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Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Yan Hu, Zhen Hou, Yibo Zong, Nagmeldin A Omer, Halima Abobaker, Ruqian Zhao
Background: We have shown previously that in ovo betaine injection can prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by glucocorticoid exposure in chickens; yet it remains unknown whether feeding betaine to laying hens may exert similar effects in their progeny. Objective: In this study, we fed laying hens a betaine-supplemented diet, and the progeny were later exposed chronically to corticosterone (CORT) to test hepatoprotective effects and further elucidate underlying mechanisms...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Meenu Maan, Jeffrey M Peters, Mainak Dutta, Andrew Patterson
The tumor microenvironment can be hypoxic, acidic, and deficient in nutrients. This can cause the metabolism of tumor cells as well as the neighboring stromal cells to be remodelled to facilitate tumor survival, proliferation, and metastasis. Abnormal tumor lipid metabolism is a fairly new field, which has received attention in the past few years. Cross-talk between tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells modulates the high metabolic needs of the tumor. Fatty acid turnover is high in tumor cells to meet the energy as well as synthetic requirements of the growing tumor...
February 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ryan J Schulze, Karuna Rasineni, Shaun G Weller, Micah B Schott, Barbara Schroeder, Carol A Casey, Mark A McNiven
Alcohol consumption is a well-established risk factor for the onset and progression of fatty liver disease. An estimated 90% of heavy drinkers are thought to develop significant liver steatosis. For these reasons, an increased understanding of the molecular basis for alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis is important. It has become clear that autophagy, a catabolic process of intracellular degradation and recycling, plays a key role in hepatic lipid metabolism. We have shown that Rab7, a small guanosine triphosphatase known to regulate membrane trafficking, acts as a key orchestrator of hepatocellular lipophagy, a selective form of autophagy in which lipid droplets (LDs) are specifically targeted for turnover by the autophagic machinery...
April 2017: Hepatology Communications
Goo Taeg Oh, Se Jin Jeong, Sinai Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Se-Jin Jeong, Sinai Kim, Jong-Gil Park, In-Hyuk Jung, Mi-Ni Lee, Sejin Jeon, Hyae Yon Kweon, Dae-Yeul Yu, Sang-Hak Lee, Yangsoo Jang, Sang Won Kang, Ki-Hwan Han, Yury I Miller, Young Mi Park, Cheolho Cheong, Jae-Hoon Choi, Goo Taeg Oh
Oxidative stress activates macroautophagy/autophagy and contributes to atherogenesis via lipophagic flux, a form of lipid removal by autophagy. However, it is not known exactly how endogenous antioxidant enzymes are involved in lipophagic flux. Here, we demonstrate that the antioxidant PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin 1) has a crucial role in the maintenance of lipophagic flux in macrophages. PRDX1 is more highly expressed than other antioxidant enzymes in monocytes and macrophages. We determined that Prdx1 deficiency induced excessive oxidative stress and impaired maintenance of autophagic flux in macrophages...
June 12, 2017: Autophagy
Jack Levy, Mark E Burnett, Cynthia M Magro
Lipophagic panniculitis of childhood is a rare condition notable clinically for an inflammatory panniculitis followed by the development of permanent lipoatrophy. In this regard, the term lipoatrophic panniculitis has been used synonymously with lipophagic panniculitis. Additional designations include lipophagic lipoatrophic panniculitis and annular lipoatrophic panniculitis of the ankles. Although lipophagic panniculitis has been associated with a number of autoimmune phenomena, a paucity of reports and limited pathological analyses to date renders this disease an elusive one whose pathogenesis is not yet established...
March 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Heun Joo Lee, Mi-Hye Lee, Su Gun Lee, Un-Cheol Yeo, Sung Eun Chang
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive devices for fat reduction involving high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are attracting attention. HIFU can deliver energy to the desired depth and can ablate subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), but purpura and pain may still limit its use. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel HIFU device for fat destruction with a contact cooling system compared to HIFU without contact cooling. METHODS: A group of three pigs were administered a series of four HIFU treatments with or without contact cooling over a period of 12 weeks...
