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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522412/athero-inflammatory-nanotherapeutics-ferulic-acid-based-poly-anhydride-ester-nanoparticles-attenuate-foam-cell-formation-by-regulating-macrophage-lipogenesis-and-reactive-oxygen-species-generation
#1
Rebecca A Chmielowski, Dalia S Abdelhamid, Jonathan J Faig, Latrisha K Petersen, Carol R Gardner, Kathryn E Uhrich, Laurie B Joseph, Prabhas V Moghe
Enhanced bioactive anti-oxidant formulations are critical for treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. A hallmark of early atherosclerosis is the uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by macrophages, which results in foam cell and plaque formation in the arterial wall. The hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties of polyphenol compounds make them attractive targets for treatment of atherosclerosis. However, high concentrations of antioxidants can reverse their anti-atheroprotective properties and cause oxidative stress within the artery...
May 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522295/reversal-of-adipose-tissue-loss-by-probucol-in-mice-with-deficiency-of-both-scavenger-receptor-class-b-type-1-and-ldl-receptor-on-high-fat-diet
#2
Xin Guo, Jiawei Liao, Xiaomin Huang, Yuhui Wang, Wei Huang, George Liu
Scavenger receptor class B type 1(SR-B1) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) play vital roles in cholesterol homeostasis. Previous studies indicated a strong link between cholesterol and adipose tissue (AT). In this study, adult male SR-B1 and LDLR double knockout (DKO) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. Interestingly, we found severe loss of AT in DKO mice fed with HFD. To reverse the AT loss in DKO mice, 1% probucol was added in HFD. In DKO mice on HFD, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and free cholesterol (FC) levels were increased 6 and 15 folds respectively compared with wild type (WT) mice...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515432/high-salt-intake-negatively-regulates-fat-deposition-in-mouse
#3
Huanxian Cui, Shuyan Yang, Maiqing Zheng, Ranran Liu, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
High-salt (HS) intake contributes to hypertension and cardiopathy, but the effect of HS on fat deposition is controversial. Feed intake, fat mass, the percentage of abdominal fat, heat production, rate of oxygen consumption and the respiratory exchange ratio of mice on a HS diet were significantly decreased (P < 0.01 or 0.05) compared with mice on a normal-salt (NS) diet. An in vitro experiment with differentiating pre-adipocytes showed reduced fat deposition in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (>0...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513320/crispr-cas9-based-pten-knock-out-and-sleeping-beauty-transposon-mediated-nras-knock-in-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-mice
#4
Mingming Gao, Dexi Liu
Both Pten and Nras are downstream mediators of receptor tyrosine kinase activation that plays important roles in controlling cell survival and proliferation. Here, we investigated whether and how Pten loss cross-talks with Nras activation in driving liver cancer development in mice. Somatic disruption of hepatic Pten and overexpression of Nras were achieved in out-bred immunocompetent CD-1 mice through a hydrodynamic delivery of plasmids carrying Sleeping Beauty transposon-based integration of Nras and the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Pten knock-out system...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507343/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-vascular-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-are-exacerbated-by-trail-deletion-in-mice
#5
Siân P Cartland, Hanis H Harith, Scott W Genner, Lei Dang, Victoria C Cogger, Melissa Vellozzi, Belinda A Di Bartolo, Shane R Thomas, Leon A Adams, Mary M Kavurma
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates steatosis, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and liver cirrhosis, associating with diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is protective of CVD. We aimed to determine whether TRAIL protects against insulin resistance, NAFLD and vascular injury. Twelve-week high fat diet (HFD)-fed Trail (-/-) mice had increased plasma cholesterol, insulin and glucose compared to wildtype. Insulin tolerance was impaired with TRAIL-deletion, with reduced p-Akt, GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501436/identification-of-the-bovine-hsl-gene-expression-profiles-and-its-association-with-fatty-acid-composition-and-fat-deposition-traits
#6
Xibi Fang, Zhihui Zhao, Ping Jiang, Haibin Yu, Hang Xiao, Runjun Yang
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an intracellular neutral lipase capable of hydrolysing a variety of esters and is considered to be a candidate gene affecting fat deposition traits. Gene expression profiles of HSL were analysed in various adipose tissues of cattle, and the effect of HSL on lipid metabolism genes was analysed by a PCR array. Novel polymorphisms were identified within the HSL regulatory domain by sequencing, and the relationship between HSL variants and fat deposition traits was analysed. HSL mRNA was highly expressed in the subcutaneous and visceral fat of cattle...
