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Uptake transporters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782700/nonionic-dendritic-and-carbohydrate-based-amphiphiles-self-assembly-and-transport-behavior
#1
Suchita Prasad, Katharina Achazi, Boris Schade, Rainer Haag, Sunil K Sharma
Herein, a new series of non-ionic dendritic and carbohydrate based amphiphiles is synthesized employing biocompatible starting materials and studied for supramolecular aggregate formation in aqueous solution. The dendritic amphiphiles 12 and 13 possessing poly(glycerol) [G2.0] as hydrophilic unit and C-10 and C-18 hydrophobic alkyl chains, respectively, exhibit low critical aggregation concentration (CAC) in the order of 10-5 m and hydrodynamic diameters in the 8-10 nm range and supplemented by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy...
May 21, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782174/expression-of-concentrative-nucleoside-transporters-slc28a-in-the-human-placenta-effects-of-gestation-age-and-prototype-differentiation-affecting-agents
#2
Lucie Jiraskova, Lukas Cerveny, Sara Karbanova, Zuzana Ptackova, Frantisek Staud
Equilibrative ( SLC29A) and concentrative ( SLC28A) nucleoside transporters contribute to proper placental development and mediate uptake of nucleosides/nucleoside-derived drugs. We analyzed placental expression of SLC28A mRNA during gestation. Moreover, we studied in choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells whether SLC29A and SLC28A mRNA levels can be modulated by activity of adenylyl cyclase, retinoic acid receptor activation, CpG islands methylation, or histone acetylation, using forskolin, all- trans-retinoic acid, and 5-azacytidine, and sodium butyrate/sodium valproate, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782157/the-role-of-marine-snows-in-microplastic-fate-and-bioavailability
#3
Adam Porter, Brett P Lyons, Tamara S Galloway, Ceri N Lewis
Microplastics contaminate global oceans and are accumulating in sediments at levels thought sufficient to leave a permanent layer in the fossil record. Despite this, the processes that vertically transport buoyant polymers from surface waters to the benthos are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that laboratory generated marine snows can transport microplastics of different shapes, sizes and polymers away from the water surface and enhance their bioavailability to benthic organisms. Sinking rates of all tested microplastics increased when incorporated into snows, with large changes observed for the buoyant polymer polyethylene with an increase in sinking rate of 818 m day-1 and for denser polyamide fragments of 916 m day-1...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781332/a-novel-phenolic-propanediamine-moiety-based-lung-targeting-therapy-for-asthma
#4
Jianbo Li, Yang Yang, Didi Wan, Youmei Peng, Jinjie Zhang
Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases of lung. Current asthma therapy using inhaled corticosteroid often results in undesired treatment outcome due to poor compliance and drugs' lack of tissue specificity. N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-123 Iiodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamine (HIPD), a phenolic propanediamine derivative, has been used as an imaging agent for localized pulmonary diseases. Inspired by this, N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(4-hydroxyl-benzyl)-1,3-propanediamine (TPD), a new HIPD analog, was proposed as a lung-targeting ligand and covalently conjugated to an anti-inflammatory compound Rhein for asthma therapy...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781098/pet-imaging-of-the-influence-of-physiological-and-pathological-%C3%AE-synuclein-on-dopaminergic-and-serotonergic-neurotransmission-in-mouse-models
#5
Elise Levigoureux, Caroline Bouillot, Thierry Baron, Luc Zimmer, Sophie Lancelot
AIMS: Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregation is a neuropathological hallmark of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies. This in vivo study explored glucose metabolism and dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission in KO α-syn, wild-type mice and an accelerated murine model of synucleinopathy (M83). METHODS: MicroPET acquisitions were performed in all animals aged 5-6 months using five radiotracers exploring brain glucose metabolism ([18 F]FDG), dopamine neurotransmission ([11 C]raclopride, [11 C]PE2I) and serotonin neurotransmission ([18 F]MPPF, [11 C]DASB)...
