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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926430/insights-in-waste-management-bioprocesses-using-genomic-tools
#1
H J Purohit, A Kapley, A Khardenavis, A Qureshi, N A Dafale
Microbial capacities drive waste stabilization and resource recovery in environmental friendly processes. Depending on the composition of waste, a stress-mediated selection process ensures a scenario that generates a specific enrichment of microbial community. These communities dynamically change over a period of time while keeping the performance through the required utilization capacities. Depending on the environmental conditions, these communities select the appropriate partners so as to maintain the desired functional capacities...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923918/identification-of-bicarbonate-as-a-trigger-and-genes-involved-with-extracellular-dna-export-in-mycobacterial-biofilms
#2
Sasha J Rose, Luiz E Bermudez
: Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an integral biofilm matrix component of numerous pathogens, including nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Cell lysis is the source of eDNA in certain bacteria, but the source of eDNA remains unidentified for NTM, as well as for other eDNA-containing bacterial species. In this study, conditions affecting eDNA export were examined, and genes involved with the eDNA export mechanism were identified. After a method for monitoring eDNA in real time in undisturbed biofilms was established, different conditions affecting eDNA were investigated...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917156/inhibitory-effects-of-macrotetrolides-from-streptomyces-spp-on-zoosporogenesis-and-motility-of-peronosporomycete-zoospores-are-likely-linked-with-enhanced-atpase-activity-in-mitochondria
#3
Md Tofazzal Islam, Hartmut Laatsch, Andreas von Tiedemann
The release of zoospores from sporangia and motility of the released zoospores are critical in the disease cycle of the Peronosporomycetes that cause devastating diseases in plants, fishes, animals and humans. Disruption of any of these asexual life stages eliminates the possibility of pathogenesis. In the course of screening novel bioactive secondary metabolites, we found that extracts of some strains of marine Streptomyces spp. rapidly impaired motility and caused subsequent lysis of zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10 μg/ml...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916936/capsule-targeting-depolymerase-derived-from-klebsiella-kp36-phage-as-a-tool-for-the-development-of-anti-virulent-strategy
#4
Grażyna Majkowska-Skrobek, Agnieszka Łątka, Rita Berisio, Barbara Maciejewska, Flavia Squeglia, Maria Romano, Rob Lavigne, Carsten Struve, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
The rise of antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, a leading nosocomial pathogen, prompts the need for alternative therapies. We have identified and characterized a novel depolymerase enzyme encoded by Klebsiella phage KP36 (depoKP36), from the Siphoviridae family. To gain insights into the catalytic and structural features of depoKP36, we have recombinantly produced this protein of 93.4 kDa and showed that it is able to hydrolyze a crude exopolysaccharide of a K. pneumoniae host. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we found that depoKP36 was also effective against a native capsule of clinical K...
December 1, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911257/individualized-antibiotic-therapy-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#5
Gurdal Yilmaz, Sedat Saylan, Firdevs Aksoy, Iftihar Koksal
The optimal duration of treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is still the subject of debate. While 1-week treatment has been reported as possibly sufficient, patients generally receive antibiotic therapy for 10-14 days. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether length of treatment in patients with VAP can be reduced with an individualized therapeutic strategy. The study was performed prospectively with patients diagnosed with VAP in our hospital's intensive care units between 1 January and 31 December, 2015...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902491/the-adaptation-rate-of-a-quantitative-trait-in-an-environmental-gradient
#6
R Hermsen
The spatial range of a species habitat is generally determined by the ability of the species to cope with biotic and abiotic variables that vary in space. Therefore, the species range is itself an evolvable property. Indeed, environmental gradients permit a mode of evolution in which range expansion and adaptation go hand in hand. This process can contribute to rapid evolution of drug resistant bacteria and viruses, because drug concentrations in humans and livestock treated with antibiotics are far from uniform...
