Read by QxMD icon Read

Uptake transporters

Melanie Laura Lawrence, James R Smith, Jamie Andrew Davies
The mesonephros of mammals is a transient renal structure that contributes to various aspects of mammalian fetal development including the male reproductive system, hematopoietic stem cells and vascular endothelial cells. The mesonephros develops from the intermediate mesoderm and forms tubules that are segmented in a similar way to the nephrons of the permanent kidney (but lacking loops of Henle). Early studies have suggested that the mesonephros in marsupials and some placental mammals may perform an excretory function, but these studies have not directly shown active transport of organic anions and cations...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Xingxing Shi, Kai Zhou, Fei Huang, Juan Zhang, Chen Wang
Background: As a potentially bioactive material, the widespread application of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) in the field of bone regeneration has increased the risk of human exposure. However, our understanding of the interaction between nano-HAP and stem cells implicated in bone repair remains incomplete. Methods: Here, we characterized the adhesion and cellular internalization of HAP nanoparticles (HANPs) with different sizes (20 nm np20 and 80 nm np80) and highlighted the involved pathway in their uptake using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Shengjun Wang, Yang Mao, Yoshiki Narimatsu, Zilu Ye, Weihua Tian, Christoffer K Goth, Erandi Lira-Navarrete, Nis Borbye Pedersen, Asier Benito-Vicente, Cesar Martin, Kepa B Uribe, Ramon Hurtado-Guerrero, Christina Christoffersen, Nabil G Seidah, Rikke Nielsen, Erik I Christensen, Lars Hansen, Eric P Bennett, Sergey Y Vakhrushev, Katrine T Schjoldager, Henrik Clausen
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and related proteins are important for the transport of diverse biomolecules across cell membranes and barriers. Their functions are especially relevant for cholesterol homeostasis and diseases, including neurodegenerative and kidney disorders. Members of the LDLR-related protein family share LDLR class A (LA) repeats providing binding properties for lipoproteins and other biomolecules. We previously demonstrated that short linker regions between these LA repeats contain conserved O-glycan-sites...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Freja Herborg, Thorvald F Andreassen, Frida Berlin, Claus J Loland, Ulrik Gether
Genetic factors are known to significantly contribute to the etiology of psychiatric diseases such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum and bipolar disorders, but the underlying molecular processes remain largely elusive. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has received continuous attention as a potential risk factor for psychiatric disease, as it is critical for dopamine homeostasis and serves as principal target for ADHD medications. Constrain metrics for the DAT-encoding gene solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3) indicate that missense mutations are under strong negative selection, pointing to pathophysiological outcomes when DAT function is compromised...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuen K Ip, Kum C Hiong, Leon J Y Lim, Celine Y L Choo, Mel V Boo, Wai P Wong, Mei L Neo, Shit F Chew
The giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, represents a clam-zooxanthellae association. In light, the host clam and the symbiotic zooxanthellae conduct light-enhanced calcification and photosynthesis, respectively. We had cloned the cDNA coding sequence of a Vacuolar-type Proton ATPase (VHA) subunit A, ATP6V1A, from T. squamosa, whereby the VHA is an electrogenic transporter that actively 'pumps' H+ out of the cell. The ATP6V1A of T. squamosa comprised 1866 bp, encoding a protein of 622 amino acids and 69.9 kDa, and has a host-origin...
March 17, 2018: Gene
Anne E Robinson, Jeffrey P Henderson, Katherine A Henzler-Wildman
Membrane transporters are an important class of proteins which remain challenging to study. Transport assays are crucial to developing our understanding of such proteins as they allow direct measurement of their transport activity. However, currently available methods for monitoring liposomal loading of organic substrates primarily rely on detection of radioactively or fluorescently labeled substrates. The requirement of a labeled substrate significantly restricts the systems and substrates that can be studied...
March 17, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Nabab Khan, Gaurav Datta, Jonathan D Geiger, Xuesong Chen
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major carrier protein that mediates the transport and delivery of cholesterol and other lipids in the brain. Three isoforms of ApoE (ApoE2, ApoE3, ApoE4) exist in humans, and their relative expression levels impact HIV-1 infection, HIV-1/AIDS disease progression, and cognitive decline associated with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder. Because HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein essential for HIV-1 replication, can bind to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) that controls ApoE uptake in the brain, we determined the extent to which different isoforms of ApoE affected Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Qiaoxian Huang, Shengke Li, Yuan-Fu Ding, Hang Yin, Lian-Hui Wang, Ruibing Wang
Due to its outstanding capability to facilitate DNA condensation, transportation and endosomal escape, polyethylenimine (PEI) has been frequently studied for gene delivery. However, its molecular weight (M.W.) dependent transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity has severely limited its clinical application. To resolve this dilemma, a supramolecular strategy was developed for the first time, in which PEI with large M.W. (branched, 25 kDa) that has a satisfactory transfection efficiency, yet high non-specific cytotoxicity for gene delivery was wrapped with macrocyclic cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7])...
March 20, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Guo Liu, Shengwei Sun, Baoyan Guo, Benchun Miao, Zhen Luo, Zumeng Xia, Danyang Ying, Fei Liu, Bin Guo, Jian Tang, Yong Cao, Jianyin Miao
Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) have been demonstrated to be calcium chelators. Unfortunately, few studies have been reported on the effects of CPPs on the mechanism of the uptake and absorption of Ca2+ and bone metabolism. In this study, a monomeric peptide fraction isolated by RP-HPLC (F6-1) that possessed high calcium transport capacity in Caco-2 cell monolayers was separated and characterized. The effects of F6-1 on the absorption mechanisms of Ca2+ in a Caco-2 monolayer model and bone metabolism in rats were investigated...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Tereza Leonhardt, Jan Sácký, Pavel Kotrba
A search of R. atropurpurea transcriptome for sequences encoding the transporters of the Zrt-, Irt-like Protein (ZIP) family, which are in eukaryotes integral to Zn supply into cytoplasm, allowed the identification of RaZIP1 cDNA with a predicted product belonging to ZIP I subfamily; it was subjected to functional studies in mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The expression of RaZIP1, but not RaZIP1H208A or RaZIP1H232A mutants lacking conserved-among-ZIPs transmembrane histidyls, complemented Zn uptake deficiency in zrt1Δzrt2Δ yeasts...
