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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050042/-therapy-of-spondylodiscitis-by-severity
#1
Nadine Homagk, Tina Jarmuzek, Gunther O Hofmann, Lars Homagk
Spondylodiscitis is a rare but serious infection of the spine. Recognised methods of treatment include immobilisation and systemic antibiotics. However, available data for specific and recommendations for continuing treatment are also rare. The aim of the present study is the optimisation of the therapy of spondylodiscitis using a clinical pathway that depends on a classification of spondylodiscitis. From 1 October 1998 to 31 December 2013, a classification of the severity of spondylodiscitis was established, including specific treatment recommendations...
October 19, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040457/treatment-of-chronic-q-fever-clinical-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-antibiotic-regimens
#2
S E van Roeden, C P Bleeker-Rovers, M J A de Regt, L M Kampschreur, A I M Hoepelman, P C Wever, J J Oosterheert
Background: Evidence on effectivity of first line treatment for chronic Q fever, tetracyclines (TET) plus hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and potential alternatives is scarce. Methods: We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study to assess efficacy of treatment with TET plus quinolones (QNL), TET plus QNL plus HCQ, QNL monotherapy or TET monotherapy compared to TET plus HCQ in chronic Q fever patients. We used a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model to assess our primary (all-cause mortality) and secondary outcomes (first disease-related event and therapy failure)...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040263/tuberculosis-detection-and-the-challenges-of-integrated-care-in-rural-china-a-cross-sectional-standardized-patient-study
#3
Sean Sylvia, Hao Xue, Chengchao Zhou, Yaojiang Shi, Hongmei Yi, Huan Zhou, Scott Rozelle, Madhukar Pai, Jishnu Das
BACKGROUND: Despite recent reductions in prevalence, China still faces a substantial tuberculosis (TB) burden, with future progress dependent on the ability of rural providers to appropriately detect and refer TB patients for further care. This study (a) provides a baseline assessment of the ability of rural providers to correctly manage presumptive TB cases; (b) measures the gap between provider knowledge and practice and; (c) evaluates how ongoing reforms of China's health system-characterized by a movement toward "integrated care" and promotion of initial contact with grassroots providers-will affect the care of TB patients...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039929/mechanistic-basis-for-atp-dependent-inhibition-of-glutamine-synthetase-by-tabtoxinine-%C3%AE-lactam
#4
Garrett Patrick, Luting Fang, Jacob Schaefer, Sukrit Singh, Gregory Bowman, Timothy Adam Wencewicz
Tabtoxinine-β-lactam (TβL), also known as wildfire toxin, is a time- and ATP-dependent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase produced by plant pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae. Here we demonstrate that recombinant glutamine synthetase from E. coli phosphorylates the C3-hydroxyl group of the TβL 3-(R)-hydroxy-β-lactam (3-HβL) warhead. Phosphorylation of TβL generates a stable, non-covalent enzyme-ADP-inhibitor complex that resembles the glutamine synthetase tetrahedral transition state. The TβL β-lactam ring remains intact during enzyme inhibition making TβL mechanistically distinct from traditional β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038251/stress-introduction-rate-alters-benefit-of-acrab-tolc-efflux-pumps
#5
Ariel M Langevin, Mary J Dunlop
Stress tolerance studies are typically conducted in an all-or-none fashion. However, in realistic settings-such as in clinical or metabolic engineering applications-cells may encounter stresses at different rates. As such, how cells tolerate stress may depend on its rate of appearance. To address this, we study how the rate of introduction affects bacterial stress tolerance by focusing on a key mechanism for stress response. Efflux pumps, such as AcrAB-TolC from Escherichia coli, are membrane transporters well known for their ability to export a wide variety of substrates, including antibiotics, signaling molecules, and biofuels...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035774/facial-dog-bite-injuries-in-children-a-case-report
#6
Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti, Edgleys Porto, Bruno Ferreira Dos Santos, Christiane Leite Cavalcanti, Alidianne Fábia Cabral Cavalcanti
INTRODUCTION: Dog bites are common and can affect victims of different ages, from children to the elderly. Injuries are usually located in different body regions, including head and face. The treatment of choice for injuries is the suture of the lesion, accompanied by antibiotic therapy and tetanus and anti-rabies vaccination. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An 11-year-old male black patient was admitted to the Surgery and Maxillo-Facial Traumatology Service, on an urgent basis, victim of domestic animal aggression (dog biting)...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035735/transcriptome-profiling-identifies-genes-pathways-associated-with-experimental-resistance-to-paromomycin-in-leishmania-donovani
#7
Aditya Verma, Vasundhra Bhandari, Deepak Kumar Deep, Shyam Sundar, Jean Claude Dujardin, Ruchi Singh, Poonam Salotra
Widespread resistance towards antimony and reports of relapses following miltefosine treatment has severely affected the management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Paromomycin (PMM), an aminoglycoside antibiotic, has been licensed for VL treatment in India in 2007. Although its use is still restricted in the field, unraveling the molecular mechanism of resistance towards PMM is the key to preserve the drug. In this study, PMM resistant lines were selected up to 100 μM of PMM in three distinct field isolates of Leishmania donovani at promastigote stage...
