of mRNA and miRNA in thermal acclimation, and then identified differential expression of miRNAs and target mRNAs enriched in metabolic and digestive pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038944/environmental-lead-and-wild-birds-a-review
#2
Robert J Williams, Steven D Holladay, Susan M Williams, Robert M Gogal
Lead is a persistent inorganic environmental pollutant that affects humans and animals worldwide. Avian species are especially susceptible to lead exposure through consumption of lead ammunition, lead fishing tackle, and other contaminated food sources such as aquatic species ingesting lead contaminated sediments in mining areas. Even with government regulations on the use of lead ammunition in many countries, including the United States, terrestrial, aquatic, predatory, and scavenger avian species are still at risk of exposure to potentially lethal concentrations of lead...
October 17, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030867/do-host-associated-gut-microbiota-mediate-the-effect-of-an-herbicide-on-disease-risk-in-frogs
#3
Sarah A Knutie, Caitlin Gabor, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
1.Environmental stressors, such as pollutants, can increase disease risk in wildlife. For example, the herbicide atrazine affects host defenses (e.g. resistance and tolerance) of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but the mechanisms for these associations are not always clear. Given that pollutants can alter the gut microbiota of hosts, which in turn can affect their health and immune systems, one potential mechanism by which pollutants could increase infection risk is by influencing host-associated microbiota...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988304/levels-of-plasma-and-fecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-following-an-acth-challenge-in-male-and-female-coyotes-canis-latrans
#4
Erika T Stevenson, Eric M Gese, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susannah S French
Knowledge of endocrine stress responses can be advantageous for understanding how animals respond to their environment. One tool in wildlife endocrinology is to measure the adrenocortical activity as a parameter of disturbance of animals. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) provide a noninvasive assessment of adrenocortical activity. Using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge administered to 28 captive coyotes (Canis latrans), we measured the levels of plasma cortisol, and fecal cortisol and corticosterone metabolites (i...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986081/blood-concentrations-of-pcbs-and-ddts-in-an-avian-predator-endemic-to-southern-africa-associations-with-habitat-electrical-transformers-and-diet
#5
Marie-Sophie Garcia-Heras, Beatriz Arroyo, Robert E Simmons, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Francois Mougeot
Persistent pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been highlighted as a cause of population decline in avian predators. Understanding patterns of OCs contamination can be crucial for the conservation of affected species, yet little is known on these threats to African raptors. Here we report on OC concentrations in an endangered predator endemic to southern Africa, the Black Harrier Circus maurus. Blood samples were collected in 2012-2014 from wild nestlings (n = 90) and adults (n = 23) in south-western South Africa, where agriculture and urbanization have developed rapidly since the 1950s...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964499/citizen-scientists-reveal-marine-litter-pollutes-arctic-beaches-and-affects-wild-life
#6
Melanie Bergmann, Birgit Lutz, Mine B Tekman, Lars Gutow
Recent data indicate accumulation areas of marine litter in Arctic waters and significant increases over time. Beaches on remote Arctic islands may be sinks for marine litter and reflect pollution levels of the surrounding waters particularly well. We provide the first quantitative data from surveys carried out by citizen scientists on six beaches of Svalbard. Litter quantities recorded by cruise tourists varied from 9-524gm(-2) and were similar to those from densely populated areas. Plastics accounted for >80% of the overall litter, most of which originated from fisheries...
September 27, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957800/association-of-anthropogenic-disturbances-and-intestinal-parasitism-in-ecuadorian-mantled-howler-monkeys-alouatta-palliata-aequatorialis
#7
William D Helenbrook, Stephen V Stehman, William M Shields, Christopher M Whipps
Forest disturbance and human encroachment have the potential to influence intestinal parasite communities in animal hosts by modifying nutritional health, physiological stress, host densities, contact rates, and ranging patterns. Anthropogenic disturbances also have the ability to affect the ecological landscape of parasitic disease, potentially impacting the health of both wildlife and people. Our research investigated the association of forest disturbance and human encroachment on intestinal parasite communities in mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis...
