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biological markers in OCD

Elena Gabusi, Cristina Manferdini, Francesca Paolella, Laura Gambari, Elizaveta Kon, Giuseppe Filardo, Erminia Mariani, Gina Lisignoli
The surgical treatment of knee articular focal lesions may offer heterogeneous clinical results. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions showed to heal better than degenerative lesions (DL) but the underlying biological reasons are unknown. We evaluated the basal histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of these lesions analyzing a series of osteochondral fragments from young patients with similar age but presenting different etiology. Osteochondral tissue samples were stained with Safranin O and graded using a histological score...
2017: BioMed Research International
Tracy Bhikram, Elia Abi-Jaoude, Paul Sandor
Recent research has identified the important role of disgust in the symptomatology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Exaggerated and inappropriate disgust reactions may drive some of the symptoms of OCD, and in some cases, may even eclipse feelings of anxiety. This paper reviews behavioural and neuroimaging research that recognizes the prominent role of disgust in contributing to OCD symptoms, especially contamination-based symptoms. We discuss how elevated behavioural and biological markers of disgust reported in OCD populations support the need for alternative clinical treatment strategies and theoretical models of OCD...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Natasha Radhu, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Tiffany A Greenwood, Faranak Farzan, Mawahib O Semeralul, Margaret A Richter, James L Kennedy, Daniel M Blumberger, Robert Chen, Paul B Fitzgerald, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Deficits in GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission are a reliable finding in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. Previous studies have reported that unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with SCZ demonstrate neurophysiological abnormalities that are intermediate between probands and healthy controls. In this study, first-degree relatives of patients with SCZ and their related probands were investigated to assess frontal cortical inhibition. Long-interval cortical inhibition (LICI) was measured from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Joseph Christakiran M, Philip J T Reardon, Rocktotpal Konwarh, Jonathan C Knowles, Biman B Mandal
The anatomical complexity and slow regeneration capacity of hyaline cartilage at the osteochondral interface pose a great challenge in the repair of osteochondral defects (OCD). In this study, we utilized the processing feasibility offered by the sol derived 70S bioactive glass and silk fibroin (mulberry Bombyx mori and endemic Indian non-mulberry Antheraea assama), in fabricating a well-integrated, biomimetic scaffolding matrix with a coherent interface. Differences in surface properties such as wettability and amorphousness between the two silk groups resulted in profound variations in cell attachment and extracellular matrix protein deposition...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lisanne Michelle Jenkins, Alyssa Barba, Miranda Campbell, Melissa Lamar, Stewart A Shankman, Alex D Leow, Olusola Ajilore, Scott Aaron Langenecker
BACKGROUND: White matter (WM) integrity may represent a shared biomarker for emotional disorders (ED). Aims: To identify transdiagnostic biomarkers of reduced WM by meta-analysis of findings across multiple EDs. METHOD: Web of Science was searched systematically for studies of whole brain analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) in adults with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder compared with a healthy control (HC) group...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Borwin Bandelow, David Baldwin, Marianna Abelli, Blanca Bolea-Alamanac, Michel Bourin, Samuel R Chamberlain, Eduardo Cinosi, Simon Davies, Katharina Domschke, Naomi Fineberg, Edna Grünblatt, Marek Jarema, Yong-Ku Kim, Eduard Maron, Vasileios Masdrakis, Olya Mikova, David Nutt, Stefano Pallanti, Stefano Pini, Andreas Ströhle, Florence Thibaut, Matilde M Vaghi, Eunsoo Won, Dirk Wedekind, Adam Wichniak, Jade Woolley, Peter Zwanzger, Peter Riederer
OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network...
April 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Borwin Bandelow, David Baldwin, Marianna Abelli, Carlo Altamura, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Katharina Domschke, Naomi A Fineberg, Edna Grünblatt, Marek Jarema, Eduard Maron, David Nutt, Stefano Pini, Matilde M Vaghi, Adam Wichniak, Gwyneth Zai, Peter Riederer
OBJECTIVES: Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network...
August 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Dana Kamaradova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko, Jiri Taborsky, Ales Grambal, Klara Latalova, Marie Ociskova, Martin Brunovsky, Petr Hlustik
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with cognitive dysfunction. Although there are several studies focused on the neurobiology of OCD, little is known about the biological correlates of the cognitive deficit linked to this disorder. The aim of our study was to examine the association between cognitive impairment and current source density markers in patients with OCD. METHODS: Resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded in 20 patients with OCD and 15 healthy controls who were involved in the study...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ho-Jun Seo, Young-Eun Jung, Hyun Kook Lim, Yoo-Hyun Um, Chang Uk Lee, Jeong-Ho Chae
OBJECTIVE: The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low frequency (LF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...
May 31, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Christine Lochner, Samuel R Chamberlain, Martin Kidd, Naomi A Fineberg, Dan J Stein
RATIONALE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) implicates dysfunction of orbitofrontal and insula-related circuitry and of the serotonin system. There is an on-going search in psychiatry for intermediate biological markers, termed 'endophenotypes', that exist not only in patients with a given disorder but also in their clinically unaffected first-degree relatives. OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological challenge is recognized as a means of eliciting an endophenotype, but this strategy has yet to be used in OCD...
