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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516003/mode-of-action-of-the-2-phenylquinoline-efflux-inhibitor-pqq4r-against-escherichia-coli
#1
Diana Machado, Laura Fernandes, Sofia S Costa, Rolando Cannalire, Giuseppe Manfroni, Oriana Tabarrini, Isabel Couto, Stefano Sabatini, Miguel Viveiros
Efflux pump inhibitors are of great interest since their use as adjuvants of bacterial chemotherapy can increase the intracellular concentrations of the antibiotics and assist in the battle against the rising of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this work, we have described the mode of action of the 2-phenylquinoline efflux inhibitor (4-(2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethoxy)-2-(4-propoxyphenyl) quinolone - PQQ4R), against Escherichia coli, by studding its efflux inhibitory ability, its synergistic activity in combination with antibiotics, and compared its effects with the inhibitors phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN) and chlorpromazine (CPZ)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515630/an-exception-to-the-rule-no-association-between-antibiotic-resistance-and-decreased-disinfectant-microbicidal-efficacy-orthophthalaldehyde-opa-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-icu-and-paraplegic-patients
#2
REVIEW
R Herruzo, M J Vizcaíno, I Herruzo
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance and decreased susceptibility to disinfectants are not usually associated in microorganisms, but we have found an exception to this rule: P. aeruginosa versus orthophthalaldehyde (OPA). METHODS: Bactericidal effect of OPA was measured at 10 minutes on endodoncy files contaminated with an ATCC strain (control) or 206 strains of P. aeruginosa recently isolated from 206 ICU and paraplegic patients in a tertiary university hospital, in two consecutive years...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513809/oral-gentamicin-therapy-for-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-gut-colonization-in-hematologic-patients-a-single-center-experience
#3
Paola Lambelet, Carlo Tascini, Simona Fortunato, Alessandro Stefanelli, Federico Simonetti, Chiara Vettori, Alessandro Leonildi, Francesco Menichetti
The mortality for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) infection ranges from 18 to 48% depending on the type of therapy. Mortality rates in hematologic patients are even higher, up to 85%. Gut decontamination with oral gentamicin might be an option to avoid a subsequent KPC-Kp infection in colonized patients. We treated 14 hematologic patients with oral gentamicin, 80 mg four times daily, for 7 to 25 days in order to eradicate KPC-Kp from the gut, starting oral gentamicin therapy when possible after the discontinuation of systemic antibiotic therapy...
May 17, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507783/periprosthetic-shoulder-infection-an-overview
#4
REVIEW
Nicolas Bonnevialle, Florence Dauzères, Julien Toulemonde, Fanny Elia, Jean-Michel Laffosse, Pierre Mansat
Periprosthetic shoulder infection (PSI) is rare but potentially devastating. The rate of PSI is increased in cases of revision procedures, reverse shoulder implants and co-morbidities. One specific type of PSI is the occurrence of low-grade infections caused by non-suppurative bacteria such as Propionibacterium acnes or Staphylococcus epidemermidis.Success of treatment depends on micro-organism identification, appropriate surgical procedures and antibiotic administration efficiency. Post-operative early PSI can be treated with simple debridement, while chronic PSI requires a one- or two-stage revision procedure...
April 2017: EFORT Open Rev
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502892/biomarkers-kinetics-in-the-assessment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-response-to-antibiotics-results-from-the-biovap-study
#5
Pedro Póvoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Paula Ramirez, Lieuwe D Bos, Mariano Esperatti, Joana Silvestre, Gisela Gili, Gemma Goma, Eugenio Berlanga, Mateu Espasa, Elsa Gonçalves, Antoni Torres, Antonio Artigas
PURPOSE: Our aim was to evaluate the role of biomarker kinetics in the assessment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) response to antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study to evaluate in 37 microbiologically documented VAP, the kinetics of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), mid-region fragment of pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM). The kinetics of each variable, from day 1 to 6 of therapy, was assessed with a time dependent analysis comparing survivors and non-survivors...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501674/target-attainment-with-continuous-dosing-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-critical-illness-a-prospective-observational-study
#6
Heleen Aardema, Prashant Nannan Panday, Mireille Wessels, Kay van Hateren, Willem Dieperink, Jos G W Kosterink, Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Jan G Zijlstra
Optimal dosing of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients is a challenge given the unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile of this patient population. Several studies have shown intermittent dosing to often yield inadequate drug concentrations. Continuous dosing is an attractive alternative from a pharmacodynamic point of view. This study evaluated whether, during continuous dosing, piperacillin concentrations reached and maintained a pre-defined target in critically ill patients. Adult patients treated with piperacillin by continuous dosing in the intensive care unit of a university medical centre in The Netherlands were prospectively studied...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486482/antibiofilm-and-antibacterial-effects-of-specific-chitosan-molecules-on-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-associated-with-bovine-mastitis
#7
Abdelhamid Asli, Eric Brouillette, Céline Ster, Mariana Gabriela Ghinet, Ryszard Brzezinski, Pierre Lacasse, Mario Jacques, François Malouin
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing bovine intramammary infections (IMIs) and mastitis. Mastitis is the primary cause for the use of antibiotics in dairy farms but therapeutic failure is often observed. One of the reasons for the lack of effectiveness of antibiotic therapy despite the observed susceptibility of bacterial isolates in vitro are bacterial biofilms. In this study, we used chitosan of well-defined molecular weight (0.4-0.6, 1.3, 2.6 and 4.0 kDa) and investigated their antibiofilm and antibacterial activities in in vitro and in vivo models related to S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484827/-hot-rods-in-the-icu-what-is-the-antibiotic-mileage-of-your-renal-replacement-therapy
#8
REVIEW
J T Kielstein, A K Kruse, N Anderson, H Vaitiekunas, S Scherneck
We would neither be disappointed nor upset if the gas mileage on the sticker of a car didn't match our personal, real-life fuel consumption. Depending on our daily route to work, our style of accelerating and the number of passengers in our carpool, the gas mileage will vary. As soon as the falcon wing door of our car is closed and entrance to the ICU is granted, we tend to forget all of this, even though another hot rod is waiting there for us. Renal replacement therapy is like a car; it fulfills goals, such as the removal of uremic toxins and accumulated fluids, but it also "consumes" (removes) antibiotics...