October 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034805/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-effect-of-matrix-molecules-on-the-behavior-of-colon-cancer-cells-under-the-effect-of-geldanamycin-derivative
#8
Kamil Vural, Funda Kosova, Feyzan Özdal Kurt, İbrahim Tuğlu
The chaperone-binding drug, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, has recently come into clinical use. It is a derivative of geldanamycin, an ansamycin benzoquinone antibiotic with anti-carcinogenic effect. Understanding the effect of this drug on the cancer cells and their niche is important for treatment. We applied 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin to colon cancer cell line (Colo 205) on matrix molecules to investigate the relationship of apoptosis with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling immunocytochemistry and related gene expression...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033364/-recurrent-cystisis-no-medicine-preventive-means
#9
J Armelle
OBJECTIVE: To estimate from the literature review, the interest of hygienic and behavioural measures and the use of food supplements (herbal) to prevent female urinary tract infection. METHODS: Pubmed research was focused on the efficiency of prophylactic measures in recurrent cystisis management. RESULTS: Due to many predisposing factors such as anatomical charasteristics, hydration and lifestyle, cystisis is more common in female subjects than in male...
October 12, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029067/pharmacodynamics-of-fosfomycin-against-esbl-and-or-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#10
Fiona Fransen, Kelly Hermans, Maria J B Melchers, Claudia C M Lagarde, Joseph Meletiadis, Johan W Mouton
Background: The increase in antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and the limited therapeutic options due to the shortage of new antibiotics have increased the interest of the 'old' antibiotic fosfomycin in the treatment of infections. However, there are contradictory reports on the pharmacodynamics of and emergence of resistance to fosfomycin. Methods: Time-kill assays were performed with 11 ESBL-positive and 3 ESBL-negative strains, exposing the bacteria to 2-fold static concentrations from 0...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027128/continuous-infusion-versus-intermittent-bolus-of-beta-lactams-in-critically-ill-patients-with-respiratory-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Young R Lee, Pamela D Miller, Saeed K Alzghari, Delilah D Blanco, Jackson D Hager, Kailey S Kuntz
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients display altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and are more likely to be infected with more resistant pathogens. Beta-lactam antibiotics exhibit time-dependent pharmacodynamics; therefore, it is postulated that continuous infusion (CI) may optimize these parameters. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature comparing CI versus intermittent bolus (IB) of beta-lactam antibiotics in critically ill adult patients with respiratory infections to determine if clinical benefits exist...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023098/multigenerational-effects-of-antibiotic-tetracycline-on-transcriptional-responses-of-d-magna-and-its-relationship-to-higher-levels-of-biological-organizations
#12
Hyun Young Kim, Jana Asselman, Tae Yong Jeong, Seungho Yu, Karel A C De Schamphelaere, Sang D Kim
Given the risk of environmental pollution by pharmaceutical compounds and the effects of these compounds on exposed ecosystems, ecologically relevant and realistic assessments are required. However, many studies have been mostly focused on individual responses in a single generation exposed to one-effect concentration. Here, transcriptional responses of the crustacean Daphnia magna to the antibiotic tetracycline across multiple generations and effect concentrations were investigated. The results demonstrated that tetracycline induced different transcriptional responses of daphnids that were dependent on dose and generation...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993329/inhibition-of-fosfomycin-resistance-protein-fosa-by-phosphonoformate-foscarnet-in-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens
#13
Ryota Ito, Adam D Tomich, Christi L McElheny, Roberta Mettus, Nicolas Sluis-Cremer, Yohei Doi
FosA proteins confer fosfomycin resistance in Gram-negative pathogens via glutathione-mediated modification of the antibiotic. In this study, we assessed whether inhibition of FosA by sodium phosphonoformate (PPF; foscarnet), a clinically approved antiviral agent, would reverse fosfomycin resistance in representative Gram-negative pathogens. The inhibitory activity of PPF against purified recombinant FosA from Escherichia coli (FosA3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (FosA(KP)), Enterobacter cloacae (FosA(EC)) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (FosA(PA)) was determined by steady-state kinetics...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993098/acute-oncology-care-a-narrative-review-of-the-acute-management-of-neutropenic-sepsis-and-immune-related-toxicities-of-checkpoint-inhibitors
#14
Thomas Knight, Shin Ahn, Terry W Rice, Tim Cooksley
