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Uptake transporters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433989/oral-contraceptives-after-bariatric-surgery
#1
Joël Schlatter
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery offers a highly effective mode of treatment for obese patients. Some procedures such as bypass cause an alteration in normal gastrointestinal tract with possible consequences for the uptake of orally administered drugs. METHODS: We assessed the literature to ascertain whether the use of oral drugs and especially oral contraceptives is effective and adequate after bariatric surgery. RESULTS: The bioavailability of drugs could be affected by the solubility and pH of the modified medium after bariatric surgery and by the loss of gastrointestinal transporters...
April 22, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433238/pulmonary-rehabilitation-referral-and-participation-are-commonly-influenced-by-environment-knowledge-and-beliefs-about-consequences-a-systematic-review-using-the-theoretical-domains-framework
#2
Narelle S Cox, Cristino C Oliveira, Aroub Lahham, Anne E Holland
QUESTION: What are the barriers and enablers of referral, uptake, attendance and completion of pulmonary rehabilitation for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? DESIGN: Systematic review of qualitative or quantitative studies reporting data relating to referral, uptake, attendance and/or completion in pulmonary rehabilitation. PARTICIPANTS: People aged >18years with a diagnosis of COPD and/or their healthcare professionals...
April 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432465/ppar%C3%AE-activation-regulates-lipid-droplet-formation-and-lactate-production-in-rat-sertoli-cells
#3
A Gorga, G M Rindone, M Regueira, E H Pellizzari, M C Camberos, S B Cigorraga, M F Riera, M N Galardo, S B Meroni
Sertoli cells provide the structural and nutritional support for germ cell development; they actively metabolize glucose and convert it to lactate, which is an important source of energy for germ cells. Furthermore, Sertoli cells can oxidize fatty acids, a metabolic process that is assumed to fulfill their own energy requirements. Fatty acids are stored as triacylglycerides within lipid droplets. The regulation of fatty acid storage in conjunction with the regulation of lactate production may thus be relevant to seminiferous tubule physiology...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432377/emerging-roles-of-calpain-proteolytic-systems-in-macrophage-cholesterol-handling
#4
REVIEW
Takuro Miyazaki, Akira Miyazaki
Calpains are Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular proteases that play central roles in the post-translational processing of functional proteins. In mammals, calpain proteolytic systems comprise the endogenous inhibitor calpastatin as well as 15 homologues of the catalytic subunits and two homologues of the regulatory subunits. Recent pharmacological and gene targeting studies in experimental animal models have revealed the contribution of conventional calpains, which consist of the calpain-1 and -2 isozymes, to atherosclerotic diseases...
April 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431428/computational-and-in-vitro-experimental-investigation-of-intrathecal-drug-distribution-parametric-study-of-the-effect-of-injection-volume-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility-and-drug-uptake
#5
Kevin M Tangen, Roxanne Leval, Ankit I Mehta, Andreas A Linninger
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal drug delivery is an attractive option to circumvent the blood-brain barrier for pain management through its increased efficacy of pain relief, reduction in adverse side effects, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there are limited guidelines for physicians to choose infusion or drug pump settings to administer therapeutic doses to specific regions of the spine or the brain. Although empiric trialing of intrathecal drugs is critical to determine the sustained side effects, currently there is no inexpensive in vitro method to guide the selection of spinal drug delivery parameters...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430950/effects-of-dissolved-oxygen-concentration-and-iron-addition-on-immediate-early-gene-expression-of-magnetospirillum-gryphiswaldense-msr-1
#6
Shiwen Zhuang, Diana Chinyere Anyaogu, Takeshi Kasama, Mhairi Workman, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen, Timothy John Hobley
We report effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and iron addition on gene expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 cells during fermentations, focusing on 0.25-24 h after iron addition. The DO was strictly controlled at 0.5% or 5% O2, and compared with aerobic condition. Uptake of iron (and formation of magnetosomes) was only observed in the 0.5% O2 condition where there was little difference in cell growth and carbon consumption compared to the 5% O2 condition. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed a rapid (within 0...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429758/intracellular-lipid-binding-protein-family-diversity-from-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-genomic-and-structural-features-of-invertebrate-lipid-transporters
#7
Guilherme de Toledo-Silva, Guilherme Razzera, Flavia Lucena Zacchi, Nestor Cubas Wendt, Jacó Joaquim Mattos, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) play a role in the transport and cellular uptake of fatty acids and gene expression regulation. The aim of this work was to characterize the iLBP gene family of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, one of the most cultivated marine bivalves in the world, using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. A total of 26 different iLBPs transcripts were identified in the Pacific oyster genome, including alternative splicing and gene duplication events. The oyster iLBP gene family seems to be more expanded than in other invertebrates...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429675/cell-biology-of-hyphal-growth
