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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104343/thyroid-pathology-in-deer-mice-peromyscus-maniculata-from-a-reclaimed-mine-site-on-the-athabasca-oil-sands
#1
Ahmad Movasseghi, Jaime Rodríguez-Estival, Judit E G Smits
Information on naturally occurring thyroid disease in wild animals in general and in small mammals specifically is extremely limited. In the present field-based work, we investigated the structure and function of thyroid glands of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculata) studied as sentinels of ecosystem sustainability on reclaimed areas post-mining on the oil sands of northeastern Alberta, because of their greater sensitivity to contaminants relative to meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) on the same sites. Extraction of bitumen in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta, results in the release of contaminants including polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), metals, and metalloids to the environment that have a measurable biological cost to wildlife living in the affected areas...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074559/effects-of-traffic-noise-on-tree-frog-stress-levels-immunity-and-color-signaling
#2
Mathieu Troïanowski, Nathalie Mondy, Adeline Dumet, Caroline Arcanjo, Thierry Lengagne
During the last decade, many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of noise pollution on acoustic communication. Surprisingly, while it is known that noise exposure strongly influences health in humans, studies on wildlife remain scarce. In order to gain insight into the consequences of traffic noise exposure, we experimentally manipulated traffic noise exposure as well as the endocrine status of animals to investigate physiological and phenotypic consequences of noise pollution in an anuran species...
January 11, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031804/does-selective-logging-stress-tropical-forest-invertebrates-using-fat-stores-to-examine-sublethal-responses-in-dung-beetles
#3
Filipe França, Jos Barlow, Bárbara Araújo, Julio Louzada
The increased global demand for tropical timber has driven vast expanses of tropical forests to be selectively logged worldwide. While logging impacts on wildlife are predicted to change species distribution and abundance, the underlying physiological responses are poorly understood. Although there is a growing consensus that selective logging impacts on natural populations start with individual stress-induced sublethal responses, this literature is dominated by investigations conducted with vertebrates from temperate zones...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018026/harnessing-learning-biases-is-essential-for-applying-social-learning-in-conservation
#4
REVIEW
Alison L Greggor, Alex Thornton, Nicola S Clayton
Social learning can influence how animals respond to anthropogenic changes in the environment, determining whether animals survive novel threats and exploit novel resources or produce maladaptive behaviour and contribute to human-wildlife conflict. Predicting where social learning will occur and manipulating its use are, therefore, important in conservation, but doing so is not straightforward. Learning is an inherently biased process that has been shaped by natural selection to prioritize important information and facilitate its efficient uptake...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984775/cetylpyridinium-chloride-at-sublethal-levels-increases-the-susceptibility-of-rat-thymic-lymphocytes-to-oxidative-stress
#5
Hiroto Imai, Fumiya Kita, Sho Ikesugi, Masami Abe, Shizuka Sogabe, Yumiko Nishimura-Danjobara, Hajime Miura, Yasuo Oyama
Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is an antimicrobial agent used in many personal care products, with subsequent release into the environment. Since CPC is found at low concentrations in river and municipal wastewater, its influence on wildlife is of concern. Therefore, in this study, we used flow cytometry to examine the effects of sublethal concentrations of CPC on rat thymic lymphocytes in order to characterize the cellular actions of CPC at low concentrations in the presence and absence of H2O2-induced oxidative stress...