November 30, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895015/protective-effects-of-human-and-mouse-soluble-scavenger-like-cd6-lymphocyte-receptor-in-a-lethal-model-of-polymicrobial-sepsis
#7
Mario Martínez-Florensa, Marta Consuegra-Fernández, Fernando Aranda, Noelia Armiger-Borràs, Marianna Di Scala, Esther Carrasco, Jerónimo Pachón, Jordi Vila, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza, Francisco Lozano
Sepsis still constitutes an unmet clinical need, which could benefit from novel adjunctive strategies to conventional antibiotic therapy. The soluble form of the scavenger-like human CD6 lymphocyte receptor (shCD6) binds to key pathogenic components from Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and shows time- and dose-dependent efficacy in mouse models of monobacterial sepsis. The objective of the present work was to demonstrate the effectiveness of infusing mouse and human sCD6 by different systemic routes, either alone or as adjunctive therapy to gold-standard antibiotics, in a lethal model of polymicrobial sepsis...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892654/injectable-polysaccharide-hydrogels-as-biocompatible-platforms-for-localized-and-sustained-delivery-of-antibiotics-for-preventing-local-infections
#8
Ziyi Li, Chaoliang He, Baoming Yuan, Xiaoming Dong, Xuesi Chen
Biocompatible and antibacterial hydrogels have received increasing attention for preventing local bacterial infections. In this study, a type of polysaccharide hydrogels is prepared via the Schiff-based reaction at physiological conditions. The gelation time and mechanical property of the hydrogels are found to be dependent on the polysaccharide concentration and the polysaccharide weight ratio. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and live/dead assay indicate that the hydrogels display nontoxicity in vitro...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892497/optimising-antibiotic-usage-to-treat-bacterial-infections
#9
Iona K Paterson, Andy Hoyle, Gabriela Ochoa, Craig Baker-Austin, Nick G H Taylor
The increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria poses a threat to the continued use of antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics has been identified as a significant driver in the emergence of resistance. Finding optimal treatment regimens is therefore critical in ensuring the prolonged effectiveness of these antibiotics. This study uses mathematical modelling to analyse the effect traditional treatment regimens have on the dynamics of a bacterial infection. Using a novel approach, a genetic algorithm, the study then identifies improved treatment regimens...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890730/cathodic-voltage-controlled-electrical-stimulation-of-titanium-for-prevention-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-biofilm-infections
#10
Mary Canty, Nicole Luke-Marshall, Anthony Campagnari, Mark Ehrensberger
: Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms limits available treatment methods for implant-associated orthopaedic infections. This study evaluated the effects of applying cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulations (CVCES) of -1.5V and -1.8V (vs. Ag/AgCl) to coupons of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) incubated in cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) as a method of preventing bacterial attachment. Stimulations were applied for 2, 4, and 8 hours and coupon-associated and planktonic colony-forming units (CFU) were enumerated following stimulation...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889773/evaluation-of-kim-1-and-ngal-as-early-indicators-for-assessment-of-gentamycin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#11
Qi-Hui Luo, Meng-Lu Chen, Zheng-Li Chen, Chao Huang, An-Chun Cheng, Jing Fang, Li Tang, Yi Geng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aminolycoside Gentamicin is a widely used antibiotic, applied in equine medicine. Despite its clinical use, concerns remain regarding the potential toxic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity. Early detection of renal damage is critical in preclinical drug development. This study was aimed to determine whether kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may be early indicators in the assessment of Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity...
November 28, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889528/tailoring-shape-and-size-of-biogenic-silver-nanoparticles-to-enhance-antimicrobial-efficacy-against-mdr-bacteria
#12
Madhuree Kumari, Shipra Pandey, Ved Prakash Giri, Arpita Bhattacharya, Richa Shukla, Aradhana Mishra, C S Nautiyal
Spherical, rectangular, penta, and hexagonal silver nanoparticles of different dimensions were biosynthesized in an eco-friendly manner by biocontrol agent, Trichoderma viride by manipulating physical parameters, pH, temperature, and reaction time. The particles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy; Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR). Shape and size dependent antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles against human pathogens was observed...
November 23, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889262/injections-of-predatory-bacteria-work-alongside-host-immune-cells-to-treat-shigella-infection-in-zebrafish-larvae
#13
Alexandra R Willis, Christopher Moore, Maria Mazon-Moya, Sina Krokowski, Carey Lambert, Robert Till, Serge Mostowy, R Elizabeth Sockett
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are predatory bacteria that invade and kill a range of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens in natural environments and in vitro [1, 2]. In this study, we investigated Bdellovibrio as an injected, antibacterial treatment in vivo, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae infected with an antibiotic-resistant strain of the human pathogen Shigella flexneri. When injected alone, Bdellovibrio can persist for more than 24 hr in vivo yet exert no pathogenic effects on zebrafish larvae. Bdellovibrio injection of zebrafish containing a lethal dose of Shigella promotes pathogen killing, leading to increased zebrafish survival...
