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time dependent antibiotics

Monireh Bakhshpour, Handan Yavuz, Adil Denizli
Molecular imprinting technique was used for the preparation of antibiotic and anti-neoplastic chemotherapy drug (mitomycin C) imprinted cryogel membranes (MMC-ICM). The membranes were synthezied by using metal ion coordination interactions with N-methacryloyl-(l)-histidine methyl ester (MAH) functional monomer and template molecules (i.e. MMC). The 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomer and methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) crosslinker were used for the preparation of mitomycin C imprinted cryogel membranes by radical suspension polymerization technique...
February 19, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Vasanthan Ravichandran, Gayathri P Kothandaraman, Christian Bories, Philippe M Loiseau, A Jayakrishnan
While many naturally occurring polysaccharides have been widely used as drug carriers, there are two main drawbacks in their use: the first is their physical properties such as molecular weight, branching, type of glycosidic linkages and solubility depend on their source and the method of isolation and purification, the second is many of them are contaminated with proteins and protein removal is essential for preventing immune reactions. Synthetic polysaccharides on the other hand can be tailor made from their respective monomers with consistent physical properties and are, free from protein contamination, both being significant advantages in their use...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Małgorzata Olejnik, Lidia Radko, Piotr Jedziniak
RATIONALE: Salinomycin is an ionophore antibiotic with potential anti-cancer activity. The history of its use in veterinary medicine show large differences in species susceptibility to its toxicity. At the same time, the results of so-far research suggest the correlation between the extent and pathways of ionophore biotransformation and its toxicity. The biotransformation pattern of salinomycin has not been studied so far. METHODS: The extracts from culture media of human hepatoma cells (HepG2) exposed to salinomycin were analysed with two mass spectrometry techniques...
February 14, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Prabh Basra, Ahlam Alsaadi, Gabriel Bernal-Astrain, Michael Liam O'Sullivan, Bryn Hazlett, Leah Marie Clarke, Andrew Schoenrock, Sylvain Pitre, Alex Wong
Evolutionary trade-offs occur when selection on one trait has detrimental effects on other traits. In pathogenic microbes, it has been hypothesized that antibiotic resistance trades off with fitness in the absence of antibiotic. While studies of single resistance mutations support this hypothesis, it is unclear whether trade-offs are maintained over time, due to compensatory evolution and broader effects of genetic background. Here, we leverage natural variation in 39 extra-intestinal clinical isolates of Escherichia coli to assess trade-offs between growth rates and resistance to fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin antibiotics...
February 7, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Yuyi Yang, Weibo Wang
Benzylalkyldimethylethyl ammonium compounds are pervasive in natural environments and toxic at high concentrations. The changes in functional genes and microbial diversity in eutrophic lake samples exposed to benzyldimethyldodecyl ammonium chloride (BAC) were assessed. BAC exerted negative effects on bacteria abundance, particularly at concentrations of 100 μg L-1 and higher. A significant increase in the number of the quaternary ammonium compound-resistant gene qacA/B was recorded within the 10 μg L-1 treatment after the first day of exposure...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tianyu Zheng, Yuen Yee Li Sip, Michael B Leong, Qun Huo
Ribostamycin is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic with a molecular weight of 454.5 g/mol. Under neutral pH conditions, ribostamycin is highly positive charged because it carries multiple amino groups in its structure. Negatively charged citrate ligand capped-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been studied extensively for their interactions with a wide range of biomolecules including proteins, carbohydrates, and small drug compounds. These studies are aimed at developing new therapeutics and diagnostics by exploiting the unique properties of gold nanoparticles...