March 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957336/physical-condition-and-stress-levels-during-early-development-reflect-feeding-rates-and-predict-pre-and-post-fledging-survival-in-a-nearshore-seabird
#6
Juliet S Lamb, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Patrick G R Jodice
The effects of acute environmental stressors on reproduction in wildlife are often difficult to measure because of the labour and disturbance involved in collecting accurate reproductive data. Stress hormones represent a promising option for assessing the effects of environmental perturbations on altricial young; however, it is necessary first to establish how stress levels are affected by environmental conditions during development and whether elevated stress results in reduced survival and recruitment rates...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957334/parasites-stress-and-reindeer-infection-with-abomasal-nematodes-is-not-associated-with-elevated-glucocorticoid-levels-in-hair-or-faeces
#7
A M Carlsson, G Mastromonaco, E Vandervalk, S Kutz
Stress hormones (glucocorticoids), incorporated into hair/fur and faeces, have been proposed as biomarkers of overall health in wildlife. Although such biomarkers may be helpful for wildlife conservation and management, their use has rarely been validated. There is a paucity of studies examining the variation of stress hormones in mammals and how they relate to other health measures, such as parasitism. Parasites are ubiquitous in wildlife and can influence the fitness of individual animals and populations...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943571/a-review-of-ecological-risk-assessment-methods-for-amphibians-comparative-assessment-of-testing-methodologies-and-available-data
#8
REVIEW
Mark S Johnson, Catherine Aubee, Christopher J Salice, Katrina J Leigh, Elissa Liu, Ute Pott, David Pillard
Historically, ecological risk assessments have rarely included amphibian species, focusing preferentially on other aquatic (fish, invertebrates, algae) and terrestrial wildlife (birds and mammal) species. Often this lack of consideration is due to a paucity of toxicity data, significant variation in study design, uncertainty with regard to exposure or a combination of all three. Productive risk assessments for amphibians are particularly challenging given variations in complex life history strategies. Further consideration is needed for the development of useful laboratory animal models and appropriate experimental test procedures which can be effectively applied to the examination of biological response patterns...
December 12, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894913/the-regulation-of-cellular-apoptosis-by-the-ros-triggered-perk-eif2%C3%AE-chop-pathway-plays-a-vital-role-in-bisphenol-a-induced-male-reproductive-toxicity
#9
Li Yin, Yanlin Dai, Zhihong Cui, Xiao Jiang, Wenbin Liu, Fei Han, Ao Lin, Jia Cao, Jinyi Liu
Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Evidence from past studies suggests that BPA is associated with decreased semen quality. However, the molecular basis for the adverse effect of BPA on male reproductive toxicity remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of BPA on mouse spermatocytes GC-2 cells and adult mice, and we explored the potential mechanism of its action. The results showed that BPA inhibited cell proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816003/cadmium-tolerant-characteristic-of-a-newly-isolated-lactococcus-lactis-subsp-lactis
#10
Yao Sheng, Ying Wang, Xuan Yang, Boyang Zhang, Xiaoyun He, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang
Environmental contamination caused by heavy metals poses a major threat to the wildlife and human health for their toxicity and intrinsically persistent nature. Some specific food grade bacteria have properties that enable them to eliminate heavy metals from food and water. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, newly isolated from pickles, is a cadmium (Cd) tolerant bacteria. Cd resistant properties of the lactis was evaluated under different Cd stresses. Cd accumulation in different cellular parts was determined by ICP-MS and cell morphology changes were measured by SEM-EDS and TEM-EDS...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763712/conservation-implications-of-a-lack-of-relationship-between-baseline-glucocorticoids-and-fitness-in-a-wild-passerine
#11
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or significance, depending on the GC measure, fitness metric, life history stage, or other intrinsic and extrinsic contexts considered...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755754/impacts-of-land-use-on-indian-mangrove-forest-carbon-stocks-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#12
R K Bhomia, R A MacKenzie, D Murdiyarso, S D Sasmito, J Purbopuspito
Globally, mangrove forests represents only 0.7% of world's tropical forested area but are highly threatened due to susceptibility to climate change, sea level rise, and increasing pressures from human population growth in coastal regions. Our study was carried out in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area (BCA), the second-largest mangrove area in eastern India. We assessed total ecosystem carbon (C) stocks at four land use types representing varying degree of disturbances. Ranked in order of increasing impacts, these sites included dense mangrove forests, scrub mangroves, restored/planted mangroves, and abandoned aquaculture ponds...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730266/changes-in-behaviour-and-faecal-glucocorticoid-levels-in-response-to-increased-human-activities-during-weekends-in-the-pin-tailed-sandgrouse
#13
Fabián Casas, Ana Benítez-López, Rocío Tarjuelo, Isabel Barja, Javier Viñuela, Jesús T García, Manuel B Morales, Francois Mougeot
Human recreational activities are becoming increasingly widespread and frequent, a fact that may potentially exacerbate their effects on wildlife. These human-related disturbances on animals may induce behavioural and physiological changes that can ultimately affect their fitness, showing a similar anti-predator response that against natural predator or other threats. Here, we combine the use of behavioural and physiological approaches to assess the potential effect of winter human activities on a threatened farmland bird in Europe, the pin-tailed sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata)...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726937/corticosterone-stress-hormone-responses-in-oil-rehabilitated-and-non-rehabilitated-little-penguins
#14
B L Chilvers, G Finlayson, E J Candy, A Sriram, K J Morgan, J F Cockrem
Whether oiled wildlife should be rehabilitated during an oil spill is internationally debated. Research on little penguins (LP, Eudyptula minor) rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment after the New Zealand C/V Rena grounding oil spill in 2011 found the rehabilitation process was effective at treating and reversing the negative effects of oil-contamination on penguin post-release survival, productivity and diving behaviour. Here we investigated the acute corticosterone stress response of LPs to determine if responses of rehabilitated birds differed from those of "control" birds...
