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Uptake transporters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922755/root-transcriptomic-responses-of-grafted-grapevines-to-heterogeneous-nitrogen-availability-depend-on-rootstock-genotype
#1
Noé Cochetel, Frédéric Escudié, Sarah Jane Cookson, Zhanwu Dai, Philippe Vivin, Pierre-François Bert, Mindy Stephania Muñoz, Serge Delrot, Christophe Klopp, Nathalie Ollat, Virginie Lauvergeat
In many fruit species, including grapevine, grafting is used to improve scion productivity and quality and to adapt the plant to environmental conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the rootstock control of scion development are still poorly understood. The ability of rootstocks to regulate nitrogen uptake and assimilation may contribute to this control. A split-root system was used to grow heterografted grapevines and to investigate the molecular responses to changes in nitrate availability of two rootstocks known to affect scion growth differently...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922748/cesium-uptake-by-rice-roots-largely-depends-upon-a-single-gene-hak1-which-encodes-a-potassium-transporter
#2
Hiroki Rai, Saki Yokoyama, Namiko Satoh-Nagasawa, Jun Furukawa, Takiko Nomi, Yasuka Ito, Shigeto Fujimura, Hidekazu Takahashi, Ryuichiro Suzuki, ELMannai Yousra, Akitoshi Goto, Shinichi Fuji, Shin-Ichi Nakamura, Takuro Shinano, Nobuhiro Nagasawa, Hiroetsu Wabiko, Hiroyuki Hattori
Incidents at the Fukushima and Chernobyl nuclear power stations have resulted in widespread environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Among them, 137cesium has a 30 year half-life, and its persistence in soil raises serious food security issues. It is therefore important to prevent plants, especially crop plants, from absorbing radiocesium. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cesium ions are transported into root cells by several different potassium transporters such as high-affinity K+ transporter 5 (AtHAK5)...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922747/allelic-variation-of-ntnramp5-associated-with-cultivar-variation-in-cadmium-accumulation-in-tobacco
#3
Zhong Tang, Hailin Cai, Jie Li, Yanling Lv, Wenwen Zhang, Fang-Jie Zhao
Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a cadmium (Cd) accumulator, and smoking is a major source of Cd exposure. In the present study, we identified two tobacco cultivars with contrasting phenotypes of Cd and manganese (Mn) accumulation in both hydroponic and soil pot experiments. Physiological experiments showed that the two cultivars differed in Cd uptake, but not in Cd translocation from roots to shoots. A homolog of OsNramp5 (natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 5), NtNramp5, was isolated from both cultivars...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922515/increased-resource-use-efficiency-amplifies-positive-response-of-aquatic-primary-production-to-experimental-warming
#4
James M Hood, Jonathan P Benstead, Wyatt F Cross, Alexander D Huryn, Philip W Johnson, Gísli M Gíslason, James R Junker, Daniel Nelson, Jón S Ólafsson, Chau Tran
Climate warming is affecting the structure and function of river ecosystems, including their role in transforming and transporting carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). Predicting how river ecosystems respond to warming has been hindered by a dearth of information about how otherwise well-studied physiological responses to temperature scale from organismal to ecosystem levels. We conducted an ecosystem-level temperature manipulation to quantify how coupling of stream ecosystem metabolism and nutrient uptake responded to a realistic warming scenario...
September 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922409/purification-and-characterisation-of-the-yeast-plasma-membrane-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-pdr11p
#5
Katrine Rude Laub, Magdalena Marek, Lyubomir Dimitrov Stanchev, Sara Abad Herrera, Tamara Kanashova, Adèle Bourmaud, Gunnar Dittmar, Thomas Günther Pomorski
The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters Pdr11p and its paralog Aus1p are expressed under anaerobic growth conditions at the plasma membrane of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and are required for sterol uptake. However, the precise mechanism by which these ABC transporters facilitate sterol movement is unknown. In this study, an overexpression and purification procedure was developed with the aim to characterise the Pdr11p transporter. Engineering of Pdr11p variants fused at the C terminus with green fluorescent protein (Pdr11p-GFP) and containing a FLAG tag at the N terminus facilitated expression analysis and one-step purification, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922150/synthesis-radiosynthesis-and-preliminary-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-fluorinated-ceramide-trafficking-inhibitor-hpa-12-for-brain-applications
#6
Simone M Crivelli, Andreas Paulus, Jozef Markus, Matthias Bauwens, Dusan Berkes, Helga E De Vries, Monique T Mulder, Jochen Walter, Felix M Mottaghy, Mario Losen, Pilar Martinez-Martinez
Ceramide levels are increased in blood and brain tissue of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Since the ceramide transporter protein (CERT) is the only known protein able to mediate non-vesicular transfer of ceramide between organelle membranes, the modulation of CERT function may impact on ceramide accumulation. The competitive CERT inhibitor N-(3-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-3-phenylpropyl) dodecanamide (HPA-12) interferes with ceramide trafficking. To understand the role of ceramide/CERT in AD, HPA-12 can be a useful tool to modulate ceramide trafficking...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921771/iron-deficiency-stress-can-induce-mxnas1-protein-expression-to-facilitate-iron-redistribution-in-malus-xiaojinensis
#7
Chaohua Sun, Mudan Yuan, Longmei Zhai, Duyue Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Ting Wu, Xuefeng Xu, Yi Wang, Zhenhai Han
Iron (Fe) is a vital trace element in plants and deficiency of this element in apple trees can reduce fruit quality. Nicotianamine (NA) is known to play an important role in Fe transport and endogenous hormone balance. In the present study, we investigated the role of a nicotianamine synthase 1 gene (MxNas1) in an apple species, Malus xiaojinensis, that has an Fe-efficient genotype than other apple species and ecotypes. To characterize the response of M. xiaojinensis to Fe-deficiency, we used quantitative Q-PCR to determine the level of expression of MxNas1 and western blot to measure protein levels...
