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Uptake transporters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091567/quantifying-the-relative-contributions-of-different-solute-carriers-to-aggregate-substrate-transport
#1
Mehdi Taslimifar, Lalita Oparija, Francois Verrey, Vartan Kurtcuoglu, Ufuk Olgac, Victoria Makrides
Determining the contributions of different transporter species to overall cellular transport is fundamental for understanding the physiological regulation of solutes. We calculated the relative activities of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters using the Michaelis-Menten equation and global fitting to estimate the normalized maximum transport rate for each transporter (Vmax). Data input were the normalized measured uptake of the essential neutral amino acid (AA) L-leucine (Leu) from concentration-dependence assays performed using Xenopus laevis oocytes...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089735/effects-of-simvastatin-on-cat-1-mediated-arginine-transport-and-no-level-under-high-glucose-conditions-in-conditionally-immortalized-rat-inner-blood-retinal-barrier-cell-lines-tr-ibrb
#2
Temdara Tun, Young-Sook Kang
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia causes the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier by impairing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Statins have many pleiotropic effects such as improving endothelial barrier permeability and increasing eNOS mRNA stability. The objective of this study was to determine effect of simvastatin on l-arginine transport and NO production under high-glucose conditions in conditionally immortalized rat retinal capillary endothelial cell line (TR-iBRB). METHODS: Changes in l-arginine transport uptake and, expression levels of cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT-1) and eNOS mRNA were investigated after pre-treatment with simvastatin and NOS inhibitors (l-NMMA and l-NAME) under high-glucose conditions using TR-iBRB, an in vitro model of iBRB...
January 12, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089688/functional-identification-of-plasma-membrane-monoamine-transporter-pmat-slc29a4-as-an-atenolol-transporter-sensitive-to-flavonoids-contained-in-apple-juice
#3
Yoshihisa Mimura, Tomoya Yasujima, Kinya Ohta, Katsuhisa Inoue, Hiroaki Yuasa
The intestinal absorption of atenolol has recently been reported to be reduced by simultaneous ingestion of fruit juices, such as apple juice. This finding implies a possibility that an unidentified carrier-mediated transport system, which could be interfered by some components of those juices, might be involved in atenolol absorption. In an attempt to explore that possibility, we successfully identified plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT/SLC29A4) as a transporter that can operate for cellular atenolol uptake in the intestine, using Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells stably expressing PMAT...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087731/increased-nbcn1-expression-na-hco3-co-transport-and-intracellular-ph-in-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-with-a-risk-allele-for-hypertension
#4
Fu Liang Ng, Ebbe Boedtkjer, Katarzyna Witkowska, Meixia Ren, Ruoxin Zhang, Arthur Tucker, Christian Aalkjær, Mark J Caulfield, Shu Ye
Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between variation at the SLC4A7 locus and blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes the electroneutral Na(+)/HCO3 co-transporter NBCn1 which regulates intracellular pH (pHi). We conducted a functional study of variants at this locus in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both cell types, we found genotype-dependent differences for rs13082711 in DNA-nuclear protein interactions, where the risk allele is associated with increased SLC4A7 expression level, NBCn1 availability and function as reflected in elevated steady-state pHi and accelerated recovery from intracellular acidosis...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087151/the-key-to-mn-homeostasis-in-plants-regulation-of-mn-transporters
#5
REVIEW
Ji Feng Shao, Naoki Yamaji, Ren Fang Shen, Jian Feng Ma
Plants only require small amounts of manganese (Mn) for healthy growth, but Mn concentrations in soil solution vary from sub-micromolar to hundreds of micromolar across the growth period. Therefore, plants must deal with large Mn concentration fluctuations, but the molecular mechanisms underlying how plants cope with low and high Mn concentrations are poorly understood. In this Opinion we discuss the role of Mn transporters in the uptake, distribution, and detoxification of Mn in response to changes in Mn concentrations through their regulation at the transcriptional and protein levels, mainly focusing on rice, an Mn-tolerant and -accumulating species...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086748/genetic-mechanisms-of-bone-digestion-and-nutrient-absorption-in-the-bone-eating-worm-osedax-japonicus-inferred-from-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-analyses
#6
Norio Miyamoto, Masa-Aki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Koga, Yoshihiro Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) have adapted to whale fall environments by acquiring a novel characteristic called the root, which branches and penetrates into sunken bones. The worms lack a digestive tract and mouth opening, and it has been suggested that Osedax degrade vertebrate bones and uptake nutrients through acidification and secretion of enzymes from the root. Symbiotic bacteria in the root tissue may have a crucial role in the metabolism of Osedax...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081477/pharmacokinetic-studies-of-active-triterpenoid-saponins-and-the-total-secondary-saponin-from-anemone-raddeana-regel
#7
Dandan Zhang, Tianli Lei, Chongning Lv, Huimin Zhao, Haiyan Xu, Jincai Lu
The rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which has a robust history treating rheumatism and neuralgia. The total secondary saponin (TSS) from it has demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, a rapid and validated LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine the active compounds (Hederacolchiside A1 and Eleutheroside K). Analytes were separated on a reverse-phase C18 column with acetonitrile-water (5mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. This assay showed acceptable linearity (r>0...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080219/adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance-in-gestational-diabetes
#8
Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Aaron T Poole, Gayle Olson, Michel Makhlouf, Hanaa S Sallam, Shwetha Thukuntla, Sucharitha Kankanala, Obos Ekhaese, Guillermo Gomez, Manisha Chandalia, Nicola Abate
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance (IR) and altered glucose-lipid metabolism. We propose that ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), a protein known to induce adipocyte IR, is a determinant of GDM. Our objective was to study ENPP1 expression in adipose tissue (AT) of obese pregnant women with or without GDM, as well as glucose tolerance in pregnant transgenic (Tg) mice with AT-specific overexpression of human ENPP1...