May 20, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780124/hiv-dementia-with-a-decreased-cardiac-123-i-metaiodobenzylguanidine-uptake-masquerading-as-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#6
Masanori Kurihara, Takuya Sasaki, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Shoji Tsuji
Cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a promising biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, we experienced a patient with cognitive decline, parkinsonism, and a decreased MIBG uptake who turned out to have HIV dementia. Normal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography reduced the possibility of comorbid Lewy body pathology causing the patient' s parkinsonism. The decreased MIBG uptake was most likely due to postganglionic sympathetic nerve denervation, which can also be caused by HIV...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779954/construction-of-fluorescent-analogs-to-follow-the-uptake-and-distribution-of-cobalamin-vitamin-b-12-in-bacteria-worms-and-plants
#7
Andrew D Lawrence, Emi Nemoto-Smith, Evelyne Deery, Joseph A Baker, Susanne Schroeder, David G Brown, Jennifer M A Tullet, Mark J Howard, Ian R Brown, Alison G Smith, Helena I Boshoff, Clifton E Barry, Martin J Warren
Vitamin B12 is made by only certain prokaryotes yet is required by a number of eukaryotes such as mammals, fish, birds, worms, and Protista, including algae. There is still much to learn about how this nutrient is trafficked across the domains of life. Herein, we describe ways to make a number of different corrin analogs with fluorescent groups attached to the main tetrapyrrole-derived ring. A further range of analogs were also constructed by attaching similar fluorescent groups to the ribose ring of cobalamin, thereby generating a range of complete and incomplete corrinoids to follow uptake in bacteria, worms, and plants...
April 28, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778792/valproic-acid-attenuates-manganese-induced-reduction-in-expression-of-glt-1-and-glast-with-concomitant-changes-in-murine-dopaminergic-neurotoxicity
#8
James Johnson, Edward Pajarillo, Pratap Karki, Judong Kim, Deok-Soo Son, Michael Aschner, Eunsook Lee
Exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) causes manganism, a neurological disorder with similar characteristics to those of Parkinson's disease (PD). Valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic, is known to inhibit histone deacetylases and exert neuroprotective effects in many experimental models of neurological disorders. In the present study, we investigated if VPA attenuated Mn-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and the possible mechanisms involved in VPA's neuroprotection, focusing on modulation of astrocytic glutamate transporters (glutamate aspartate transporter, GLAST and glutamate transporter 1, GLT-1) and histone acetylation in H4 astrocyte culture and mouse models...
May 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777899/congenital-dyshormonogenic-hypothyroidism-with-goiter-caused-by-a-sodium-iodide-symporter-slc5a5-mutation-in-a-family-of-shih-tzu-dogs
#9
E A Soler Arias, V A Castillo, J D Garcia, J C Fyfe
An iodide transport defect (ITD) in the thyroid gland was determined to cause congenital dyshormonogenic hypothyroidism with goiter (CDHG) in 2 members of a family of Shih-Tzu dogs. Strikingly, both dogs were also diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy at 24 and 1.5 mo of age. The only sign of hypothyroidism was a moderate growth delay in the adult dog. The ITD was recognized by the absence of uptake of technetium-99m in the salivary glands (sg) and goiter observed by scintigraphy. In the same scan, radiopharmaceutical uptake was found in the anterior mediastinum of both dogs and in the right axillary lymph node in the oldest dog...