#8
Gero Steinberg, Miguel A Peñalva, Meritxell Riquelme, Han A Wösten, Steven D Harris
Filamentous fungi are a large and ancient clade of microorganisms that occupy a broad range of ecological niches. The success of filamentous fungi is largely due to their elongate hypha, a chain of cells, separated from each other by septa. Hyphae grow by polarized exocytosis at the apex, which allows the fungus to overcome long distances and invade many substrates, including soils and host tissues. Hyphal tip growth is initiated by establishment of a growth site and the subsequent maintenance of the growth axis, with transport of growth supplies, including membranes and proteins, delivered by motors along the cytoskeleton to the hyphal apex...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429538/finding-a-partner-in-the-ocean-molecular-and-evolutionary-bases-of-the-response-to-sexual-cues-in-a-planktonic-diatom
#9
Swaraj Basu, Shrikant Patil, Daniel Mapleson, Monia Teresa Russo, Laura Vitale, Cristina Fevola, Florian Maumus, Raffaella Casotti, Thomas Mock, Mario Caccamo, Marina Montresor, Remo Sanges, Maria Immacolata Ferrante
Microalgae play a major role as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Cell signalling regulates their interactions with the environment and other organisms, yet this process in phytoplankton is poorly defined. Using the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, we investigated the cell response to cues released during sexual reproduction, an event that demands strong regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. We sequenced the genome of P. multistriata and performed phylogenomic and transcriptomic analyses, which allowed the definition of gene gains and losses, horizontal gene transfers, conservation and evolutionary rate of sex-related genes...
April 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429188/18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-uptake-on-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-is-associated-with-metastasis-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Misu Lee, Jeong Yong Jeon, Micheal L Neugent, Jung-Whan Kim, Mijin Yun
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Several studies have investigated the relationship between (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography and the prognosis of patients with HCC, although the relationship between (18)F-FDG uptake and expression of EMT-related proteins in these patients remains unclear. We retrospectively enrolled 116 patients with HCC treated by curative surgical resection and who underwent (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for preoperative staging...
April 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428964/micrornas-mediated-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-glut4-expression-and-translocation-in-insulin-resistance
#11
REVIEW
João Victor Esteves, Francisco Javier Enguita, Ubiratan Fabres Machado
The solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 4 (GLUT4) plays a key role in the insulin-induced glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissues. In prediabetes and diabetes, GLUT4 expression/translocation has been detected as reduced, participating in mechanisms that impair glycemic control. Recently, a class of short endogenous noncoding RNAs named microRNAs (miRNAs) has been increasingly described as involved in the posttranscriptional epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The present review focuses on miRNAs potentially involved in the expression of GLUT4 expression, and proteins related to GLUT4 and translocation in skeletal muscle, seeking to correlate them with insulin resistance and diabetes...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428821/genome-wide-search-for-candidate-genes-for-yeast-robustness-improvement-against-formic-acid-reveals-novel-susceptibility-trk1-and-positive-regulators-and-resistance-haa1-regulon-determinants
#12
Sílvia F Henriques, Nuno P Mira, Isabel Sá-Correia
BACKGROUND: Formic acid is an inhibitory compound present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Understanding the complex molecular mechanisms underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to this weak acid at the system level is instrumental to guide synthetic pathway engineering for robustness improvement of industrial strains envisaging their use in lignocellulosic biorefineries. RESULTS: This study was performed to identify, at a genome-wide scale, genes whose expression confers protection or susceptibility to formic acid, based on the screening of a haploid deletion mutant collection to search for these phenotypes in the presence of 60, 70 and 80 mM of this acid, at pH 4...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428797/silicon-regulates-antioxidant-activities-of-crop-plants-under-abiotic-induced-oxidative-stress-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Yoon-Ha Kim, Abdul L Khan, Muhammad Waqas, In-Jung Lee
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in soil, where its availability to plants can exhilarate to 10% of total dry weight of the plant. Si accumulation/transport occurs in the upward direction, and has been identified in several crop plants. Si application has been known to ameliorate plant growth and development during normal and stressful conditions over past two-decades. During abiotic (salinity, drought, thermal, and heavy metal etc) stress, one of the immediate responses by plant is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen ((1)O2), superoxide ([Formula: see text]), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (OH), which cause severe damage to the cell structure, organelles, and functions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428780/genomic-and-transcriptomic-insights-into-calcium-carbonate-biomineralization-by-marine-actinobacterium-brevibacterium-linens-bs258