January 29, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Gayan Heruka De Zoysa, Hugh Douglas Glossop, Vijayalekshmi Sarojini
Novel antifungal agents are required against pathogenic fungi such as Candida albicans. We report the anticandidal activity of battacin lipopeptide antibiotics with previously unexplored antifungal activity. From amongst sixteen battacin lipopeptides tested against C. alibicans (SC5314) the 4-methyl hexanoyl conjugated trimeric lipopeptide 13 emerged as the lead candidate with a MIC of 6.25 μM and negligible haemolysis of mouse red blood cells. The potency of this lipopeptide was maintained under acidic conditions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sumreen Hayat, Saima Muzammil, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Zonaira Nisar, Syed Zajif Hussain, Anjum Nasim Sabri, Saba Jamil
The aim of the current investigation was to determine antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles against antibiotic resistant clinical strains of bacteria. MgO nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical method, and were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Antibacterial activity was determined by broth microdilution and agar diffusion method. Bradford method was used to assess cellular protein leakage as a result of loss of membrane integrity...
February 6, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Claudio S Quilodrán, Frédéric Austerlitz, Mathias Currat, Juan I Montoya-Burgos
The dispersal of non-native genes due to hybridization is a form of cryptic invasion with growing concern in evolution and conservation. This includes the spread of transgenic genes and antibiotic resistance. To investigate how genes and phenotypes are transmitted, we developed a general model that, for the first time, considers concurrently: multiple loci, quantitative and qualitative gene expression, assortative mating, dominance/recessivity inheritance and density-dependent demographic effects. Selection acting on alleles or genotypes can also be incorporated...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yi-Ping Fang, Pei-Yu Hu, Yaw-Bin Huang
Introduction: Mitomycin C is an anticancer antibiotic agent that has the potential for broad-spectrum use against several cancers, including mammary cancers. Because its half-life is 17 min after a 30 mg intravenous bolus administration, the suitability of mitomycin C for wide use in the clinical setting is limited. Based on tumor pathophysiology, pH-sensitive liposomes could provide better tumor-targeted effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of diminishing the side effect of mitomycin C by using pH-sensitive liposomes...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Fen Su, Jiliang Wang
Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa is an ubiquitous and metabolically versatile opportunistic pathogen and may cause various life-threatening diseases. Due to increasing emergence of resistance to carbapenems, novel drugs with improved antibacterial activities compared with those of traditional antibiotics are required. In the present study, berberine (BEB), a natural isoquinoline alkaloid, was used in combination with imipenem (IMP), a commonly-used carbapenem, to investigate their antibacterial activities against a clinical P...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Joachim Vater, Stefanie Herfort, Joerg Doellinger, Max Weydmann, Peter Lasch, Rainer Borriss
Paenibacillus polymyxa strains are qualified for agrobiotechnological uses such as plant growth promotion and for biocontrol strategies against deleterious phytopathogenic competitors in the soil depending on their attractive arsenal of bioactive compounds. On the other hand they are potent producers of antibiotics for medical applications. To identify new products of such organisms genome mining strategies in combination with mass spectrometry are the methods of choice. Here we performed such studies with the Paenibacillus strain E681...
January 25, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Yotesawee Srisomboon, Nathan A Zaidman, Peter J Maniak, Chatsri Deachapunya, Scott M O'Grady
The objective of this study was to determine the molecular identity of ion channels involved in K+ secretion by the mammary epithelium and to examine their regulation by purinoceptor agonists. Apical membrane voltage clamp experiments were performed on human mammary epithelial cells where the basolateral membrane was exposed to the pore-forming antibiotic amphotericin B dissolved in a solution with intracellular-like ionic composition. Addition of the Na+ channel inhibitor benzamil reduced the basal current, consistent with inhibition of Na+ uptake across the apical membrane whereas the KCa3...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Andrew T Giguere, Anne E Taylor, David D Myrold, Brett L Mellbye, Luis A Sayavedra-Soto, Peter J Bottomley
The factors influencing how soil nitrite (NO2-)- and ammonia (NH3)-oxidizing activities remain coupled are unknown. A short-term study ( < 48 h) was conducted to examine the dynamics of NO2--oxidizing activity and the accumulation of NO2- in three Oregon soils stimulated by the addition of 1 mM NH4+ in soil slurry. Nitrite initially accumulated in all three soils; its subsequent decline or slowing of the accumulation of the NO2- pool by 24 h was accompanied by an increase in the size of the nitrate (NO3-) pool, indicating a change in NO2- oxidation kinetics...