April 24, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777199/influence-of-alcoholism-and-cholesterol-on-tspo-binding-in-brain-pet-11-c-pbr28-studies-in-humans-and-rodents
#10
Sung Won Kim, Corinde E Wiers, Ryan Tyler, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Yeon Joo Jang, Amna Zehra, Clara Freeman, Veronica Ramirez, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Tyler Stodden, Min Guo, Şükrü B Demiral, Nancy Diazgranados, Luke Park, Jeih-San Liow, Victor Pike, Cheryl Morse, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Robert B Innis, George F Koob, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
Neuroinflammation appears to contribute to neurotoxicity observed with heavy alcohol consumption. To assess whether chronic alcohol results in neuroinflammation we used PET and [11 C]PBR28, a ligand that binds to the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), to compare participants with an alcohol use disorder (AUD: n = 19) with healthy controls (HC: n = 17), and alcohol-dependent (n = 9) with -nondependent rats (n = 10). Because TSPO is implicated in cholesterol's transport for steroidogenesis, we investigated whether plasma cholesterol levels influenced [11 C]PBR28 binding...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776923/environmental-adaptability-for-quorum-sensing-regulating-iron-uptake-during-biofilm-formation-in-paracoccus-denitrificans
#11
Yang Zhang, Jie Gao, Lushan Wang, Shuangjiang Liu, Zhihui Bai, Xuliang Zhuang, Guoqiang Zhuang
Paracoccus denitrificans is a valuable model organism due to its versatile respiration capability and bioenergetic flexibility, both of which are critical to its survival in different environments. Quorum sensing (QS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of many cell functions; however, whether QS systems play a role in P. denitrificans is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that iron uptake systems in P. denitrificans were directly regulated by a newly identified QS system. Genes coding for TonB-dependent systems, which transport chelated iron, were transcribed at higher levels in the QS-defective mutants...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776341/different-adaptive-strategies-in-e-coli-populations-evolving-under-macronutrient-limitation-and-metal-ion-limitation
#12
Omar M Warsi, Dan I Andersson, Daniel E Dykhuizen
BACKGROUND: Adaptive responses to nutrient limitation involve mutations that increase the efficiency of usage or uptake of the limiting nutrient. However, starvation of different nutrients has contrasting effects on physiology, resulting in different evolutionary responses. Most studies performed to understand these evolutionary responses have focused only on macronutrient limitation. Hence our understanding of adaptation under limitation of other forms of nutrients is limited. In this study, we compared the evolutionary response in populations evolving under growth-limiting conditions for a macronutrient and a major cation...
May 18, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775933/observing-hno-3-release-dependent-upon-metal-complexes-in-malonic-acid-nitrate-droplets
#13
Xu Shao, Feng-Min Wu, Hui Yang, Shu-Feng Pang, Yun-Hong Zhang
Although the dicarboxylic acid has been reported to react with nitrate for aged internally mixed aerosols in atmosphere, the quantitative nitrate depletion dependent upon composition in particles is still not well constrained. The chemical composition evolutions for malonic acid/sodium nitrate (MA/SN), malonic acid/magnesium nitrate (MA/MN) and malonic acid/calcium nitrate (MA/CN) particles with the organic to inorganic molar ratio (OIR) of 1:1 are investigated by vacuum Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
May 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775835/analysis-of-the-cytotoxic-effects-of-combined-ultrasound-microbubble-and-nucleoside-analog-combinations-on-pancreatic-cells-in-vitro
#14
Julia Mariglia, Shadab Momin, Imogen R Coe, Raffi Karshafian
Ultrasonically-stimulated microbubbles enhance the therapeutic effects of various chemotherapy drugs. However, the application of ultrasound and microbubbles (USMB) for enhancing the therapeutic effect of nucleoside analogs, which are used as front-line treatments in a range of cancers, and its underlying mechanism is not well understood. This study investigated the effect of gemcitabine, a nucleoside analog drug, in combination with USMB in increasing cell cytotoxicity relative to either treatment alone in BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells...