September 16, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920844/identification-of-genes-involved-in-galactooligosaccharide-utilization-in-bifidobacterium-breve-strain-yit-4014t
#8
Hidetsugu Sotoya, Akira Shigehisa, Taeko Hara, Hoshitaka Matsumoto, Hiroshi Hatano, Takahiro Matsuki
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are mixed oligosaccharides that are mainly composed of galactosyllactoses (GLs), which include 3'-GL, 4'-GL, and 6'-GL. Data from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that GOS selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Previously, we identified the gene locus responsible for 4'-GL utilization, but the selective routes of uptake and catabolism of 3'- and 6'-GL remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used differential transcriptomics to identify the utilization pathways of these GLs within the Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4014T strain...
September 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919755/synthetic-high-density-lipoprotein-nanodisks-for-targeted-withalongolide-delivery-to-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#9
Rui Kuai, Chitra Subramanian, Peter T White, Barbara N Timmermann, James J Moon, Mark S Cohen, Anna Schwendeman
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy and has a 5-year survival rate of <35%. ACC cells require cholesterol for steroid hormone production, and this requirement is met via expression on the cell surface of a high level of SRB1, responsible for the uptake of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), which carry and transport cholesterol in vivo. Here, we describe how this natural lipid carrier function of SRB1 can be utilized to improve the tumor-targeted delivery of a novel natural product derivative - withalongolide A 4,19,27-triacetate (WGA-TA) - which has shown potent antitumor efficacy, but poor aqueous solubility...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919742/intracellular-disposition-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-macrophages-intracellular-uptake-exocytosis-and-intercellular-transport
#10
Li Qun Jiang, Ting Yu Wang, Thomas J Webster, Hua-Jian Duan, Jing Ying Qiu, Zi Ming Zhao, Xiao Xing Yin, Chun Li Zheng
Biodegradable nanomaterials have been widely used in numerous medical fields. To further improve such efforts, this study focused on the intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles (CsNPs) in macrophages, a primary cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Such interactions with the MPS determine the nanoparticle retention time in the body and consequently play a significant role in their own clinical safety. In this study, various dye-labeled CsNPs (about 250 nm) were prepared, and a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919558/cellular-uptake-of-extracellular-vesicles-is-mediated-by-clathrin-independent-endocytosis-and-macropinocytosis
#11
Helena Costa Verdera, Jerney J Gitz-Francois, Raymond M Schiffelers, Pieter Vader
Recent evidence has established that extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, form an endogenous transport system through which biomolecules, including proteins and RNA, are exchanged between cells. This endows EVs with immense potential for drug delivery and regenerative medicine applications. Understanding the biology underlying EV-based intercellular transfer of cargo is of great importance for the development of EV-based therapeutics. Here, we sought to characterize the cellular mechanisms involved in EV uptake...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919479/fabp1-knockdown-in-human-enterocytes-impairs-proliferation-and-alters-lipid-metabolism
#12
Rodriguez Sawicki Luciana, Bottasso Arias Natalia María, Scaglia Natalia, Falomir Lockhart Lisandro Jorge, Franchini Gisela Raquel, Storch Judith, Córsico Betina
Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins (FABPs) are abundant intracellular proteins that bind long chain fatty acids (FA) and have been related with inmunometabolic diseases. Intestinal epithelial cells express two isoforms of FABPs: liver FABP (LFABP or FABP1) and intestinal FABP (IFABP or FABP2). They are thought to be associated with intracellular dietary lipid transport and trafficking towards diverse cell fates. But still their specific functions are not well understood. To study FABP1's functions, we generated an FABP1 knockdown model in Caco-2 cell line by stable antisense cDNA transfection (FABP1as)...
