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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100883/soy-protein-isolate-suppresses-lipodystrophy-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-model-mice
#1
Koji Nagao, Akiko Matsumoto, Shunichi Kai, Tomoko Kayashima, Teruyoshi Yanagita
Lipodystrophies are acquired and genetic disorders characterized by the complete or partial absence of body fat with a line of metabolic disorders, including hepatic steatosis. Because soy protein isolate (SPI) has been reported to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in animals and humans, we explored the effect of SPI on the pathophysiology of hepatic lipid accumutaion in a diet-induced lipodystrophy model mice. Four weeks of the lipodystrophy model diet induced hepatic lipid accumulation concomitant with marked deficiencies of adipose tissue and serum adipocytokines in mice...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099844/acetate-recapturing-by-nuclear-acetyl-coa-synthetase-2-prevents-loss-of-histone-acetylation-during-oxygen-and-serum-limitation
#2
Vinay Bulusu, Sergey Tumanov, Evdokia Michalopoulou, Niels J van den Broek, Gillian MacKay, Colin Nixon, Sandeep Dhayade, Zachary T Schug, Johan Vande Voorde, Karen Blyth, Eyal Gottlieb, Alexei Vazquez, Jurre J Kamphorst
Acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic intermediate with an important role in transcriptional regulation. The nuclear-cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) was found to sustain the growth of hypoxic tumor cells. It generates acetyl-CoA from acetate, but exactly which pathways it supports is not fully understood. Here, quantitative analysis of acetate metabolism reveals that ACSS2 fulfills distinct functions depending on its cellular location. Exogenous acetate uptake is controlled by expression of both ACSS2 and the mitochondrial ACSS1, and ACSS2 supports lipogenesis...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096887/thylakoids-reduce-body-fat-and-fat-cell-size-by-binding-to-dietary-fat-making-it-less-available-for-absorption-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#3
Karin G Stenkula, Eva-Lena Stenblom, Caroline Montelius, Emil Egecioglu, Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson
BACKGROUND: Dietary thylakoids derived from spinach have beneficial effects on body fat accumulation and blood lipids as demonstrated in humans and rodents. Important mechanisms established include delayed fat digestion in the intestine, without causing steatorrhea, and increased fatty acid oxidation in intestinal cells. The objective of our study was to elucidate if increased fecal fat excretion is an important mechanism to normalize adipose tissue metabolism during high-fat feeding in mice supplemented with thylakoids...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096127/formation-of-fructose-mediated-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-their-roles-in-metabolic-and-inflammatory-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Alejandro Gugliucci
Fructose is associated with the biochemical alterations that promote the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. Its consumption has increased in parallel with MetS. It is metabolized by the liver, where it stimulates de novo lipogenesis. The triglycerides synthesized lead to hepatic insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Fructose-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be involved via the Maillard reaction. Fructose has not been a main focus of glycation research because of the difficulty in measuring its adducts, and, more importantly, because although it is 10 times more reactive than glucose, its plasma concentration is only 1% of that of glucose...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095627/melatonin-regulates-lipid-metabolism-in-porcine-oocytes
#5
Jun-Xue Jin, Sanghoon Lee, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Geon A Kim, Byeong Chun Lee
It is being increasingly recognized that the processes of lipogenesis and lipolysis are important for providing an essential energy source during oocyte maturation and embryo development. Recent studies demonstrated that melatonin has a role in lipid metabolism regulation, including lipogenesis, lipolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of melatonin on lipid metabolism during porcine oocyte in vitro maturation. Melatonin treatment significantly enhanced the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and upregulated gene expression related to lipogenesis (ACACA, FASN, PPARγ, and SREBF1)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094767/impaired-sumoylation-of-nuclear-receptor-lrh-1-promotes-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Sokrates Stein, Vera Lemos, Pan Xu, Hadrien Demagny, Xu Wang, Dongryeol Ryu, Veronica Jimenez, Fatima Bosch, Thomas F Lüscher, Maaike H Oosterveer, Kristina Schoonjans