May 5, 2018: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774236/endocytosis-mediated-siderophore-uptake-as-a-strategy-for-fe-acquisition-in-diatoms
#15
Elena Kazamia, Robert Sutak, Javier Paz-Yepes, Richard G Dorrell, Fabio Rocha Jimenez Vieira, Jan Mach, Joe Morrissey, Sébastien Leon, France Lam, Eric Pelletier, Jean-Michel Camadro, Chris Bowler, Emmanuel Lesuisse
Phytoplankton growth is limited in vast oceanic regions by the low bioavailability of iron. Iron fertilization often results in diatom blooms, yet the physiological underpinnings for how diatoms survive in chronically iron-limited waters and outcompete other phytoplankton when iron becomes available are unresolved. We show that some diatoms can use siderophore-bound iron, and exhibit a species-specific recognition for siderophore types. In Phaeodactylum tricornutum , hydroxamate siderophores are taken up without previous reduction by a high-affinity mechanism that involves binding to the cell surface followed by endocytosis-mediated uptake and delivery to the chloroplast...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773651/usp25m-protease-regulates-ubiquitin-like-processing-of-tug-proteins-to-control-glut4-glucose-transporter-translocation-in-adipocytes
#16
Estifanos N Habtemichael, Don T Li, Abel Alcázar-Román, Xavier O Westergaard, Muyi Li, Max C Petersen, Hanbing Li, Stephen G DeVries, Eric Li, Omar Julca-Zevallos, Joseph S Wolenski, Jonathan S Bogan
Insulin stimulates the exocytic translocation of specialized vesicles in adipocytes, which inserts GLUT4 glucose transporters into the plasma membrane to enhance glucose uptake.  Previous results support a model in which TUG proteins trap these GLUT4 storage vesicles at the Golgi matrix, and in which insulin triggers endoproteolytic cleavage of TUG to translocate GLUT4.  Here, we identify Usp25m as a protease required for insulin-stimulated TUG cleavage and GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes.  Usp25m is expressed in adipocytes, binds TUG and GLUT4, dissociates from TUG-bound vesicles after insulin addition, and colocalizes with TUG and insulin-responsive cargoes in unstimulated cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773368/mutlifunctional-nanoparticles-prepared-from-arginine-modified-chitosan-and-thiolated-fucoidan-for-oral-delivery-of-hydrophobic-and-hydrophilic-drugs
#17
Chien-Ho Chen, Yung-Song Lin, Shao-Jung Wu, Fwu-Long Mi
Self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) from arginine-modified chitosan (CS-N-Arg) and thiolated fucoidan (THL-fucoidan) were synthesized to enhance the transport of dextran and curcumin across intestinal epithelial cell layer. CS-N-Arg/THL-fucoidan NPs exhibited a pH-sensitive assembly-disassembly and drug release property. Evaluations of the NPs in enhancing the transport of a hydrophilic macromolecule (FITC-dextran) and a hydrophobic drug (curcumin) were investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The cationic CS-N-Arg in the NPs induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions as indicated by the decrease of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772253/interstitial-ion-homeostasis-and-acid-base-balance-are-maintained-in-oedematous-brain-of-mice-with-acute-toxic-liver-failure
#18
Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan Albrecht
Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer...
May 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771999/growth-medium-dependent-antimicrobial-activity-of-early-stage-mep-pathway-inhibitors
#19
Sara Sanders, David Bartee, Mackenzie J Harrison, Paul D Phillips, Andrew T Koppisch, Caren L Freel Meyers
The in vivo microenvironment of bacterial pathogens is often characterized by nutrient limitation. Consequently, conventional rich in vitro culture conditions used widely to evaluate antibacterial agents are often poorly predictive of in vivo activity, especially for agents targeting metabolic pathways. In one such pathway, the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, which is essential for production of isoprenoids in bacterial pathogens, relatively little is known about the influence of growth environment on antibacterial properties of inhibitors targeting enzymes in this pathway...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771932/a-multi-center-preclinical-study-of-gadoxetate-dce-mri-in-rats-as-a-biomarker-of-drug-induced-inhibition-of-liver-transporter-function
#20
Anastassia Karageorgis, Stephen C Lenhard, Brittany Yerby, Mikael F Forsgren, Serguei Liachenko, Edvin Johansson, Mark A Pilling, Richard A Peterson, Xi Yang, Dominic P Williams, Sharon E Ungersma, Ryan E Morgan, Kim L R Brouwer, Beat M Jucker, Paul D Hockings
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a leading cause of acute liver failure and transplantation. DILI can be the result of impaired hepatobiliary transporters, with altered bile formation, flow, and subsequent cholestasis. We used gadoxetate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), combined with pharmacokinetic modelling, to measure hepatobiliary transporter function in vivo in rats. The sensitivity and robustness of the method was tested by evaluating the effect of a clinical dose of the antibiotic rifampicin in four different preclinical imaging centers...
2018: PloS One
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