March 19, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Keunsub Lee, Kan Wang
During the last decade, small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as essential post-transcriptional regulators in bacteria. Nearly all important physiological and stress responses are modulated by ncRNA regulators, such as riboswitches, trans-acting small RNAs (sRNAs), and cis-antisense RNAs. Recently, three RNA-seq studies identified a total of 1534 candidate ncRNAs from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a pathogen and biotechnology tool for plants. Only a few ncRNAs have been functionally characterized in A. tumefaciens, and some of them appear to be involved in virulence...
March 20, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Ken-Ichi Kaneko, Masaaki Tanaka, Akira Ishii, Yumiko Katayama, Takayoshi Nakaoka, Satsuki Irie, Hideki Kawahata, Takashi Yamanaga, Yasuhiro Wada, Takeshi Miyake, Kota Toshimoto, Kazuya Maeda, Yilong Cui, Masaru Enomoto, Etsushi Kawamura, Norifumi Kawada, Joji Kawabe, Susumu Shiomi, Hiroyuki Kusuhara, Yuichi Sugiyama, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Various positron emission tomography (PET) probes have been developed to assess the in vivo activities of drug transporters in humans, that aid in the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties of drugs and the impact of drug-drug interactions. We developed a new PET probe, [11C ]dehydropravastatin ([11 C]DPV), and demonstrated its usefulness for the quantitative investigation of Oatps/SLCO and Mrp2/ABCC2 in rats. To further analyze the species differences and verify the pharmacokinetic parameters in humans, serial PET scanning of the abdominal region with [11 C]DPV was performed in six healthy volunteers with and without an OATP1Bs and MRP2 inhibitor, rifampicin (600 mg, oral), in a crossover fashion...
March 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Liping Huang, Surapun Tepaamorndech, Catherine P Kirschke, John W Newman, William R Keyes, Theresa L Pedersen, Jureeporn Dumnil
ZnT7 (Slc30a7) is a widely expressed zinc transporter involved in sequestration of zinc into the Golgi apparatus and vesicular compartments. Znt7-knockout (KO) mice are mildly zinc deficient and lean. Despite their lean phenotype, adult male Znt7-KO mice are prone to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat partitioning from adipose to non-adipose tissues causes insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice. Here, we used biological and biochemical methods including fatty acid and oxylipin profiling, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis to identify the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Adelaide S M Dennis, Adele M Lehane, Melanie C Ridgway, John P Holleran, Kiaran Kirk
For an increasing number of antimalarial agents identified in high throughput phenotypic screens there is evidence that they target PfATP4, a putative Na+ efflux transporter on the plasma membrane of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum For several such 'PfATP4-associated' compounds it has been noted that their addition to parasitised erythrocytes results in cell swelling. Here we show that six structurally diverse PfATP4-associated compounds, including the clinical candidate KAE609 (cipargamin), induce swelling both of isolated blood-stage parasites and of intact parasitised erythrocytes...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Alexandre Luscher, Lucile Moynié, Pamela Saint Auguste, Dirk Bumann, Lena Mazza, Daniel Pletzer, James H Naismith, Thilo Köhler
The conjugation of siderophores to antimicrobial molecules is an attractive strategy to overcome the low outer membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria. In this Trojan horse approach the transport of drug conjugates is redirected via TonB-dependent receptors (TBDR), involved in the uptake of essential nutrients including iron. Previous reports have demonstrated the involvement of the TBDRs PiuA and PirA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their orthologues in Acinetobacter baumannii in the uptake of siderophore-beta-lactam drug conjugates...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ann M Decker, Bruce E Blough
INTRODUCTION: The development and validation of serotonin transporter reuptake inhibition assays in 96-well format using commercially available human placental choriocarcinoma JAR cells is described. METHODS: AR cells were first shown to uptake [3 H]serotonin in a saturable fashion with a KM value of 1 μM as determined by a Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis. The cells were then utilized to determine the reuptake inhibition potencies of known ligands and the results were compared with results previously generated in the two most commonly used transporter assays (rat brain synaptosomes and transfected HEK293 cells)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Faisal E Al Jofi, Tao Ma, Dong Guo, Monica P Schneider, Yan Shu, Hockin H K Xu, Abraham Schneider
BACKGROUND: Compelling evidence indicates that metformin, a low-cost and safe orally administered biguanide prescribed to millions of type 2 diabetics worldwide, induces the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) through the 5' adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. As a highly hydrophilic cationic compound, metformin uptake is facilitated by cell membrane organic cation transporters (OCTs) of the solute carrier 22A gene family...
March 16, 2018: Cytotherapy
Nevena Kardum, Maria Glibetic
Regular and optimal intake of polyphenols associates with numerous health-promoting effects. Bioavailability and activity of polyphenols depend on foods' structure and interactions with other food constituents, especially proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Polyphenols-proteins interactions can result in various biological effects, such as sense of astringency. So far, polyphenols interactions with food lipids have not been of special importance, except in case of plant oils. Polyphenols-carbohydrates interactions can influence the organoleptic properties, while interactions with dietary fibers are particularly significant...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Manoj Kumar Patel, Ashish Shah, Vinay Kumar, Saikat Gantait
With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"