December 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724937/a-review-of-piroplasmid-infections-in-wild-carnivores-worldwide-importance-for-domestic-animal-health-and-wildlife-conservation
#15
Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Laia Solano-Gallego, Javier Millán
Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716792/lab-on-a-chip-based-pcr-rflp-assay-for-the-detection-of-malayan-box-turtle-cuora-amboinensis-in-the-food-chain-and-traditional-chinese-medicines
#16
Asing, Md Eaqub Ali, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid, M A Motalib Hossain, Shuhaimi Mustafa, Md Abdul Kader, I S M Zaidul
The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690360/exposure-to-corticosterone-affects-host-resistance-but-not-tolerance-to-an-emerging-fungal-pathogen
#17
Julie Murone, Joseph A DeMarchi, Matthew D Venesky
Host responses to pathogens include defenses that reduce infection burden (i.e., resistance) and traits that reduce the fitness consequences of an infection (i.e., tolerance). Resistance and tolerance are affected by an organism's physiological status. Corticosterone ("CORT") is a hormone that is associated with the regulation of many physiological processes, including metabolism and reproduction. Because of its role in the stress response, CORT is also considered the primary vertebrate stress hormone. When secreted at high levels, CORT is generally thought to be immunosuppressive...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628213/primates-behavioural-responses-to-tourists-evidence-for-a-trade-off-between-potential-risks-and-benefits
#18
Laëtitia Maréchal, Ann MacLarnon, Bonaventura Majolo, Stuart Semple
The presence of, and interactions with tourists can be both risky and beneficial for wild animals. In wildlife tourism settings, animals often experience elevated rates of aggression from conspecifics, and they may also be threatened or physically aggressed by the tourists themselves. However, tourist provisioning of wild animals provides them with highly desirable foods. In situations of conflicting motivations such as this, animals would be expected to respond using behavioural coping mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated how animals respond to tourist pressure, using wild adult Barbary macaques in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco, as a case study...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620985/comparison-of-two-systemic-antifungal-agents-itraconazole-and-terbinafine-for-the-treatment-of-dermatophytosis-in-european-hedgehogs-erinaceus-europaeus
#19
Steve Bexton, Helen Nelson
BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton erinacei is a common scaling and crusting skin disease affecting European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) admitted to wildlife rescue centres. The application of topical therapy can be challenging because wild hedgehogs are subject to stress and often roll into a ball when handled. Systemic antifungal therapy is more convenient but has not been evaluated in this species. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of oral itraconazole versus oral terbinafine for the treatment of dermatophytosis affecting hedgehogs...
December 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612873/rumours-about-wildlife-pest-introductions-european-rabbits-in-spain
#20
Miguel Delibes-Mateos
Rumours associated with wildlife are frequent, although they have received little attention in the scientific literature. Studying rumours is important because of their relevance not only in a broad theoretical sense but also in environmental management. The goal of this study is to explore the complexity of the relationships between humans and wildlife through a thematic analysis of rumours associated with allegedly introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that cause crop damage in Spain. For this purpose, potential rumours were identified using the Google search engine...
September 9, 2016: Ambio
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