August 23, 2016: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Allyson N Hamlin, Joshua E Basford, Anja Jaeschke, David Y Hui
LRP1 (LDL receptor-related protein-1) is a ubiquitous receptor with both cell signaling and ligand endocytosis properties. In the liver, LRP1 serves as a chylomicron remnant receptor and also participates in the transport of extracellular cathepsin D to the lysosome for prosaposin activation. The current study showed that in comparison with wild type mice, hepatocyte-specific LRP1 knock-out (hLrp1(-/-)) mice were more susceptible to fasting-induced lipid accumulation in the liver. Primary hepatocytes isolated from hLrp1(-/-) mice also accumulated more intracellular lipids and experienced higher levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress after palmitate treatment compared with similarly treated hLrp1(+/+) hepatocytes...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Marilia Kimie Shimabukuro, Larissa Gutman Paranhos Langhi, Ingrid Cordeiro, José M Brito, Claudia Maria de Castro Batista, Mark P Mattson, Valeria de Mello Coelho
We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall...
March 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
Toshihiro Kurahashi, Shinji Hamashima, Takaya Shirato, Jaeyong Lee, Takujiro Homma, Eun Sil Kang, Junichi Fujii
Under normal feeding conditions, oxidative stress stimulates lipid droplets accumulation in hepatocytes. We found that, despite the low visceral fat in Sod1-knockout (KO) mouse, lipid droplets accumulate in the liver to a greater extent than for the wild-type mouse upon fasting. Liver damage became evident in the KO mice. While fasting caused substantial endoplasmic reticulum stress in KO mice, the expression of genes involved in fatty acid production was suppressed. LC3-II, which is essential for the dynamic process of autophagosome formation, was activated in the wild-type mouse and enhanced in the KO mouse...
November 27, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Barbara Schroeder, Ryan J Schulze, Shaun G Weller, Arthur C Sletten, Carol A Casey, Mark A McNiven
UNLABELLED: Autophagy is a central mechanism by which hepatocytes catabolize lipid droplets (LDs). Currently, the regulatory mechanisms that control this important process are poorly defined. The small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab7 has been implicated in the late endocytic pathway and is known to associate with LDs, although its role in LD breakdown has not been tested. In this study, we demonstrate that Rab7 is indispensable for LD breakdown ("lipophagy") in hepatocytes subjected to nutrient deprivation...
June 2015: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ryan J Schulze, Mark A McNiven
Liver steatosis is characterized by an abnormal buildup of hepatic fat content. Our understanding of how this fat balance is normally regulated remains limited. Recently, autophagy has been implicated as one potential mechanism contributing to the breakdown of cytoplasmic fat storage organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs) in the hepatocyte. In our recent publication, we show that the large GTPase DNM2/dynamin 2 helps promote lipophagic turnover by facilitating the scission of nascent lysosomes from autolysosomal tubules during autophagic flux...
February 2014: Autophagy
S Grassi, R Rosso, C Tomasini, C Pezzini, M Merlino, G Borroni
Aim of this work was to define the histopathological features of post-surgical panniculitis. Dermal and hypodermal changes will be analyzed in detail, to understand the cascade of events that characterize the tissue response to surgical trauma. Cutaneous re-excision specimens of cases of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma consecutively seen from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2011 at the Department of Dermatology, University of Pavia, were included in this study. Only the cases in which the first surgical procedure included the subcutaneous fat, were considered...
August 2013: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
S Grassi, R G Borroni, V Brazzelli
This paper will give a comprehensive view of the most frequent panniculitides seen in childhood, with emphasis on the types exclusively found in infancy, and for all other types of panniculitides also found in adults. Aim of this paper is also to analyze the clinical differences between panniculitis in childhood and in adulthood, and to give reliable histopathologic criteria for a specific diagnosis. A review of the literature is here integrated by authors' personal contribution. Panniculitides in children is a heterogeneous group of diseases, as well as in adult life, characterized by inflammation of the subcutaneous fat...