May 8, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483725/opportunities-for-system-level-improvement-across-antibiotic-use-in-the-surgical-pathway
#9
E Charani, R Ahmad, C Tarrant, G Birgand, A Leather, M Mendelson, S R Moonesinghe, N Sevdalis, S Singh, A Holmes
Optimizing antibiotic prescribing across the surgical pathway (before, during, and after surgery) is a key aspect of tackling important drivers of antimicrobial resistance and simultaneously decreasing the burden of infection at the global level. In the UK alone, 10 million patients undergo surgery every year, which is equivalent to 60% of the annual hospital admissions having a surgical intervention. The overwhelming majority of surgical procedures require effectively limited delivery of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infections...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482561/laser-assisted-triggered-drug-release-from-silver-nanoparticles-grafted-dual-responsive-polymer
#10
Mitra Amoli-Diva, Rasoul Sadighi-Bonabi, Kamyar Pourghazi
Laser assisted drug release from a synthesized plain polymer composed of poly (butyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) [P(BMA-co-AAm-co-MAA)] and a metallo-polymer composed of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) grafted plain polymer (the nanocomposite) were studied to investigate their capability to serve as drug carriers. Positive temperature dependent swelling changes were observed for both carriers and their thermal sensitivity and thermal and optical switching properties were investigated in two buffered solutions...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481880/a-link-between-damaging-behaviour-in-pigs-sanitary-conditions-and-dietary-protein-and-amino-acid-supply
#11
Yvonne van der Meer, Walter J J Gerrits, Alfons J M Jansman, Bas Kemp, J Elizabeth Bolhuis
The tendency to reduce crude protein (CP) levels in pig diets to increase protein efficiency may increase the occurrence of damaging behaviours such as ear and tail biting, particularly for pigs kept under suboptimal health conditions. We studied, in a 2×2×2 factorial design, 576 tail-docked growing-finishing entire male pigs in 64 pens, subjected to low (LSC) vs. high sanitary conditions (HSC), and fed a normal CP (NP) vs. a low CP diet (LP, 80% of NP) ad libitum, with a basal amino acid (AA) profile or supplemented AA profile with extra threonine, tryptophan and methionine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481197/effect-of-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-tigecycline-and-ciprofloxacin-on-the-expression-of-biofilm-associated-genes-and-biofilm-structure-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#12
Ewa Szczuka, Lucyna Jabłońska, Adam Kaznowski
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading cause of foreign body-associated infections. This is related to the bacterium's ability to form biofilms on synthetic materials. Bacteria within a biofilm may be exposed to subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics because of an agent's limited penetration into the biofilm core. Here, we investigated the effect of sub-MICs of tigecycline and ciprofloxacin on the expression of biofilm-associated genes, i.e. icaA, altE and sigB, and the biofilm structure of five clinical isolates of S...