Hepatic steatosis is caused by metabolic imbalances that could be explained in part by an increase in de novo lipogenesis that results from increased sterol element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) activity. The nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) is an important regulator of intermediary metabolism in the liver, but its role in regulating lipogenesis is not well understood. Here, we have assessed the contribution of LRH-1 SUMOylation to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice expressing a SUMOylation-defective mutant of LRH-1 (LRH-1 K289R mice) developed NAFLD and early signs of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) when challenged with a lipogenic, high-fat, high-sucrose diet...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092906/association-between-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-and-de-novo-lipogenesis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Bahareh Amirkalali, Masoud Reza Sohrabi, Ali Esrafily, Mahmoud Djalali, Ali Gholami, Payam Hosseinzadeh, Hossein Keyvani, Farzad Shidfar, Farhad Zamani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088959/-effect-of-exendin-4-on-lipid-deposition-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#8
H Y Cao, F Xu, Z L Chen, B S Lin, X B Zheng, S H Yuan, H Liang, J P Weng
Objective: To investigate the effect of exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on reducing lipid deposition and improving insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and the underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: Twelve male C57BL/6J mice were challenged with HFD for 12 weeks to induce obesity and then randomly divided into two groups: exendin-4 group (intraperitoneal injection of 24 nmol·kg(-1)·d(-1) exendin-4 for 4 weeks) and HFD group (intraperitoneal injection of normal saline for 4 weeks), with 6 mice in each group...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088289/effects-of-treatment-with-sucrose-in-drinking-water-on-liver-histology-lipogenesis-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-rats-fed-high-fiber-diet
#9
Tomislav Mašek, Natalija Filipović, Ana Vuica, Kristina Starčević
We studied the influence of sucrose in drinking water on liver histology, fatty acid profile and lipogenic genes expression in rats maintained on high-fiber. The experimental groups were: control group (water) and sucrose group (sucrose solution in drinking water, 30% w/v). Liver histology of sucrose treated rats revealed steatosis and increased number of αSMA immunoreactive cells without the signs of fibrosis. Sucrose treatment increased de novo lipogenesis, lipid peroxidation and MUFA content and decreased PUFA content, C18:2n6 and C20:4n6 content in total phospholipids and phosphatidylethanolamine and C18:2n6 content in cardiolipin...
January 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087808/identification-of-a-novel-liver-x-receptor-agonist-that-regulates-the-expression-of-key-cholesterol-homeostasis-genes-with-distinct-pharmacological-characteristics
#10
Ni Li, Xiao Wang, Yanni Xu, Yuan Lin, Ningyu Zhu, Peng Liu, Duo Lu, Shuyi Si
Activation of Liver X receptor (LXR) is associated with cholesterol metabolism and anti-inflammatory processes, which makes beneficial to anti-atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, existing agonists which target LXR, for example TO901317, are related to unwanted side-effects. In the present study, using a screening method we identified IMB-808, which displayed potent dual LXRα/β agonistic activity. In vitro, IMB-808 effectively increased the expressing quantity of genes related to reverse cholesterol transport process as well as those associated with cholesterol metabolism pathway in multiple cell lines...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081360/pinus-densiflora-bark-extract-pinexol-decreased-adiposity-in-mice-by-down-regulation-of-hepatic-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-white-adipose-tissue
#11
Hyemyoung Ahn, Gwang-Woong Go
PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti3 inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081256/inhibition-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-1-acc1-and-2-acc2-reduces-proliferation-and-de-novo-lipogenesis-of-egfrviii-human-glioblastoma-cells
#12
Jessica E C Jones, William P Esler, Rushi Patel, Adhiraj Lanba, Nicholas B Vera, Jeffrey A Pfefferkorn, Cecile Vernochet
Tumor cell proliferation and migration processes are regulated by multiple metabolic pathways including glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. Since acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is at the junction of lipids synthesis and oxidative metabolic pathways, we investigated whether use of a dual ACC inhibitor would provide a potential therapy against certain lipogenic cancers. The impact of dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibition was investigated using a dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibitor as well as dual siRNA knock down on the cellular viability and metabolism of two glioblastoma multiform cancer cell lines, U87 and a more aggressive form, U87 EGFRvIII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081218/adiponectin-signaling-regulates-lipid-production-in-human-sebocytes
#13
Yu Ra Jung, Jin-Hyup Lee, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Young Lee, Young-Joon Seo, Chang-Deok Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Seung-Phil Hong, Seong-Jun Seo, Seong-Jin Kim, Myung Im
