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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721286/open-stone-surgery-a-still-in-use-approach-for-complex-stone-burden
#1
Özer Ural Çakici, Kemal Ener, Murat Keske, Serkan Altinova, Abdullah Erdem Canda, Mustafa Aldemir, Arslan Ardicoglu
INTRODUCTION: Urinary stone disease is a major urological condition. Endourologic techniques have influenced the clinical approach and outcomes. Open surgery holds a historic importance in the management of most conditions. However, complex kidney stone burden may be amenable to successful results with open stone surgery. In this article, we report our eighteen cases of complex urinary stone disease who underwent open stone removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1701 patients have undergone surgical treatment for urinary stone disease in our clinic between July 2012 and July 2016, comprising eighteen patients who underwent open stone surgery...
June 30, 2017: Central European Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720578/systematic-longitudinal-survey-of-invasive-escherichia-coli-in-england-demonstrates-a-stable-population-structure-only-transiently-disturbed-by-the-emergence-of-st131
#2
Teemu Kallonen, Hayley J Brodrick, Simon R Harris, Jukka Corander, Nicholas M Brown, Veronique Martin, Sharon J Peacock, Julian Parkhill
Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infections and bacteremia has been intensively investigated, including recent work focusing on the virulent, globally disseminated, multidrug-resistant lineage ST131. To contextualize ST131 within the broader E. coli population associated with disease, we used genomics to analyze a systematic 11-yr hospital-based survey of E. coli associated with bacteremia using isolates collected from across England by the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and from the Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust...
July 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714461/predicting-the-dynamics-of-bacterial-growth-inhibition-by-ribosome-targeting-antibiotics
#3
Philip Greulich, Jakub Dolezal, Matthew Scott, Martin R Evans, Rosalind J Allen
Understanding how antibiotics inhibit bacteria can help to reduce antibiotic use and hence avoid antimicrobial resistance - yet few theoretical models exist for bacterial growth inhibition by a clinically relevant antibiotic treatment regimen. In particular, in the clinic, antibiotic treatment is time-dependent. Here, we use a theoretical model, previously applied to steady-state bacterial growth, to predict the dynamical response of a bacterial cell to a time-dependent dose of ribosome-targeting antibiotic...
July 17, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702465/a-dynamic-transmission-model-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-infection-control-strategies
#4
Karim Khader, Alun Thomas, W Charles Huskins, Molly Leecaster, Yue Zhang, Tom Greene, Andrew Redd, Matthew H Samore
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge about control of antibiotic resistance depends on the rigorous evaluation of alternative intervention strategies. The STAR*ICU trial examined the effects of active surveillance and expanded barrier precautions on acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in intensive care units. We report a reanalyses of the STAR*ICU trial using a Bayesian transmission modeling framework. METHODS: The data included admission and discharge times and surveillance test times and results...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702015/inhibition-of-the-rumen-ciliate-entodinium-caudatum-by-antibiotics
#5
Tansol Park, Tea Meulia, Jeffrey L Firkins, Zhongtang Yu
Axenic cultures of free-living aerobic ciliates, such as Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium aurelia, have been established and routinely used in laboratory research, greatly facilitating, or enabling characterization of their metabolism, physiology, and ecology. Ruminal protozoa are anaerobic ciliates, and they play important roles in feed digestion and fermentation. Although, repeatedly attempted, no laboratory-maintainable axenic culture of ruminal ciliates has been established. When axenic ciliate cultures are developed, antibiotics are required to eliminate the accompanying bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698272/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-phoy-proteins-promote-persister-formation-by-mediating-pst-senx3-regx3-phosphate-sensing
#6
Sarah B Namugenyi, Alisha M Aagesen, Sarah R Elliott, Anna D Tischler
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphate-specific transport (Pst) system controls gene expression in response to phosphate availability by inhibiting the activation of the SenX3-RegX3 two-component system under phosphate-rich conditions, but the mechanism of communication between these systems is unknown. In Escherichia coli, inhibition of the two-component system PhoR-PhoB under phosphate-rich conditions requires both the Pst system and PhoU, a putative adaptor protein. E. coli PhoU is also involved in the formation of persisters, a subpopulation of phenotypically antibiotic-tolerant bacteria...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695731/investigating-the-interaction-of-octapeptin-a3-with-model-bacterial-membranes
#7
Mei-Ling Han, Hsin-Hui Shen, Karl A Hansford, Elena K Schneider, Sivashangarie Sivanesan, Kade D Roberts, Philip E Thompson, Anton P Le Brun, Yan Zhu, Marc-Antoine Sani, Frances Separovic, Mark A T Blaskovich, Mark A Baker, Samuel M Moskowitz, Matthew A Cooper, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
Octapeptins are cyclic lipopeptides with a broader spectrum of activity against fungi and polymyxin-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the interaction of octapeptin A3 with asymmetric outer membrane models of Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa using neutron reflectometry, together with fluorimetric and calorimetry methods. For the first time, our neutron reflectometry results reveal that the interaction of octapeptin A3 with the Gram-negative outer membrane involves an initial transient polar interaction with the phospholipid and lipid A headgroups, followed by the penetration of the entire octapeptin molecule into the fatty acyl core of the outer membrane...