May 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501397/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-acetate-on-milk-fat-synthesis-and-adipose-lipogenesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#7
N Urrutia, K J Harvatine
During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression (MFD), nutrients are spared from milk fat synthesis and are available for other metabolic uses. Acetate is the major carbon source spared and it may increase lipid synthesis in adipose tissue during MFD. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the amount of acetate spared during CLA-induced MFD on adipose tissue lipogenesis. Nine multiparous, lactating, ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (244 ± 107 d in milk; 25 ± 8...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500902/rna-sequencing-and-pathway-analysis-reveal-alteration-of-hepatic-steroid-biosynthesis-and-retinol-metabolism-by-tributyltin-exposure-in-male-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#8
Jiliang Zhang, Chunnuan Zhang, Ping Sun, Maoxian Huang, Mingzhen Fan, Min Liu
Tributyltin (TBT) is widely spread in aquatic ecosystems. Although adverse effects of TBT on reproduction and lipogenesis are observed in fishes, the underlying mechanisms, especially in livers, are still scarce and inconclusive. Thus, RNA-sequencing runs were performed on the hepatic libraries of adult male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) after TBT exposure for 60d. After differentially expressed genes were identified, enrichment analysis and validation by quantitative real-time PCR were conducted. The results showed that TBT up-regulated the profile of hepatic genes in the steroid biosynthesis pathway and down-regulated the profile of hepatic genes in the retinol metabolism pathway...
April 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499814/selected-cholesterol-biosynthesis-inhibitors-produce-accumulation-of-the-intermediate-ff-mas-that-targets-nucleus-and-activates-lxr%C3%AE-in-hepg2-cells
#9
Leonardo Gatticchi, Bruno Cerra, Paolo Scarpelli, Lara Macchioni, Bartolomeo Sebastiani, Antimo Gioiello, Rita Roberti
Sterol intermediates of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway have drawn attention for novel biological activities. Follicular fluid meiosis activating sterol (FF-MAS) is a LXRα ligand and a potential modulator of physiologic processes regulated by nuclear receptors, such as lipid homeostasis and cell proliferation. In this work, we established a model to selectively accumulate FF-MAS in HepG2 cells, by using a combination of the inhibitors AY9944 and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to block C14-sterol reductases and the downstream C4-demethylase complex...
May 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499082/exacerbation-of-liver-steatosis-following-exposure-to-famine-and-overnutrition
#10
Zhiyuan Ning, Kun Zhang, Li Zhao, You Lu, Honglin Sun, Chi Chen, Xiaomin Nie, Meng Lu, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
SCOPE: People suffering from famine in early life and overnutrition in adulthood may have an increased risk for liver steatosis. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of early nutrition restriction and overnutrition on de novo lipogenesis in the liver. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three-week-old male rats were food restricted for 4 weeks and refed a high-fat or normal-fat diet individually in metabolic cages for 9 weeks. Weight-matched groups were also set up...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498495/oleaginous-yeasts-promising-platforms-for-the-production-of-oleochemicals-and-biofuels
#11
José L Adrio
Oleaginous yeasts have a unique physiology that makes them the best suited hosts for the production of lipids, oleochemicals and diesel-like fuels. Their high lipogenesis, capability of growing on many different carbon sources (including lignocellulosic sugars), easy large-scale cultivation, and an increasing number of genetic tools are some of the advantages that have encouraged their use to develop sustainable processes. This mini-review summarizes the metabolic engineering strategies developed in oleaginous yeasts within the last two years to improve process metrics (titer, yield and productivity) for the production of lipids, free fatty acids, fatty acid-based chemicals (eg...
May 12, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496143/serum-metabolomic-profiles-for-breast-cancer-diagnosis-grading-and-staging-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#12
Naila Irum Hadi, Qamar Jamal, Ayesha Iqbal, Fouzia Shaikh, Saleem Somroo, Syed Ghulam Musharraf
Detection of metabolic signature for breast cancer (BC) has the potential to improve patient prognosis. This study identified potentially significant metabolites differentiating between breast cancer patients and healthy controls to help in diagnosis, grading, staging and determination of neoadjuvant status. Serum was collected from 152 pre-operative breast cancer (BC) patients and 155 healthy controls in this case-controlled study. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to obtain metabolic profiles followed by chemometric analysis with the identification of significantly differentiated metabolites including 7 for diagnosis, 18 for grading, 23 for staging, 15 for stage III subcategory and 10 for neoadjuvant status (p-value < 0...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492976/squalene-promotes-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-macrophage-and-hepatocyte-cells-via-activation-of-liver-x-receptor-lxr-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE
#13
Hoang Thi Minh Hien, Nguyen Cam Ha, Le Thi Thom, Dang Diem Hong
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of squalene on liver X receptors (LXRs) that regulate target genes associated with reverse cholesterol transport and thus control whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. RESULTS: To examine the effect of squalene on liver X receptors (LXRs) that regulate target genes associated with reverse cholesterol transport and thus control whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Squalene significantly stimulated the transactivation of liver X receptor modulator LXRα and LXRβ...