Cancer care has become increasingly specialized and advances in therapy have resulted in a larger number of patients receiving care. There has been a significant increase in the number of patients presenting with cancer related emergencies including treatment toxicities and those directly related to the malignancy. Suspected neutropenic sepsis is an acute medical emergency and empirical antibiotic therapy should be administered immediately. The goal of empirical therapy is to cover the most likely pathogens that will cause life-threatening infections in neutropenic patients...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989629/halogenation-of-glycopeptide-antibiotics-occurs-at-the-amino-acid-level-during-non-ribosomal-peptide-synthesis
#15
Tiia Kittilä, Claudia Kittel, Julien Tailhades, Diane Butz, Melanie Schoppet, Anita Büttner, Rob J A Goode, Ralf B Schittenhelm, Karl-Heinz van Pee, Roderich D Süssmuth, Wolfgang Wohlleben, Max J Cryle, Evi Stegmann
Halogenation plays a significant role in the activity of the glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs), although up until now the timing and therefore exact substrate involved was unclear. Here, we present results combined from in vivo and in vitro studies that reveal the substrates for the halogenase enzymes from GPA biosynthesis as amino acid residues bound to peptidyl carrier protein (PCP)-domains from the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase machinery: no activity was detected upon either free amino acids or PCP-bound peptides...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983908/interventions-for-managing-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw
#16
REVIEW
Natalie H Beth-Tasdogan, Benjamin Mayer, Heba Hussein, Oliver Zolk
BACKGROUND: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a severe adverse reaction experienced by some individuals to certain medicines commonly used in the treatment of cancer and osteoporosis (e.g. bisphosphonates, denosumab and antiangiogenic agents) and involves the progressive destruction of bone in the mandible or maxilla. Depending on the drug, its dosage, and the duration of exposure, the occurrence of this adverse drug reaction may be rare (e.g. following the oral administration of bisphosphonate or denosumab treatments for osteoporosis, or antiangiogenic agent-targeted cancer treatment) or common (e...
October 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972920/disrupting-effects-of-antibiotic-sulfathiazole-on-developmental-process-during-sensitive-life-cycle-stage-of-chironomus-riparius
#17
Kiyun Park, Ihn-Sil Kwak
Antibiotics in the environment are a concern due to their potential to harm humans and interrupt ecosystems. Sulfathiazole (STZ), a sulfonamide antibiotic, is commonly used in aquaculture and is typically found in aquatic ecosystems. We evaluated the ecological risk of STZ by examining biological, molecular and biochemical response in Chironomus riparius. Samples were exposed to STZ for 12, 24 and 96 h, and effects of STZ were evaluated at the molecular level by analyzing changes in gene expression related to the endocrine system, cellular stress response and enzyme activity of genes on antioxidant and detoxification pathways...
September 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971863/susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dispersed-cells-to-antimicrobial-agents-is-dependent-on-the-dispersion-cue-and-class-of-antimicrobial-agent-used
#18
Jacob R Chambers, Kathryn E Cherny, Karin Sauer
The biofilm lifecycle is characterized by the transition of planktonic cells exhibiting high susceptibly to antimicrobial agents to a biofilm mode of growth characterized by high tolerance to antimicrobials, followed by dispersion of cells from the biofilm back into the environment. Dispersed cells, however, are not identical to planktonic cells but have been characterized as having a unique transitionary phenotype relative to biofilm and planktonic cells, with dispersed cells attaching in a manner similar to exponential phase cells, but demonstrating gene expression patterns that are distinct from both exponential and stationary phase planktonic cells...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961900/pharmacodynamics-of-nitrofurantoin-at-different-ph-levels-against-pathogens-involved-in-urinary-tract-infections
#19
Fiona Fransen, Maria J B Melchers, Claudia M C Lagarde, Joseph Meletiadis, Johan W Mouton
Background: Urinary tract infections are among the most common human infections. Due to the progressive increase in ESBL-producing bacteria and the unavailability of new antibiotics, re-evaluation of 'old' antibiotics is needed. However, the pharmacodynamics of nitrofurantoin under variable pH conditions are poorly understood. We determined the pharmacodynamic properties of nitrofurantoin at different pH levels using time-kill assays. Methods: Time-kill assays were performed at four pH levels (5...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959181/bacterial-biota-of-women-with-bacterial-vaginosis-treated-with-lactoferrin-an-open-prospective-randomized-trial
#20
Alessandra Pino, Giuliana Giunta, Cinzia L Randazzo, Salvatore Caruso, Cinzia Caggia, Antonio Cianci
Background: Bacterial vaginosis is the most frequent condition associated to the vaginal microbiota imbalance, affecting about the 40-50% of women in the world. Even if antibiotics are effcetive for bacterial vaginosis treatment a long-term recurrence rates, higher than 70%, is recorded. Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein with bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties. It owns the ability to protect the host against infection, by binding and regulating the iron needed for the bacterial proliferation...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
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