2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936179/seasonal-variations-in-heart-rate-variability-as-an-indicator-of-stress-in-free-ranging-pregnant-przewalski-s-horses-e-ferus-przewalskii-within-the-hortob%C3%A3-gy-national-park-in-hungary
#8
Friederike Pohlin, Kristin Brabender, Gerhard Fluch, Gabrielle Stalder, Thierry Petit, Chris Walzer
Background: Ecosystems with seasonal fluctuations in climate and food availability present physiological challenges to resident mammals and may cause "stress." The two predominant physiological responses to stressors are (1) the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and (2) the modulation of the autonomic nervous system. To date, the primary indicator for "stress" in wildlife- and zoo animal research are glucocorticoid levels. By measuring the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity, particularly the vagal tone, heart rate variability (HRV) is presently emerging as a suitable indicator of "stress" in farm- and domestic animal research...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889183/recognizing-the-importance-of-an-all-inclusive-approach-to-brown-bear-conservation-now-and-into-the-future
#9
Karine E Pigeon, Etienne Cardinal, Gordon B Stenhouse, Steeve D Côté
In their critique of our recent article in Oecologia (Pigeon et al. Oecologia 181:1101-1116, 2016a) investigating the influence of ambient temperature on brown bear habitat selection, Ordiz et al. (2017, current issue) argue that we downplay the role of human disturbance on bear behavior, and that we wrongly report on the findings of Ordiz et al. (Oecologia 166:59-67, 2011). We argue that our previous article in Oecologia (Pigeon et al. 2016a) by no means downplays the influence of human factors on bear behavior, and that we correctly stated that Ordiz et al...
September 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879089/pathology-clinical-signs-and-tissue-distribution-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-experimentally-infected-reindeer-rangifer-tarandus
#10
Émilie Bouchard, Rajnish Sharma, Nicholas Bachand, Alvin A Gajadhar, Emily J Jenkins
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou) with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845717/characterization-and-minimization-of-the-stress-response-to-trapping-in-free-ranging-wolves-canis-lupus-insights-from-physiology-and-behavior
#11
Nuno Santos, Helena Rio-Maior, Mónia Nakamura, Sara Roque, Ricardo Brandão, Francisco Álvares
OBJECTIVES: Wildlife capture is an essential management tool that induces a reactive homeostasis response in the captured animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the reactive homeostatic response to trapping in free-ranging wolves and assess the mitigation achieved by reducing the duration of restraint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Making use of wolves captured for ecological research as a model for wildlife acute stress, we characterize 25 reactive homeostasis mediators and we assess the effect on these mediators of reducing the duration of restraint in trap by using remote trap activation alarms...
August 28, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817724/from-the-animal-house-to-the-field-are-there-consistent-individual-differences-in-immunological-profile-in-wild-populations-of-field-voles-microtus-agrestis
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Elena Arriero, Klara M Wanelik, Richard J Birtles, Janette E Bradley, Joseph A Jackson, Steve Paterson, Mike Begon
Inbred mouse strains, living in simple laboratory environments far removed from nature, have been shown to vary consistently in their immune response. However, wildlife populations are typically outbreeding and face a multiplicity of challenges, parasitological and otherwise. In this study we seek evidence of consistent difference in immunological profile amongst individuals in the wild. We apply a novel method in this context, using longitudinal (repeated capture) data from natural populations of field voles, Microtus agrestis, on a range of life history and infection metrics, and on gene expression levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804950/non-invasive-assessment-of-adrenocortical-function-as-a-measure-of-stress-in-the-endangered-golden-langur
#13
Jatin Sarmah, Chaya R Hazarika, Elizabeth V Berkeley, Stefanie B Ganswindt, Andre Ganswindt
The golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an endangered primate endemic to northern India and Bhutan. The main stressors to the species are habitat degradation and fragmentation. Non-invasive fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) analysis is a powerful tool for assessing stress associated with environmental disturbances in wildlife. However, interspecific differences in glucocorticoid metabolism require careful selection of the antibody used in their quantification. The goals of this study were to: 1) validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to determine fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the golden langur and 2) compare fGCM concentrations between golden langurs living under different environmental conditions...