May 10, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490809/hepatic-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-is-critical-for-regulation-of-gluconeogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism-in-males
#14
Shuiqing Qiu, Juliana Torrens Vazquez, Erin Boulger, Haiyun Liu, Ping Xue, Mehboob Ali Hussain, Andrew Wolfe
Impaired estrogens action is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in animal models and humans. We sought to determine whether disruption of hepatic estrogens action in adult male mice could recapitulate aspects of the metabolic syndrome to understand the mechanistic basis for the phenotype. We found 17β-estradiol (E2) inhibited hepatic gluconeogenic genes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck-1) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and this effect was absent in mice lacking liver estrogen receptor α (Esr1) (LERKO mice)...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490610/mechanisms-of-insulin-resistance-in-primary-and-secondary-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#15
Tomas Jelenik, Kirti Kaul, Gilles Séquaris, Ulrich Flögel, Esther Phielix, Jörg Kotzka, Birgit Knebel, Pia Fahlbusch, Tina Hörbelt, Stefan Lehr, Anna Lena Reinbeck, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Irene Esposito, Gerald I Shulman, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and may result primarily from increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (PRIM) or secondarily from adipose-tissue lipolysis (SEC). We studied mice with hepatocyte- or adipocyte-specific sterol regulatory-element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) overexpression as models of PRIM and SEC. PRIM mice featured increased lipogenic gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. Their selective, liver-specific insulin resistance was associated with increased C18:1-diacylglycerol (DAG) content and protein kinase C (PKC)ε translocation...
May 10, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489050/an-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-of-the-effects-of-caloric-and-non-caloric-sweeteners-on-liver-lipid-metabolism-in-rats
#16
Sharon Janssens, Jolita Ciapaite, Justina C Wolters, Natal A van Riel, Klaas Nicolay, Jeanine J Prompers
We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or solutions containing 13% (w/v) glucose, 13% fructose, or 0.4% aspartame. After 7 weeks, in vivo hepatic dietary lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis were assessed with proton-observed, carbon-13-edited MRS combined with (13)C-labeled lipids and (13)C-labeled glucose, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487438/the-niemann-pick-c1-gene-interacts-with-a-high-fat-diet-to-promote-weight-gain-through-differential-regulation-of-central-energy-metabolism-pathways
#17
Joseph J Castillo, David Jelinek, Hao Wei, Nicholas P Gannon, Roger A Vaughan, L John Horwood, F John Meaney, Randi Garcia-Smith, Kristina A Trujillo, Randall A Heidenreich, David Meyre, Robert A Orlando, Renee C LeBoeuf, William S Garver
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported that common variation in the human Niemann-Pick C1 gene (NPC1) is associated with morbid adult obesity. This study was confirmed using our BALB/cJ Npc1 mouse model, whereby heterozygous mice (Npc1(+/-)) with decreased gene dosage were susceptible to weight gain when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to homozygous normal mice (Npc1(+/+)) fed the same diet. The objective for our current study was to validate this Npc1 gene-diet interaction using statistical modeling with fitted growth trajectories, conduct body weight analyses for different measures, and define the physiological basis responsible for weight gain...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487104/sugar-sweetened-beverages-consumption-is-associated-with-abdominal-obesity-risk-in-diabetic-patients
#18
Razieh Anari, Reza Amani, Masoud Veissi
AIM: Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are any beverages containing added-sugar and supposed to increase body lipogenesis and fat accumulation in healthy subjects. This study was performed to assess the possible association between SSBs consumption and obesity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. METHODS: T2DM adults with no insulin treatment entered the study. Abdominal obesity and general adiposity were determined using waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), respectively...
April 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483921/lack-of-liver-glycogen-causes-hepatic-insulin-resistance-and-steatosis-in-mice
#19
Jose M Irimia, Catalina M Meyer, Dyann M Segvich, Sneha Surendran, Anna A DePaoli-Roach, Nuria Morral, Peter J Roach
Disruption of the Gys2 gene that encodes the liver isoform of glycogen synthase generates a mouse (LGSKO mouse) with an almost complete lack of hepatic glycogen, impaired glucose disposal and a pre-disposition to enter the fasted state. This study explores how the lack of liver glycogen increases fat accumulation and the development of liver insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in LGSKO mice is reduced in liver, but not in muscle, suggesting an organ specific defect. Phosphorylation of several components of the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, IRS1, Akt, and GSK3, were decreased in LGSKO mice and, after insulin stimulation, their responses were significantly suppressed, both temporally and in an insulin dose response...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483554/downregulation-of-mir-192-causes-hepatic-steatosis-and-lipid-accumulation-by-inducing-srebf1-novel-mechanism-for-bisphenol-a-triggered-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Yi Lin, Dongxiao Ding, Qiansheng Huang, Qiong Liu, Haoyang Lu, Yanyang Lu, Yulang Chi, Xia Sun, Guozhu Ye, Huimin Zhu, Jie Wei, Sijun Dong
Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Given that microRNA (miRNA) is recognized as a key regulator of lipid metabolism and a potential mediator of environmental cues, this study was designed to explore whether exposure to BPA-triggered abnormal steatosis and whether lipid accumulation in the liver could be modulated by miR-192. We showed that male post-weaning C57BL/6 mice exposed to 50μg/kg/day of BPA by oral gavage for 90days displayed a NAFLD-like phenotype...
May 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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