May 9, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480241/high-incidence-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcal-infections-in-remote-indigenous-communities-in-northwestern-ontario-canada
#13
Natalie Bocking, Cai-Lei Matsumoto, Kassandra Loewen, Sarah Teatero, Alex Marchand-Austin, Janet Gordon, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Allison McGeer
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, indigenous populations appear to be at increased risk for invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections. Although there is empirical evidence that the burden of iGAS disease is significant among remote First Nations communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada, the epidemiology of iGAS infections in the area remains poorly characterized. METHODS: Individuals that met case definition for iGAS disease and whose laboratory specimens were processed by Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Sioux Lookout, Canada or who were reported to Thunder Bay District Health Unit, Canada were identified for the period 2009 to 2014...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469611/n2-gas-flushing-limits-the-rise-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-in-bovine-raw-milk-during-cold-storage
#14
Patricia Munsch-Alatossava, Susanna Jääskeläinen, Tapani Alatossava, Jean-Pierrre Gauchi
Antibiotic resistance has been noted to be a major and increasing human health issue. Cold storage of raw milk promotes the thriving of psychrotrophic/psychrotolerant bacteria, which are well known for their ability to produce enzymes that are frequently heat stable. However, these bacteria also carry antibiotic resistance (AR) features. In places, where no cold chain facilities are available and despite existing recommendations numerous adulterants, including antibiotics, are added to raw milk. Previously, N2 gas flushing showed real potential for hindering bacterial growth in raw milk at a storage temperature ranging from 6 to 25°C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466260/autophagy-genes-of-host-responds-to-disruption-of-gut-microbial-community-by-antibiotics
#15
Sudha B Singh, Melissa Wilson, Nathaniel Ritz, Henry C Lin
BACKGROUND: Defective autophagic machinery, such as that in Crohn's disease patients homozygous for ATG16L1 risk allele, is associated with alteration of resident gut bacterial communities. However, whether or not host autophagy responds to changes in the resident gut microbial community is not known. Here, we investigated the effect of antibiotic-induced disruption of the gut microbiome (dysbiosis) on autophagy gene expression and the expression of antimicrobial peptides/protein (AMP) over time...
May 2, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463805/time-dependent-activity-of-primary-auditory-neurons-in-the-presence-of-neurotrophins-and-antibiotics
#16
Helen Q Cai, Lisa N Gillespie, Tess Wright, William G A Brown, Ricki Minter, Bryony A Nayagam, Stephen J O'Leary, Karina Needham
In vitro cultures provide a valuable tool in studies examining the survival, morphology and function of cells in the auditory system. Primary cultures of primary auditory neurons have most notably provided critical insights into the role of neurotrophins in cell survival and morphology. Functional studies have also utilized in vitro models to study neuronal physiology and the ion channels that dictate these patterns of activity. Here we examine what influence time-in-culture has on the activity of primary auditory neurons, and how this affects our interpretation of neurotrophin and antibiotic-mediated effects in this population...
April 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446917/shoot-the-message-not-the-messenger-combating-pathogenic-virulence-in-plants-by-inhibiting-quorum-sensing-mediated-signaling-molecules
#17
REVIEW
Ganesh Alagarasan, Kumar S Aswathy
Immunity, virulence, biofilm formation, and survival in the host environment are regulated by the versatile nature of density dependent microbial cell signaling, also called quorum sensing (QS). The QS molecules can associate with host plant tissues and, at times, cause a change in its gene expression at the downstream level through inter-kingdom cross talking. Progress in controlling QS through fungicide/bactericide in pathogenic microscopic organisms has lead to a rise of antibiotic resistance pathogens. Here, we review the application of selective quorum quenching (QQ) endophytes to control phytopathogens that are shared by most, if not all, terrestrial plant species as well as aquatic plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446169/the-relative-importance-of-large-problems-far-away-versus-small-problems-closer-to-home-insights-into-limiting-the-spread-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-england
#18
Tjibbe Donker, Katherine L Henderson, Katie L Hopkins, Andrew R Dodgson, Stephanie Thomas, Derrick W Crook, Tim E A Peto, Alan P Johnson, Neil Woodford, A Sarah Walker, Julie V Robotham
BACKGROUND: To combat the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), hospitals are advised to screen high-risk patients for carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on admission. This often includes patients previously admitted to hospitals with a high AMR prevalence. However, the ability of such a strategy to identify introductions (and hence prevent onward transmission) is unclear, as it depends on AMR prevalence in each hospital, the number of patients moving between hospitals, and the number of hospitals considered 'high risk'...
April 27, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443284/fecal-short-chain-fatty-acid-variations-by-breastfeeding-status-in-infants-at-4%C3%A2-months-differences-in-relative-versus-absolute-concentrations
#19
Sarah L Bridgman, Meghan B Azad, Catherine J Field, Andrea M Haqq, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, David S Wishart, Anita L Kozyrskyj
Our gut microbiota provide a number of important functions, one of which is the metabolism of dietary fiber and other macronutrients that are undigested by the host. The main products of this fermentation process are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and other intermediate metabolites including lactate and succinate. Production of these metabolites is dependent on diet and gut microbiota composition. There is increasing evidence for the role of SCFAs in host physiology and metabolic processes as well as chronic inflammatory conditions such as allergic disease and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443249/francisella-tularensis-susceptibility-to-antibiotics-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-data-obtained-in-vitro-and-in-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
Yvan Caspar, Max Maurin
The antibiotic classes that are recommended for tularaemia treatment are the aminoglycosides, the fluoroquinolones and the tetracyclines. However, cure rates vary between 60 and 100% depending on the antibiotic used, the time to appropriate antibiotic therapy setup and its duration, and the presence of complications, such as lymph node suppuration. Thus, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of F. tularensis strains remains of primary importance for detection of the emergence of antibiotic resistances to first-line drugs, and to test new therapeutic alternatives...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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