July 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802692/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-rna-seq-expression-analysis-in-blood-from-beluga-whales-of-bristol-bay-ak
#14
Jeanine S Morey, Kathy A Burek Huntington, Michelle Campbell, Tonya M Clauss, Caroline E Goertz, Roderick C Hobbs, Denise Lunardi, Amanda J Moors, Marion G Neely, Lori H Schwacke, Frances M Van Dolah
Assessing the health of marine mammal sentinel species is crucial to understanding the impacts of environmental perturbations on marine ecosystems and human health. In Arctic regions, beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, are upper level predators that may serve as a sentinel species, potentially forecasting impacts on human health. While gene expression profiling from blood transcriptomes has widely been used to assess health status and environmental exposures in human and veterinary medicine, its use in wildlife has been limited due to the lack of available genomes and baseline data...
August 9, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798409/using-blubber-explants-to-investigate-adipose-function-in-grey-seals-glycolytic-lipolytic-and-gene-expression-responses-to-glucose-and-hydrocortisone
#15
Kimberley A Bennett, Kelly J Robinson, Simon E W Moss, Sebastian Millward, Ailsa J Hall
Adipose tissue is fundamental to energy balance, which underpins fitness and survival. Knowledge of adipose regulation in animals that undergo rapid fat deposition and mobilisation aids understanding of their energetic responses to rapid environmental change. Tissue explants can be used to investigate adipose regulation in wildlife species with large fat reserves, when opportunities for organismal experimental work are limited. We investigated glucose removal, lactate, glycerol and NEFA accumulation in media, and metabolic gene expression in blubber explants from wild grey seals...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782534/variation-in-adrenal-and-thyroid-hormones-with-life-history-stage-in-juvenile-northern-elephant-seals-mirounga-angustirostris
#16
J A Jelincic, M S Tift, D S Houser, D E Crocker
The classical approach to quantifying the impact of stressors on wildlife is through characterization of hormones associated with the generalized stress response. However, interpretation of hormone data can be difficult due to the range of natural variation within a species and potential confounds of individual and life-history variables. Blood adrenal and thyroid hormones were measured in 144 chemically immobilized yearling northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to characterize variation between sexes and across semiannual haul-outs...
October 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767708/physiological-stress-and-hendra-virus-in-flying-foxes-pteropus-spp-australia
#17
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, Craig Smith, David Mayer, Ina Smith, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox) and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox) appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757434/adrenal-responses-of-large-whales-integrating-fecal-aldosterone-as-a-complementary-biomarker-to-glucocorticoids
#18
Elizabeth A Burgess, Kathleen E Hunt, Scott D Kraus, Rosalind M Rolland
Until now, physiological stress assessment of large whales has predominantly focused on adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) measures. Elevated GC concentrations in feces (fGC) are known to reflect stressful disturbances, such as fishing gear entanglement and human-generated underwater noise, in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). However, there can be considerable variation in GC production as a function of sex and life history stage, which may confound the interpretation of fGC levels. Additionally, GC antibodies used in immunoassays can cross-react with other fecal metabolites (i...
October 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734215/dna-damage-and-cytotoxicity-induced-on-common-carp-by-pollutants-in-water-from-an-urban-reservoir-mad%C3%A3-n-reservoir-a-case-study
#19
I Pérez-Coyotl, C Martínez-Vieyra, M Galar-Martínez, L M Gómez-Oliván, S García-Medina, H Islas-Flores, R Pérez-Pasten Borja, E Gasca-Pérez, K A Novoa-Luna, O Dublán-García
Madín Reservoir provides a substantial amount of drinking water to two municipalities close to Mexico City metropolitan area. However, it receives untreated wastewater discharges from domestic sources in the towns of Nuevo Madín and others, as well as diverse pollutants which are hauled by the Río Tlalnepantla from its upper reaches, so that the xenobiotics in the reservoir are highly diverse in terms of type and quantity. Previous studies showed that MR is contaminated with xenobiotics such as Al, Hg and Fe, as well as NSAIDs, at concentrations exceeding the limits established for aquatic life protection...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727532/evacuation-of-pets-during-disasters-a-public-health-intervention-to-increase-resilience
#20
Robin Chadwin
During a disaster, many pet owners want to evacuate their pets with them, only to find that evacuation and sheltering options are limited or nonexistent. This disregard for companion animal welfare during a disaster can have public health consequences. Pet owners may be stranded at home, unwilling to leave their pets behind. Others refuse evacuation orders or attempt to reenter evacuation sites illegally to rescue their animals. Psychopathologies such as grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder are associated with pet abandonment during an evacuation...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
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