January 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Giuseppe Celenza, Mattia Vicario, Pierangelo Bellio, Linciano Pasquale, Mariagrazia Perilli, Antonio Oliver, Jesus Blazquez, Laura Cendron, Donatella Tondi
The emergence and dissemination of multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens resistant to near all available antibiotics poses a significant threat in clinical therapy. Among them, Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates overexpressing KPC-2 carbapenemase are the most worrisome, extending bacterial resistance to last resort carbapenems. In this study we investigate the molecular recognition requirements in KPC-2 active site by small phenyl boronic acid derivatives. Four new phenyl boronic acid derivatives were designed and tested vs KPC-2...
January 22, 2018: ChemMedChem
Alessandro Di Cerbo, Valentina Rubino, Francesca Morelli, Giuseppina Ruggiero, Rosaria Landi, Gianandrea Guidetti, Sergio Canello, Giuseppe Terrazzano, Andrea Alessandrini
Mechanical properties of living cells can be used as reliable markers of their state, such as the presence of a pathological state or their differentiation phase. The mechanical behavior of cells depends on the organization of their cytoskeletal network and the main contribution typically comes from the actomyosin contractile system, in both suspended and adherent cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a pharmaceutical formulation (OTC - Ossitetraciclina liquida 20%) used as antibiotic, on the mechanical properties of K562 cells by using the Micropipette Aspiration Technique (MAT)...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah S Henrikus, Elizabeth A Wood, John P McDonald, Michael M Cox, Roger Woodgate, Myron F Goodman, Antoine M van Oijen, Andrew Robinson
In Escherichia coli, damage to the chromosomal DNA induces the SOS response, setting in motion a series of different DNA repair and damage tolerance pathways. DNA polymerase IV (pol IV) is one of three specialised DNA polymerases called into action during the SOS response to help cells tolerate certain types of DNA damage. The canonical view in the field is that pol IV primarily acts at replisomes that have stalled on the damaged DNA template. However, the results of several studies indicate that pol IV also acts on other substrates, including single-stranded DNA gaps left behind replisomes that re-initiate replication downstream of a lesion, stalled transcription complexes and recombination intermediates...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Fang Liang, Daniel J Browne, Megan J Gray, Kate H Gartlan, David D Smith, Ross T Barnard, Geoffrey R Hill, Simon R Corrie, Kate A Markey
Bloodstream infection is a significant clinical problem, particularly in vulnerable patient groups such as those undergoing chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Clinical diagnostics for suspected bloodstream infection remain centered around blood culture (highly variable timing, in the order of hours to days to become positive), and empiric use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is therefore employed for patients presenting with febrile neutropenia. Gram-typing provides the first opportunity to target therapy (e...
January 31, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Kamilla N Alieva, Elena N Strukova, Maria V Golikova, Yury A Portnoy, Stephen H Zinner, Alexander A Firsov
To explore if the time inside the mutant selection window (TMSW) is a reliable predictor of emergence of bacterial resistance to linezolid, mixed inocula of each of three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MIC of linezolid 2 μg ml-1) and their previously selected resistant mutants (MIC 8 μg ml-1) were exposed to linezolid pharmacokinetics using an in vitro dynamic model. In five-day treatments simulated over a wide range of the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to the MIC ratio, mutants resistant to 4 × MIC of antibiotic were enriched in a TMSW-dependent manner...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Kalhari Bandara Goonewardene, Shelly Popowich, Thushari Gunawardana, Ashish Gupta, Shanika Kurukulasuriya, Ruwani Karunarathna, Betty Chow-Lockerbie, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Suresh K Tikoo, Marianna Foldvari, Philip Willson, Susantha Gomis
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated cytosine phosphodiester guanine (CpG) motifs (CpG-ODN) are effective immunostimulatory agents against a variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoan diseases in different animals including poultry. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo injection of CpG-ODN confers protection in neonatal chickens against bacterial septicemias. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of needle-free intrapulmonary (IPL) delivery of CpG-ODN microdroplets against Escherichia coli infection in neonatal chicks...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
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