March 2016: Psychopharmacology
Jamie D Feusner, Teena Moody, Tsz Man Lai, Courtney Sheen, Sahib Khalsa, Jesse Brown, Jennifer Levitt, Jeffry Alger, Joseph O'Neill
BACKGROUND: Intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can effectively reduce symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, many relapse after treatment. Few studies have investigated biological markers predictive of follow-up clinical status. The objective was to determine if brain network connectivity patterns prior to intensive CBT predict worsening of clinical symptoms during follow-up. METHODS: We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 adults with OCD prior to and following 4 weeks of intensive CBT...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Neslihan Akkişi Kumsar, Nesrin Dilbaz
BACKGROUND: Alcoholism is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The most widely accepted hypothesis of its etiology is multidimensional and includes biological, psychological, and sociological factors. The biological factors have been the focus of investigation. In recent years, pathways related to nutrition and the relationship between alcohol addiction and craving have been studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between the appetite hormones (adiponectin, ghrelin, and resistin) and alcohol craving...
April 2015: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Riccardo Maria Martoni, Chiara Brombin, Alessandro Nonis, Giulia Carlotta Salgari, Angela Buongiorno, Maria Cristina Cavallini, Elisa Galimberti, Laura Bellodi
AIMS: Despite having a univocal definition, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) shows a remarkably phenotypic heterogeneity. The published reports show impaired decision-making in OCD patients, using tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). We wanted to verify the hypothesis of an IGT worse performance in a large sample of OCD patients and healthy control (HC) subjects and to examine the relation between neuropsychological performance in IGT and the OCD symptoms heterogeneity. METHODS: Binary data from the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale collected on a large sample of OCD patients were analyzed using a multidimensional item response theory model to explore the underlying structure of data, thus revealing latent factors...
July 2015: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Umberto Albert, David De Cori, Andrea Aguglia, Francesca Barbaro, Filippo Bogetto, Giuseppe Maina
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence indicates the possible involvement of adenosine and the purinergic system in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study is to compare serum uric acid (UA) levels in a large group of BD patients (in mania, depression and euthymia) vs. a control group of patients with different psychiatric disorders. METHODS: 150 BD (SCID-I; DSM-IV) patients were compared to 150 age- and gender-matched subjects with MDD, OCD, or Schizophrenia...
March 1, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gerardo Flórez, Pilar A Saiz, Paz García-Portilla, Francisco J De Cos, Sonia Dapía, Sandra Alvarez, Luis Nogueiras, Julio Bobes
AIM: This cohort study examined how predictors of alcohol dependence treatment outcomes work together over time by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment predictors. METHODS: A sample of 274 alcohol-dependent patients was recruited and assessed at baseline, 6 months after treatment initiation (end of the active intervention phase), and 18 months after treatment initiation (end of the 12-month research follow-up phase). At each assessment point, the participants completed a battery of standardized tests [European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), Alcohol Timeline Followback (TLFB), Fagerström, and International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)] that measured symptom severity and consequences; biological markers of alcohol consumption were also tested at each assessment point...
2015: European Addiction Research
Ilse M Lucke, Charlotte Lin, Fatmata Conteh, Amanda Federline, Huyngmo Sung, Matthew Specht, Marco A Grados
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders (TD) are often associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In order to clarify the role of attention and inhibitory control in pediatric OCD and TD, a continuous performance test (CPT) was administered to a cohort of children and adolescents with OCD alone, TD alone, and OCD+TD. METHODS: A clinical cohort of 48 children and adolescents with OCD alone (n=20), TD alone (n=15), or OCD+TD (n=13) was interviewed clinically and administered the Conners Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II)...
October 2015: CNS Spectrums
Annemarie Heberlein, Marius Käser, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Mathias Rhein, Bernd Lenz, Johannes Kornhuber, Stefan Bleich, Thomas Hillemacher
We investigated the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in 30 male alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them with the levels obtained from 18 healthy male controls. IL-6 (day 1: T = 2,593, p = 0.013; day 7: T = 2,315, p = 0.037; day 14: T = 1,650, p = 0.112) serum levels were significantly increased at the beginning of alcohol withdrawal. TNF-α (T = 3,202, p = 0.03) serum levels were significantly elevated in the patients' group during the whole period of withdrawal. IL-6 serum levels decreased significantly during withdrawal (F = 16...
November 2014: Alcohol
D Murata, D Miyakoshi, T Hatazoe, N Miura, S Tokunaga, M Fujiki, K Nakayama, K Misumi
Cartilage regeneration with cell therapy following arthroscopic surgery could be used in racehorses with intra-articular fractures (IAF) and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). The aims of this study were to investigate the origin and multipotency of stromal cells in the synovial fluid (SF) of horses with intra-articular injury and synovitis, and to provide a new strategy for regeneration of lost articular cartilage. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from SF of horses with IAF and OCD. Multipotency was analysed by RT-PCR for specific mRNAs and staining for production of specific extracellular matrices after induction of differentiation...
October 2014: Veterinary Journal
M Bobdey, N Fineberg, T M Gale, A Patel, H A Davies
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of sleep disturbance in OCD have produced contradictory findings. This may be due to different methodological approaches but may also reflect the fact that many studies have not screened OCD patients for depressive symptoms. This is particularly important since major depression is well known to disrupt sleep. METHOD: The current study examined 94 subjective reports of sleep as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Twenty-four OCD patients with and without co-morbid depression ( n =12 in each group) were compared with a group of normal subjects ( n =57) and a group of subjects with major depression ( n =13)...
2002: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Hagen Schmal, Ingo H Pilz, Ralf Henkelmann, Gian M Salzmann, Norbert P Südkamp, Philipp Niemeyer
BACKGROUND: Reliable data about in vivo regulation of cytokines in osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the ankle are still missing. Disease-specific regulation patterns were hypothesized. METHODS: 28 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 14.8 years undergoing an arthroscopy of the ankle because of OCD were prospectively included in a clinical trial. Lavage fluids were analyzed by ELISA for levels of aggrecan, BMP-2, BMP-7, IGF-1, IGF-1R, bFGF, endoglin, MMP-13, and IL-1β...
2014: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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