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time dependent antibiotics

Lisa M Schechter, David P Creely, Cherilyn D Garner, Dee Shortridge, Hoan Nguyen, Lei Chen, Blake M Hanson, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock, W Michael Dunne, Alex van Belkum, Shana R Leopold
Although the TEM-1 β-lactamase (BlaTEM-1 ) hydrolyzes penicillins and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, organisms expressing this enzyme are typically susceptible to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations such as piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP). However, our previous work led to the discovery of 28 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to TZP that contained only bla TEM-1 One of these isolates, E. coli 907355, was investigated further in this study. E. coli 907355 exhibited significantly higher β-lactamase activity and BlaTEM-1 protein levels when grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of TZP...
April 24, 2018: MBio
Albert Z Muranda, Ludolf Greeff, Mike M Sathekge, Thabo Lengano, Victor O L Karusseit
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an important opportunistic infection of organ transplant recipients. It is the third most common fungal infection of transplant patients and occurs especially in kidney recipients. Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous fungus which infects humans by inhalation of spores. C. gattii has more recently been recognised as a pathogen. Infection commonly is disseminated affecting mainly the central nervous system and the lungs. Cryptococcoma, a localised form of the disease, has been described in various organs...
April 23, 2018: BMC Nephrology
John C Freedman, Mauricio A Navarro, Eleonora Morrell, Juliann Beingesser, Archana Shrestha, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for the gastrointestinal symptoms of C. perfringens type A food poisoning and some cases of non-foodborne gastrointestinal diseases such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In the presence of certain predisposing medical conditions, this toxin can also be absorbed from the intestines to cause enterotoxemic death. CPE action in vivo involves intestinal damage, which begins at the villus tips. The cause of this CPE-induced intestinal damage is unknown but CPE can induce a caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Victoria Albright, Meng Xu, Anbazhagan Palanisamy, Jun Cheng, Mary Stack, Beilu Zhang, Arul Jayaraman, Svetlana A Sukhishvili, Hongjun Wang
Tailoring nanofibrous matrices-a material with much promise for wound healing applications-to simultaneously mitigate bacterial colonization and stimulate wound closure of infected wounds is highly desirable. To that end, a dual-releasing, multiscale system of biodegradable electrospun nanofibers coated with biocompatible micellar nanocarriers is reported. For wound healing, transforming growth factor-β1 is incorporated into polycaprolactone/collagen (PCL/Coll) nanofibers via electrospinning and the myofibroblastic differentiation of human dermal fibroblasts is locally stimulated...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Ya-Qian Xu, Shu-Shen Liu, Ye Fan, Kai Li
It has been stated by researchers that the antibiotic polymyxin B sulfate (POL) is a key component inducing time-dependent antagonism in freshwater luminescent bacteria, Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67, exposed in the ternary mixture system of the ionic liquids, pesticide and antibiotics. However, the previous statement is limited to ternary and quaternary mixtures without considering situations such as the binary system. In order to prove the direct inducing of antagonism by POL in a more complete and systematic way, two categories of experiments (adding POL in non-antagonistic ternary system and decomposing antagonistic ternary system with POL into the binary system) have been conducted in this paper...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chukwunonso P Okoli, Augustine E Ofomaja
The realization that the observed kinetic coefficient (kobs ) varies with time in most real-time adsorption system, as against the constant value conceived in the most widely-applied adsorption kinetic models, have attracted much attention in recent time. Understanding the factors that control the extent/degree of time dependency (otherwise known as fractal-like kinetics), is therefore central in taking manipulative advantage of this phenomenon in critical adsorption applications. This study therefore deployed non-fractal-like and fractal-like kinetic approach to study the adsorption of tetracycline on monodispersed starch-stabilized magnetite nanocomposite (MSM)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Simon J Newsome, Ruth H Keogh, Rhian M Daniel
In the presence of time-dependent confounding, there are several methods available to estimate treatment effects. With correctly specified models and appropriate structural assumptions, any of these methods could provide consistent effect estimates, but with real-world data, all models will be misspecified and it is difficult to know if assumptions are violated. In this paper, we investigate five methods: inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models, history-adjusted marginal structural models, sequential conditional mean models, g-computation formula, and g-estimation of structural nested models...