July 11, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693187/salinomycin-inhibits-canine-mammary-carcinoma-in-vitro-by-targeting-cancer-stem-cells
#8
Hongchao Du, Bin Zhou, Hong Zhang, Yipeng Jin, Di Zhang, Degui Lin
Salinomycin (SAL), a polyether ionophore antibiotic, has been demonstrated to selectively kill cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various types of human tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of SAL on canine mammary CSCs. CSCs in canine mammary carcinoma cell lines (CMT7364 and CIPp) were identified using a sphere formation assay and flow cytometry. The chemoresistance, invasive potential and expression of stem cell-associated proteins of these spheres was then analyzed. This demonstrated that the spheres exhibited characteristics of CSCs, including a cluster of differentiation (CD)44(+)/CD24(-/low) phenotype, upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-associated proteins and chemoresistance...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688779/formulation-stabilisation-and-encapsulation-of-bacteriophage-for-phage-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Danish J Malik, Ilya J Sokolov, Gurinder K Vinner, Francesco Mancuso, Salvatore Cinquerrui, Goran T Vladisavljevic, Martha R J Clokie, Natalie J Garton, Andrew G F Stapley, Anna Kirpichnikova
Against a backdrop of global antibiotic resistance and increasing awareness of the importance of the human microbiota, there has been resurgent interest in the potential use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes, known as phage therapy. A number of phage therapy phase I and II clinical trials have concluded, and shown phages don't present significant adverse safety concerns. These clinical trials used simple phage suspensions without any formulation and phage stability was of secondary concern. Phages have a limited stability in solution, and undergo a significant drop in phage titre during processing and storage which is unacceptable if phages are to become regulated pharmaceuticals, where stable dosage and well defined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are de rigueur...
May 14, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674262/time-dependent-alterations-of-vancomycin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-mice
#10
Masaki Takigawa, Hirofumi Masutomi, Yuki Kishimoto, Yoshitomo Shimazaki, Yoshitomo Hamano, Yoshitaka Kondo, Tomio Arai, Jaewon Lee, Toshihiro Ishii, Yoshiko Mori, Akihito Ishigami
Vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is commonly used against methicillin-resistant, Gram-positive cocci despite the nephrotoxic side effects. VCM-induced nephrotoxicity has been reported in 5-28% of recipient patients. Therefore, renal failure induced by VCM has become an important clinical problem. However, the exceedingly complex mechanism of VCM-induced nephrotoxicity is not fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to clarify time-dependent alterations of VCM-induced nephrotoxicity in mice as a step toward decreasing the risks of kidney injury associated with VCM therapy...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672834/individual-and-combined-effects-of-engineered-peptides-and-antibiotics-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms
#11
Biswajit Mishra, Guangshun Wang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is involved in a variety of difficult-to-treat infections frequently due to biofilm formation. To identify useful antibiofilm strategies, this article evaluated efficacy of two newly engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (17BIPHE2 and DASamP2), traditional antibiotics, and their combinations against biofilms at different stages. 17BIPHE2 is designed based on the 3D structure of human cathelicidin LL-37 and DASamP2 is derived from database screening. While both peptides show effects on bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, and preformed biofilms, select antibiotics only inhibit biofilm formation, probably due to direct bacterial killing...
June 25, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671807/valvular-heart-disease-in-adults-infective-endocarditis
#12
Zubair A Khan, Steven M Hollenberg
A variety of microorganisms can cause infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with native valves. Staphylococci and streptococci are most common in community-acquired IE; staphylococci are most common in nosocomial IE. Microbiology of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) depends on timing. Early-onset PVE (ie, 60 days or fewer postsurgery) typically is nosocomial, with Staphylococcus aureus infection being most common. Intermediate-onset PVE (ie, 60 to 365 days postsurgery) typically involves a mix of nosocomial and non-nosocomial organisms...
June 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657569/acute-periprosthetic-knee-infection-is-there-still-a-role-for-dair
#13
Paolo Di Benedetto, Enrico Daniele Di Benedetto, Daniele Salviato, Alessandro Beltrame, Renato Gissoni, Vanni Cainero, Araldo Causero
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Periprosthetic knee infection is a rare complication associated with prosthetic failure; incidence change from 0,4-2% of primary total knee replacement and 5.6% in revisions. Indications for debridment, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) are early acute infections or acute delayed infection. Aim of the work is to check if this technique is still a successful in early infections. METHODS: We have analyzed recent literature data on DAIR and all DAIR procedures in our clinic in the last 10 years, the mean time between onset of symptoms and surgery, the mean antibiotic therapy duration and results we have obtained...