November 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886280/starvation-and-antibiotics-induced-formation-of-persister-cells-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Patrik Mlynarcik, Milan Kolar
BACKGROUND: Planktonic stationary and exponential cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are highly resistant to killing by bactericidal antimicrobials because of the presence of persisters, cells that are multidrug tolerant and play a key role in the recalcitrance of biofilm infections. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the formation of persister cells in P. aeruginosa stationary vs. exponential cultures using different class antimicrobials. METHODS: The susceptibilities of P...
November 23, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884325/violet-405-nm-light-a-novel-therapeutic-agent-against-common-pathogenic-bacteria
#15
Mitchell D Barneck, Nathaniel L R Rhodes, Martin de la Presa, James P Allen, Ahrash E Poursaid, Maziar M Nourian, Matthew A Firpo, John T Langell
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and multidrug-resistant organisms demonstrate the need for innovative technological solutions. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in particular are common pathogens responsible for a large percentage of indwelling medical device-associated clinical infections. The bactericidal effects of visible light sterilization (VLS) using 405-nm is one potential therapeutic under investigation...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872031/penile-prosthesis-infections-a-review-of-risk-factors-prevention-and%C3%A2-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Miguel Pineda, Arthur L Burnett
INTRODUCTION: Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgery has been performed for more than 40 years. IPP infection rates have decreased owing to advances in manufacturing and surgical technique but have remained a devastating complication. AIMS: To describe the pathophysiology of infections, examine evidence associating clinical risk factors with IPP infection, assess the benefit of techniques aimed at preventing and managing infection, and discuss future directions...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855079/chromosomal-amplification-of-the-blaoxa-58-carbapenemase-gene-in-a-proteus-mirabilis-clinical-isolate
#17
Delphine Girlich, Rémy A Bonnin, Pierre Bogaerts, Morgane De Laveleye, Daniel T Huang, Laurent Dortet, Philippe Glaser, Youri Glupczynski, Thierry Naas
Horizontal gene transfer may occur between distantly related bacteria thus leading to genetic plasticity and in some cases to acquisition of novel resistance traits. Proteus mirabilis is an Enterobacterial species responsible for human infections that may express various acquired ß-lactam resistance genes, including different classes of carbapenemase genes. Here we report a Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate (1091) displaying resistance to penicillin, including temocillin, together with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems and susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846022/postoperative-care-in-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-a-critical-review
#18
Philippe Eloy, Peter Andrews, Anne-Lise Poirrier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps is a common disease affecting people all over the world. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has become the gold standard treatment for medically refractive disease. Postoperative care is recommended by international leaders as an important part of the patient's management. This article is a critical review and discussion focusing on postoperative care, which is based on expert opinion, clinical studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis studies...
November 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845431/ligand-mediated-changes-in-conformational-dynamics-of-npma-implications-for-ribosomal-interactions
#19
Nilofer Husain, Nikhil Kumar Tulsian, Wang Loo Chien, Sushant Suresh, Ganesh Srinivasan Anand, J Sivaraman
Aminoglycosides are broad-spectrum antibiotics that bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit (30S) of bacteria and disrupt protein translation. NpmA, a structurally well-characterized methyltransferase identified in an E. coli clinical isolate, catalyzes methylation of 30S at A1408 of the 16S rRNA and confers aminoglycoside resistance. Using sucrose cushion centrifugation and isothermal titration calorimetry, we first confirmed the binding between NpmA and 30S. Next, we performed amide Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDXMS) of apo NpmA and in the presence and absence of SAM/SAH...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825899/influence-of-culture-conditions-on-porphyrin-production-in-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#20
Jonas Fyrestam, Nadja Bjurshammar, Elin Paulsson, Nesrine Mansouri, Annsofi Johannsen, Conny Östman
BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogens has raised the demands for new treatment methods such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and phototherapy (PT). Experiments for investigating the effects of these methods are often performed in vitro, but the procedures for cultivation of microbes vary between different studies. The aim of this study has been to elucidate how the profile of endogenously produced porphyrins differs by changing the variables of bacteria culturing conditions...
November 4, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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