April 19, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Yunhui Yan, Tianjun Ni, Jinge Du, Li Li, Shuai Fu, Kun Li, Jianguo Zhou
A novel BiVO4/BiPO4 composite with a balsam pear-shaped morphology was fabricated by a green hydrothermal synthesis approach, which didn't employ a strong acid and base, and neither a template or surfactant. The co-precipitation hydrothermal process had significant influence not only on particle size and shape, but also on the BiVO4 oriented growth along the (040) facet. The morphology, microstructure, light absorption and emission properties were analyzed by several characterization techniques. A formation mechanism for the hollow BiVO4/BiPO4 composite was proposed on the basis of time-dependent SEM observations...
April 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Michael A Lyons
Pretomanid is a nitroimidazole antibiotic in late phase clinical testing as a component of several novel antituberculosis (anti-TB) regimens. A population pharmacokinetic model for pretomanid was constructed using a Bayesian analysis of data from two phase 2 studies, PA-824-CL-007 and PA-824-CL-010, conducted with newly diagnosed adult (median age 27 years) pulmonary TB patients in Cape Town, South Africa. Combined, these studies included 63 males and 59 females administered once daily oral pretomanid doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, 600, 1000, or 1200 mg for 14 days...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
C G Marmanillo, C Langaro, J E Nicoluzzi, R T Belila, M Macri, R Zamprogna, M Luvizotto, M Takahashi
BACKGROUND: The most common multiple-organ transplant is the simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK). It is usually offered to patients who have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and those with diabetic nephropathy and renal failure that has already been established. In this study we present the results of 15 years of SPK in a transplant hospital center in Paraná, Brazil, and evaluated survival, immunosuppression, and transplant-related problems. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of 131 SPK transplants performed at the Angelina Caron Hospital between January 2001 and December 2015...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Lindsay D Lozeau, Marsha W Rolle, Terri A Camesano
The human antimicrobial peptide LL37 is promising as an alternative to antibiotics due to its biophysical interactions with charged bacterial lipids. However, its clinical potential is limited due to its interactions with zwitterionic mammalian lipids leading to cytotoxicity. Mechanistic insight into the LL37 interactions with mammalian lipids may enable rational design of less toxic LL37-based therapeutics. To this end, we studied concentration- and time-dependent interactions of LL37 with zwitterionic model phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers with quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D)...
April 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Yun-Jung Choi, Jin-Hoi Kim
Bovine postpartum diseases remain one of the most significant and highly prevalent illnesses with negative effects on the productivity, survival, and welfare of dairy cows. Antibiotics are generally considered beneficial in the treatment of endometritis; however, frequent usage of each antibiotic drug is reason for the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) of the pathogenic microorganisms, representing a major impediment for the successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases in both humans and animals...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luca Chiesa, Sara Panseri, Elisa Pasquale, Renato Malandra, Radmila Pavlovic, Francesco Arioli
High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with a benchtop Q-Exactive Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer, was successfully applied for the determination of 24 target antibiotics (selected beta-lactams, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamids, phenicols, macrolides, cephalosporins, lincosamides, diaminopyrimidine) in fish matrices. The Q-Exactive parameters were carefully studied to accomplish the best compromise between a suitable scan speed and selectivity, considering the restrictions associated with generic sample preparation methodology...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Richard Kuehl, Sarah Tschudin Sutter, Mario Morgenstern, Marc Dangel, Adrian Egli, Andrej Nowakowski, Norbert Suhm, Christian Theilacker, Andreas F Widmer
OBJECTIVES: Little information is published on orthopaedic internal fixation-associated infections. We aimed to analyse time-dependent microbiology, treatment, and outcome. METHODS: Over a ten-year period, all consecutive patients with internal fixation-associated infections at the University Hospital Basel were prospectively followed by acquiring clinical, microbiological and outcome data. Infections were classified as early (0-2 weeks after implantation), delayed (3-10 weeks) and late (>10 weeks)...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Justine Moe, Roy Rajan, Shelley Caltharp, Shelly Abramowicz