June 7, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657373/extended-infusion-of-beta-lactam-antibiotics-optimizing-therapy-in-critically-ill-patients-in-the-era-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#14
Nesrine A Rizk, Zeina A Kanafani, Hussam Z Tabaja, Souha S Kanj
Beta-lactams are at the cornerstone of therapy in critical care settings, but their clinical efficacy is challenged by the rise in bacterial resistance. Infections with multi-drug resistant organisms are frequent in intensive care units, posing significant therapeutic challenges. The problem is compounded by a dearth in the development of new antibiotics. In addition, critically-ill patients have unique physiologic characteristics that alter the drugs pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Areas covered: The prolonged infusion of antibiotics (extended infusion [EI] and continuous infusion [CI]) has been the focus of research in the last decade...
July 3, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656549/kanamycin-damages-early-postnatal-but-not-adult-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#15
Kelei Gao, Dalian Ding, Hong Sun, Jerome Roth, Richard Salvi
Although aminoglycoside antibiotics such as kanamycin are widely used clinically to treat life-threatening bacterial infections, ototoxicity remains a significant dose-limiting side effect. The prevailing view is that the hair cells are the primary ototoxic target of aminoglycosides and that spiral ganglion neurons begin to degenerate weeks or months after the hair cells have died due to lack of neurotrophic support. To test the early developmental aspects of this issue, we compared kanamycin-induced hair cell and spiral ganglion pathology in rat postnatal day 3 cochlear organotypic cultures with adult whole cochlear explants...
June 27, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656144/antibiotic-elution-from-hip-and-knee-acrylic-bone-cement-spacers-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Konstantinos Anagnostakos, Christof Meyer
Knowledge about the elution from antibiotic-loaded cement spacers is an indispensable premise for guarantee of clinical success. A systematic literature search was performed through PubMed. Search terms were "antibiotic elution" and "antibiotic release" in combination with "spacer," "hip spacer," and "knee spacer," respectively. A total of 11 studies could be identified. Seven studies reported on the release of antibiotics after spacer implantation, three studies at spacer removal, and one study on both time points...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654772/evidence-for-the-presence-of-cell-surface-bound-and-intracellular-bactericidal-toxins-in-the-dinoflagellate-heterocapsa-circularisquama
#17
Kichul Cho, Li Wencheng, Satoshi Takeshita, Jung-Kil Seo, Young-Ho Chung, Daekyung Kim, Tatsuya Oda
Heterocapsa circularisquama, a harmful dinoflagellate, has multiple haemolytic toxins that are considered to be involved in the toxic mechanism against shellfish and certain species of zooplankton. To evaluate the further nature of the toxins of H. circularisquama, we investigated its effects on several species of bacteria. By colony formation assay, we found that H. circularisquama had antibacterial activity toward the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus in a cell density-dependent manner. When the inoculated bacterial cells were co-cultured with H...
June 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640722/stroke-ineffective-tube-securement-reduces-nutrition-and-drug-treatment
#18
Sophie Brazier, Stephen J Taylor, Kaylee Allan, Rowan Clemente, Deirdre Toher
Stroke patients with dysphagia often depend on nutrition, hydration and medication via nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes. Securing tubes using tape is associated with repeated tube loss. In this study, the authors determined cause and effect by auditing tube placement methods, delays incurred, duration and costs. Of 202 NG tube placements in 75 patients, 67 placements occurred in 17 patients over a full course of enteral nutrition (EN) and 40 of these placements were tracked. Tubes were secured by tape in 100%, mittens 31% and special observation 5...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630418/replacing-a-century-old-technique-modern-spectroscopy-can-supplant-gram-staining
#19
Shirly Berezin, Yaron Aviv, Hagit Aviv, Elad Goldberg, Yaakov R Tischler
Rapid and accurate Gram differentiation is paramount as the first step of pathogen identification and antibiotics administration. However, the current method requires additional reagents, is time-consuming, and is operator dependent. Here we show the principle of tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) can differentiate between Gram negative and positive species, by detecting the changes in tip-enhancement in the Raman scattering from the bacteria's lipid-bilayer membrane, which specifically enhances Gram negative bacteria...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630197/pharmacodynamics-of-cefepime-combined-with-tazobactam-against-clinically-relevant-enterobactereaceae-in-a-neutropenic-mouse-thigh-model
#20
Maria J Melchers, Anita C van Mil, Claudia Lagarde, Jan den Hartigh, Johan W Mouton
The lack of new antibiotics prompted the investigation of the combination of two existing agents cefepime, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin and tazobactam to broaden its efficacy against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae. We determined the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the combination in a murine neutropenic thigh model in order to establishing its exposure- response relationships (ERR). The PK of cefepime was determined for five doses; that of tazobactam was determined in earlier studies (Melchers et al Antimicrob...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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