#14
Yuying Zhu, Ning Ma, Weihua Jin, Shimei Wu, Chaomin Sun
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) biomineralization has been investigated due to its wide range of scientific and technological implications, however, the molecular mechanisms of this important geomicrobiological process are largely unknown. Here, a urease-positive marine actinobacterium Brevibacterium linens BS258 was demonstrated to effectively form CaCO3 precipitates. Surprisingly, this bacterium could also dissolve the formed CaCO3 with the increase of the Ca(2+) concentration. To disclose the mechanisms of biomineralization, the genome of B...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428331/a-personalized-model-of-coq2-nephropathy-rescued-by-the-wild-type-coq2-allele-or-dietary-coenzyme-q10-supplementation
#15
Jun-Yi Zhu, Yulong Fu, Adam Richman, Zhanzheng Zhao, Patricio E Ray, Zhe Han
Clinical studies have identified patients with nephrotic syndrome caused by mutations in genes involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a lipid component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an important antioxidant. However, the cellular mechanisms through which these mutations induce podocyte injury remain obscure. Here, we exploited the striking similarities between Drosophila nephrocytes and human podocytes to develop a Drosophila model of these renal diseases, and performed a systematic in vivo analysis assessing the role of CoQ10 pathway genes in renal function...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427288/cigarette-smokers-develop-altered-erythrocyte-membrane-composition-an-investigation-unmasking-the-role-of-membrane-bound-integral-protein-glut-1
#16
Jyotirmoy Sikdar, Paromita Seal, Amartya Roy, Rajen Haldar
Erythrocytes in cigarette smokers are prone to oxidative damage. Here we sought to elucidate the facts behind modifications and possible defense system developed in erythrocyte of cigarette smokers. We observed significant increase in stomatocytes and spherocytes, and osmotic fragility of erythrocyte, along with reduced level of protein thiol and increased fluorescence anisotropy in isolated membrane. Denaturing gel electrophoresis indicated alterations in band 3, band 4.2 and band 4.5. Among those, Glut 1 (i...
April 20, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426974/cell-borne-2d-nanomaterials-for-efficient-cancer-targeting-and-photothermal-therapy
#17
Zhibin Li, Jundong Shao, Qian Luo, Xue-Feng Yu, Hanhan Xie, Haidi Fu, Siying Tang, Huaiyu Wang, Guangli Han, Paul K Chu
Two of the challenges for clinical implementation of nano-therapeutic strategies are optimization of tumor targeting and clearance of the nanoagents in vivo. Herein, a cell-mediated therapy by transporting 2D Bi2Se3 nanosheets within macrophage vehicles is described. The Bi2Se3 nanosheets with excellent near-infrared photothermal performance exhibit high macrophage uptake and negligible cytotoxicity thus facilitating the fabrication of Bi2Se3-laden-macrophages. Compared with bare Bi2Se3, the Bi2Se3-laden-macrophages after intravenous injection show prolonged blood circulation and can overcome the hypoxia-associated drug delivery barrier to target the tumor efficiently and dramatically enhance the efficiency of photothermal cancer therapy...
April 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426241/extracellular-heme-uptake-and-the-challenge-of-bacterial-cell-membranes
#18
Weiliang Huang, Angela Wilks
Iron is essential for the survival of most bacteria but presents a significant challenge given its limited bioavailability. Furthermore, the toxicity of iron combined with the need to maintain physiological iron levels within a narrow concentration range requires sophisticated systems to sense, regulate, and transport iron. Most bacteria have evolved mechanisms to chelate and transport ferric iron (Fe(3+)) via siderophore receptor systems, and pathogenic bacteria have further lowered this barrier by employing mechanisms to utilize the host's hemoproteins...
April 19, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425971/%C3%AF-%C3%A2-cells-feature-de-ubiquitination-of-slc-transporters-and-increased-levels-and-fluxes-of-amino-acids
#19
André Bordinassi Medina, Marcin Banaszczak, Yang Ni, Ina Aretz, David Meierhofer
Solute carrier (SLC) transporters are a diverse group of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the cellular flux and distribution of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as ubiquitination, have recently emerged as one of the major regulatory mechanisms in protein function and localization. Previously, we showed that SLC amino acid transporters were on average 6-fold de-ubiquitinated and increased amino acid levels were detected in ρ⁰ cells (lacking mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) compared to parental cells...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425071/micro-spatial-variation-of-elemental-distribution-in-estuarine-sediment-and-their-accumulation-in-mangroves-of-indian-sundarban
#20
Madhurima Bakshi, S S Ram, Somdeep Ghosh, Anindita Chakraborty, M Sudarshan, Punarbasu Chaudhuri
This work describes the micro-spatial variation of elemental distribution in estuarine sediment and bioaccumulation of those elements in different mangrove species of the Indian Sundarbans. The potential ecological risk due to such elemental load on this mangrove-dominated habitat is also discussed. The concentrations of elements in mangrove leaves and sediments were determined using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Sediment quality and potential ecological risks were assessed from the calculated indices...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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