August 2013: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
B Zelger
The issue of inflammatory diseases of subcutis and its mimicries is generally considered a difficult field of dermatopathology. Yet, in my experience, with appropriate biopsies and good clinicopathological correlation, a specific diagnosis of panniculitides can usually be made. Thereby, knowledge about some basic anatomic and pathological issues is essential. Anatomy differentiates within the panniculus between the fatty lobules separated by fibrous septa. Pathologically, inflammation of panniculus is defined and recognized by an inflammatory process which leads to tissue damage and necrosis...
August 2013: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Ursula Pielasinski, Salma Machan, Diana Camacho, Africa Juárez, Mabel Cedeño, José Antonio Ruiz Maciá, Luis Requena
Postirradiation pseudosclerodermatous panniculitis is a rare panniculitic disorder induced by radiotherapy. Clinically, it consists of an indurate plaque localized on the irradiated area that may appear months or even years after radiotherapy was administered. Histopathologically, postirradiation pseudosclerodermatous panniculitis is characterized by a mostly lobular panniculitis without vasculitis, with lipophagic granuloma involving the fat lobules, a variable inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells and sclerotic thickening of the connective tissue septa of the subcutis...
February 2013: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Carlos Santonja, Inés Gonzalo, Marta Feito, MaríaJosé Beato-Merino, Luis Requena
We describe the clinical, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings in an additional case of lipoatrophic panniculitis selectively involving the ankles in a 12-year-old boy. This idiopathic, rarely reported entity is presumed to have an autoimmune pathogenesis. Histological findings are a lipophagic lobular panniculits, that in our case featured focally increased numbers of lymphocytes rimming the adipocytes, and infiltration of vascular walls by mildly atypical lymphoid cells, raising the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma...
May 2012: American Journal of Dermatopathology
I Moulonguet, P Braun-Arduz, F Plantier, N Lerolle, A Petit
BACKGROUND: Lipoatrophic panniculitis is generally considered to be a rare disease affecting children. We report a case involving this condition in an adult patient presenting with striking clinical features and responding to hydroxychloroquine therapy. We discuss the nosological relationship between lipoatrophic panniculitis and connective tissue panniculitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 62-year-old woman was referred to our institution with a six-month history of painful erythematous nodules and plaques on the calves, thighs, buttocks, breasts, abdomen and arms...
October 2011: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Z Lamam Bennani, L Boussofara, M Denguezli, N Ghariani, W Saidi, B Sriha, C Belajouza, R Nouira
BACKGROUND: Annular lipoatrophy of the ankles (ALA) is an extremely rare form of localized lipoatrophy characterized by atrophy of subcutaneous fat. We report a case of annular atrophy of the ankles associated with a history of diabetes and Graves' disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 22-year-old woman with a history of Graves' disease and diabetes consulted for annular lesions of ankles which had appeared three years earlier. She had suddenly developed erythematous annular plaques on the right ankle...
June 2011: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Jesús Bellido-Casado, Vicente Plaza, César Díaz, Carme Geli, José Domínguez, Gisela Margarit, Montserrat Torrejón, Jordi Giner
INTRODUCTION: There is no information available regarding the relationship between the respiratory symptoms or lung function and bronchial inflammation, measured by induced sputum. OBJECTIVES: Description of the clinical characteristics, radiographic images and lung function of patients suffering from Primary Sjögren Syndrome (PSS), and to assess the relationship with the inflammatory airway profile. METHODS: We analysed clinical, radiology, lung function tests, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammatory data in the induced sputum from 36 consecutive patients with PSS...
July 2011: Archivos de Bronconeumología
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