PURPOSE: Controversy exists regarding the most appropriate treatment strategy for children with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) cervical lymphadenitis. Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) is an uncommon cause of NTM cervical lymphadenitis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate diagnosis, management, and treatment outcomes in children with MAB-associated cervical lymphadenitis resulting from a pulpotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of children with NTM lymphadenitis of the head and neck caused by MAB treated at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta hospitals (Atlanta, GA)...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Audrey L Horst, Justin M Rosenbohm, Nikunja Kolluri, Justin Hardick, Charlotte A Gaydos, Mario Cabodi, Catherine M Klapperich, Jacqueline C Linnes
Globally, the microbe Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) causes 106 million newly documented sexually transmitted infections each year. Once appropriately diagnosed, NG infections can be readily treated with antibiotics, but high-risk patients often do not return to the clinic for treatment if results are not provided at the point of care. A rapid, sensitive molecular diagnostic would help increase NG treatment and reduce the prevalence of this sexually transmitted disease. Here, we report on the design and development of a rapid, highly sensitive, paperfluidic device for point-of-care diagnosis of NG...
April 11, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
T X Fu, X Wang, M L Liu
57-year-old male was admitted to hospital for severe headache and seizure attacks on November 6th, 2016. After radiology and spinal fluid examination, he was diagnosed with viral encephalitis and treated with antiviral medicine, antibiotics and mannitol, but he was in sustained unconsciousness and weak in expectorating. The patient was given oxygen through artificial nasal after bedside tracheotomy. At 1:00 am on January 12th, 2016, there was a sudden drop in blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation with left lung breath sounds slightly lower than the other side...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Timothy J Johnson, Bonnie P Youmans, Sally Noll, Carol Cardona, Nicholas P Evans, T Peter Karnezos, John M Ngunjiri, Michael C Abundo, Chang-Won Lee
Defining the baseline bacterial microbiome is critical towards understanding its relationship with health and disease. In broiler chickens, the core microbiome and its possible relationships with health and disease have been difficult to define due to high variability between birds and flocks. Presented are data from a large, comprehensive microbiota-based study in commercial broilers. The primary goals of this study included understanding what constitutes the core bacterial microbiota in the broiler gastrointestinal, respiratory, and barn environments; how these core players change across age, geography, and time; and which bacterial taxa correlate with enhanced bird performance in antibiotic-free flocks...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Liang Hu, Anle Ge, Xixian Wang, Shanshan Wang, Xinpei Yue, Jie Wang, Xiaojun Feng, Wei Du, Bi-Feng Liu
Immune response to environmental pathogen invasion is a complex process to prevent host from further damage. For quantitatively understanding immune responses and revealing the pathogenic environmental information, real-time monitoring of such a whole dynamic process with single-animal resolution in well-defined environments is highly desired. In this work, an integrated microfluidic device coupled with worm-based biosensor was proposed for in vivo studies of dynamic immune responses and antibiotics interference in infected C...
March 29, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Eveline Staub, Hanna Marti, Roberta Biondi, Aurora Levi, Manuela Donati, Cory Ann Leonard, Serej D Ley, Trestan Pillonel, Gilbert Greub, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Nicole Borel
Chlamydia species have recently been recognized as emerging pathogens in snakes. However, isolation of novel snake chlamydiae is critical and their growth characteristics are largely unknown. In this study, two novel chlamydial species are described: Chlamydia serpentis and Chlamydia poikilothermis, isolated after attempts on 23 cloacal and choanal swabs from 18 PCR-positive captive snakes originating from different Swiss snake collections. Isolation success, growth curve and infectivity rates over a 48-hour time period were dependent on temperature (37 °C for C...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
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