January 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079354/effect-of-excess-iodine-intake-on-thyroid-on-human-health
#9
Eftychia G Koukkou, Nikolaos D Roupas, Kostas B Markou
INTRODUCTION: The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 175 μg for pregnancy and 200 μg for lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin...
January 12, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079178/significance-of-oxygen-transport-through-aquaporins
#10
Janusz J Zwiazek, Hao Xu, Xiangfeng Tan, Alfonso Navarro-Ródenas, Asunción Morte
Aquaporins are membrane integral proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. Despite their well-acknowledged importance in water transport, their significance in gas transport processes remains unclear. Growing evidence points to the involvement of plant aquaporins in CO2 delivery for photosynthesis. The role of these channel proteins in the transport of O2 and other gases may also be more important than previously envisioned. In this study, we examined O2 permeability of various human, plant, and fungal aquaporins by co-expressing heterologous aquaporin and myoglobin in yeast...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077391/acclimation-to-hypoxia-increases-carbohydrate-use-during-exercise-in-high-altitude-deer-mice
#11
Daphne S Lau, Alex D Connaty, Sajeni Mahalingam, Nastashya Wall, Zachary A Cheviron, Jay F Storz, Graham R Scott, Grant B McClelland
The low oxygen experienced at high altitude is a significant challenge to effective aerobic locomotion, as it requires sustained tissue oxygen delivery in addition to the appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. Here we test whether high- and low-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved different acclimation responses to hypoxia with respect to muscle metabolism and fuel use during submaximal exercise. Using F1-generation high- and low-altitude deer mice that were born and raised in common conditions, we assessed 1) fuel use during exercise, 2) metabolic enzyme activities, and 3) gene expression for key transporters and enzymes in the gastrocnemius...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077388/the-na-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-ntcp-slc10a1-ortholog-in-the-marine-skate-leucoraja-erinacea-is-not-a-physiological-bile-salt-transporter
#12
Dongke Yu, Han Zhang, Daniel A Lionarons, James L Boyer, Shi-Ying Cai
The Na(+)-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1) is a hepatocyte specific solute carrier, which plays an important role in maintaining bile salt homeostasis in mammals. The absence of an hepatic Na(+)-dependent bile salt transport system in marine skate and rainbow trout raises a question regarding the function of the Slc10a1 gene in these species. Here we have characterized the Slc10a1 gene in the marine skate, Leucoraja erinacea. The transcript of skate Slc10a1 (skSlc10a1) encodes 319 amino acids and shares 46% identity to human NTCP (hNTCP) with similar topology to mammalian NTCP...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075498/tamoxifen-and-its-active-metabolites-inhibit-dopamine-transporter-function-independently-of-the-estrogen-receptors
#13
Sarah R Mikelman, Bipasha Guptaroy, Margaret Gnegy
As one of the primary mechanisms by which dopamine signaling is regulated, the dopamine transporter (DAT) is an attractive pharmacological target for the treatment of diseases based in dopaminergic dysfunction. In this work we demonstrate for the first time that the commonly prescribed breast cancer therapeutic tamoxifen and its major metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen, inhibit DAT function. Tamoxifen inhibits [(3) H]dopamine uptake into hDAT-N2A cells via an uncompetitive or mixed mechanism. Endoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, asymmetrically inhibits DAT function in hDAT-N2A cells, showing a preference for the inhibition of amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux as compared to dopamine uptake...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075349/transthyretin-a-transporter-protein-essential-for-proliferation-of-myoblast-in-the-myogenic-program
#14
Eun Ju Lee, Smritee Pokharel, Arif Tasleem Jan, Soyeon Huh, Richelle Galope, Jeong Ho Lim, Dong-Mok Lee, Sung Wook Choi, Sang-Soep Nahm, Yong-Woon Kim, So-Young Park, Inho Choi
Irregularities in the cellular uptake of thyroid hormones significantly affect muscle development and regeneration. Herein, we report indispensable role of transthyretin (TTR) in maintaining cellular thyroxine level. TTR was found to enhance recruitment of muscle satellite cells to the site of injury, thereby regulating muscle regeneration. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and immunofluorescence analysis of TTRwt (TTR wild type) and TTRkd (TTR knock-down) cells revealed that TTR controlled cell cycle progression by affecting the expression of Cyclin A2...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075225/plants-contain-small-families-of-upf0016-proteins-including-the-photosynthesis-affected-mutant71-transporter