September 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919452/the-affinity-of-transthyretin-for-t3-or-t4-does-not-determine-which-form-of-the-hormone-accumulates-in-the-choroid-plexus
#13
Samantha J Richardson, Stijn Van Herck, Joke Delbaere, Bronwyn M McAllan, Veerle M Darras
Normal development of the brain is dependent on the required amounts of thyroid hormones (THs) reaching specific regions of the brain during each stage of ontogeny. Many proteins are involved with regulation of TH bioavailability in the brain: the TH distributor protein transthyretin (TTR), TH transmembrane transporters (e.g. MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, OATP1C1) and deiodinases (D1, D2 and D3) which either activate or inactivate THs. Previous studies revealed that in mammals, T4, but not T3, accumulated in the choroid plexus and then entered the cerebrospinal fluid...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919251/inhibition-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-growth-by-simultaneous-uptake-of-glucose-and-maltose
#14
Haruyo Hatanaka, Hitoshi Mitsunaga, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses α-glucoside transporters, such as MalX1p (X=1(Agt1p), 2, 3, 4, and 6), which are proton symporters. These transporters are regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in the presence of glucose. Malt wort contains glucose, maltose, and maltotriose, and the assimilation of maltose is delayed as a function of glucose concentration. With the objective of increasing beer fermentation rates, we characterized α-glucoside transporters and bred laboratory yeasts that expressed various α-glucoside transporters for the simultaneous uptake of different sugars...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919175/slow-ampar-synaptic-transmission-is-determined-by-stargazin-and-glutamate-transporters
#15
Hsin-Wei Lu, Timothy S Balmer, Gabriel E Romero, Laurence O Trussell
AMPARs mediate the briefest synaptic currents in the brain by virtue of their rapid gating kinetics. However, at the mossy fiber-to-unipolar brush cell synapse in the cerebellum, AMPAR-mediated EPSCs last for hundreds of milliseconds, and it has been proposed that this time course reflects slow diffusion from a complex synaptic space. We show that upon release of glutamate, synaptic AMPARs were desensitized by transmitter by >90%. As glutamate levels subsequently fell, recovery of transmission occurred due to the presence of the AMPAR accessory protein stargazin that enhances the AMPAR response to low levels of transmitter...
September 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918494/betaine-in-the-brain-characterization-of-betaine-uptake-its-influence-on-other-osmolytes-and-its-potential-role-in-neuroprotection-from-osmotic-stress
#16
Leena S Knight, Quinn Piibe, Ian Lambie, Christopher Perkins, Paul H Yancey
Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specifically in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory and one that is particularly susceptible to damage (e...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918458/cadmium-losses-in-overland-flow-from-an-agricultural-soil
#17
Colin William Gray, Ross Martin Monaghan, Tom Orchiston, Seth Laurenson, Jo-Anne Cavanagh
Cadmium (Cd) transport in overland flow from agricultural soils is potentially important when trying to predict future soil Cd concentrations, but at present there is little information on the magnitude of loss from this pathway. This study measured Cd concentrations and fluxes in overland flow from a catchment where cattle winter-grazed a forage crop (kale) (Brassica oleracea) in year one and measurements continued in year two when the catchment was returned to pasture and grazed by sheep. Flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMC) of total, particulate and dissolved Cd in overland flow events from the forage crop were 0...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918032/microrna-31-regulates-chemosensitivity-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#18
Hannah L Moody, Michael J Lind, Stephen G Maher
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with an extremely poor prognosis, and most patients initially are or rapidly become unresponsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) is encoded on a genomic fragile site, 9p21.3, which is reportedly lost in many MPM tumors. Based on previous findings in a variety of other cancers, we hypothesized that miR-31 alters chemosensitivity and that miR-31 reconstitution may influence sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in MPM. Reintroduction of miR-31 into miR-31 null NCI-H2452 cells significantly enhanced clonogenic resistance to cisplatin and carboplatin...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917946/cellular-uptake-and-intracellular-localization-of-poly-acrylic-acid-nanoparticles-in-a-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-gill-epithelial-cell-line-rtgill-w1
#19
Lindsey C Felix, Van A Ortega, Greg G Goss
The ever-growing production of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) for use in many agricultural, commercial, consumer, and industrial applications will lead to their accidental or intentional release into the environment. Potential routes of environmental exposure include manufacturing or transport spills, disposal of NP-containing products down the drain and/or in landfills, as well as direct usage on agricultural land. Therefore, NPs will inevitably contaminate aquatic environments and interact with resident organisms...
September 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917726/ovulation-and-fertility-responses-for-sows-receiving-once-daily-boar-exposure-after-weaning-and-ovugel-%C3%A2-followed-by-a-single-fixed-time-post-cervical-artificial-insemination
#20
R R Ulguim, F P Bortolozzo, I Wentz, M Johnston, S K Webel, L Arend, R V Knox
Boar exposure is used to stimulate follicle development and estrus in sows after weaning and also to improve semen uptake and sperm transport with insemination. However, the need and value of boar exposure is uncertain when ovulation induction is used. These studies were designed to determine the effect of daily boar exposure after weaning when used with ovulation induction and fixed time post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI). In experiment 1, sows were weaned into stalls and assigned to receive 3 min of daily fenceline boar exposure (BE, n = 7) or no boar exposure (NBE, n = 8)...
September 8, 2017: Theriogenology
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