#15
Natalie Hoecker, Dario Leister, Anja Schneider
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 (PAM71) is an integral thylakoid membrane protein that functions in manganese uptake into the lumen. Manganese is needed in the thylakoid lumen to build up the inorganic Mn4CaO5 cluster, the catalytic center for water oxidation, and is hence indispensable for oxygen evolution. A recent study revealed that PAM71 is well conserved in plants and shares homology to GCR1 DEPENDENT TRANSLATION FACTOR1 (GDT1) and TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEIN 165 (TMEM165) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075189/11-analytically-confirmed-cases-of-mexedrone-use-among-polydrug-users
#16
Liam Roberts, Loretta Ford, Neel Patel, J Allister Vale, Sally M Bradberry
INTRODUCTION: Mexedrone, 3-methoxy-2-(methylamino)-1-(4-methylphenyl)propan-1-one, is the alpha-methoxy-derivative of mephedrone (4-methyl-N-methyl cathinone). Mexedrone inhibits the re-uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose-dependent manner and has affinity for serotonin and dopamine membrane transporters and receptors (5-HT2 and D2 receptors), producing sympathomimetic effects similar to amfetamines. To date there are no published clinical reports on mexedrone use that are analytically confirmed...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075052/functional-characterization-and-cell-specificity-of-bvsut1-the-transporter-that-loads-sucrose-into-the-phloem-of-sugar-beet-beta-vulgaris-l-source-leaves
#17
P Nieberl, C Ehrl, B Pommerrenig, D Graus, I Marten, B Jung, F Ludewig, W Koch, K Harms, U-I Flügge, E Neuhaus, R Hedrich, N Sauer
• Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the most important sugar producing plants worldwide and provides about one third of the sugar consumed by humans. Here we report on the molecular characterization of the BvSUT1 gene and on the func- tional characterization of the encoded transporter. • In contrast to the recently identified, tonoplast-localized sucrose transporter BvTST2.1 from sugar beet taproots, which has evolved within the monosaccharide transporter (MST) superfamily, BvSUT1 represents a classical sucrose transporter and is a typical member of the disaccharide transporter (DST) superfamily...
January 11, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074546/-hypoxia-and-cellular-metabolism-in-tumour-pathophysiology
#18
Scott K Parks, Yann Cormerais, Jacques Pouysségur
Cancer cells are optimized for growth and survival via an ability to outcompete normal cells in their microenvironment. Many of these advantageous cellular adaptations are promoted by the pathophysiological hypoxia that arises in solid tumours due to incomplete vascularisation. Tumour cells are thus faced with the challenge of an increased need for nutrients to support the drive for proliferation in the face of a diminished extracellular supply. Among the many modifications occurring in tumour cells, Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) act as essential drivers of key pro-survival pathways via the promotion of numerous membrane and cytosolic proteins...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073944/a-novel-bifunctional-transcriptional-regulator-of-riboflavin-metabolism-in-archaea
#19
Irina A Rodionova, Matthew W Vetting, Xiaoqing Li, Steven C Almo, Andrei L Osterman, Dmitry A Rodionov
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are essential coenzymes in all free-living organisms. Riboflavin biosynthesis in many Bacteria but not in Archaea is controlled by FMN-responsive riboswitches. We identified a novel bifunctional riboflavin kinase/regulator (RbkR), which controls riboflavin biosynthesis and transport genes in major lineages of Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. RbkR proteins are composed of the riboflavin kinase domain and a DNA-binding winged helix-turn-helix-like domain...
January 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073746/mirdis-a-web-tool-for-endogenous-and-exogenous-microrna-discovery-based-on-deep-sequencing-data-analysis
#20
Hanyuan Zhang, Bruno Vieira Resende E Silva, Juan Cui
Small RNA sequencing is the most widely used tool for microRNA (miRNA) discovery, and shows great potential for the efficient study of miRNA cross-species transport, i.e., by detecting the presence of exogenous miRNA sequences in the host species. Because of the increased appreciation of dietary miRNAs and their far-reaching implication in human health, research interests are currently growing with regard to exogenous miRNAs bioavailability, mechanisms of cross-species transport and miRNA function in cellular biological processes...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
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