Adiponectin plays important roles in metabolic function, inflammation and multiple biological activities in various tissues. However, evidence for adiponectin signaling in sebaceous glands is lacking, and its role remains to be clarified. This study investigated the role of adiponectin in lipid production in sebaceous glands in an experimental study of human sebocytes. We demonstrated that human sebaceous glands in vivo and sebocytes in vitro express adiponectin receptor and that adiponectin increased cell proliferation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077733/identification-of-potential-plasma-biomarkers-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-integrating-transcriptomics-and-proteomics-in-laying-hens
#14
Meng-Tsz Tsai, Yu-Jen Chen, Ching-Yi Chen, Mong-Hsun Tsai, Chia-Li Han, Yu-Ju Chen, Harry J Mersmann, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Prevalent worldwide obesity is associated with increased incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome. The identification of noninvasive biomarkers for NAFLD is of recent interest. Because primary de novo lipogenesis occurs in chicken liver as in human liver, adult chickens with age-associated steatosis resembling human NAFLD is an appealing animal model. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to screen potential biomarkers in the chicken model for NAFLD by transcriptomic and proteomic analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076839/chemotherapy-can-induce-weight-normalization-of-morbidly-obese-mice-despite-undiminished-ingestion-of-high-fat-diet
#15
Cheryl E Myers, Dominique B Hoelzinger, Tiffany N Truong, Lindsey A Chew, Arpita Myles, Leena Chaudhuri, Jan B Egan, Jun Liu, Sandra J Gendler, Peter A Cohen
Morbidly obese patients who accomplish substantial weight loss often display a long-term decline in their resting metabolism, causing even relatively restrained caloric intake to trigger a relapse to the obese state. Paradoxically, we observed that morbidly obese mice receiving chemotherapy for cancer experienced spontaneous weight reduction despite unabated ingestion of their high fat diet (HFD). This response to chemotherapy could also be achieved in morbidly obese mice without cancer. Optimally dosed methotrexate (MTX) or cyclophosphamide (CY) enabled the mice to completely and safely normalize their body weight despite continued consumption of obesogenic quantities of HFD...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070205/plasticity-of-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-fasting-and-refeeding-in-male-mice
#16
Hao-Neng Tang, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Shu-Wen Tan, Yue Guo, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Hou-De Zhou
BACKGROUND: Fasting is the most widely prescribed and self-imposed strategy for treating excessive weight gain and obesity, and has been shown to exert a number of beneficial effects. The aim of the present study was to determine the exact role of fasting and subsequent refeeding on fat distribution in mice. METHODS: C57/BL6 mice fasted for 24 to 72 h and were then subjected to refeeding for 72 h. At 24, 48 and 72 h of fasting, and 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of refeeding, the mice were sacrificed, and serum and various adipose tissues were collected...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069950/chronic-innate-immune-activation-of-tbk1-suppresses-mtorc1-activity-and-dysregulates-cellular-metabolism
#17
Maroof Hasan, Vijay K Gonugunta, Nicole Dobbs, Aktar Ali, Guillermo Palchik, Maria A Calvaruso, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Nan Yan
Three-prime repair exonuclease 1 knockout (Trex1(-/-)) mice suffer from systemic inflammation caused largely by chronic activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes-TANK-binding kinase-interferon regulatory factor 3 (cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3) signaling pathway. We showed previously that Trex1-deficient cells have reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we performed detailed metabolic analysis in Trex1(-/-) mice and cells that revealed both cellular and systemic metabolic defects, including reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis, energy expenditure, and fat metabolism...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068143/adaptations-to-excess-choline-in-insulin-resistant-and-pcyt2-deficient-skeletal-muscle
#18
Adrian Taylor, Laila Cigana Schenkel, Maiya Yokich, Marica Bakovic
It was hypothesized that choline supplementation in insulin resistant (IR) CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase deficient (Pcyt2(+/-)) mice would ameliorate muscle function by remodeling glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Pcyt2(+/-) mice either received no treatment or were allowed access to 2 mg/mL choline in drinking water for 4 weeks. Skeletal muscle was harvested from choline treated and untreated mice. Lipid analysis and metabolic gene expression and signaling pathways were compared between untreated Pcyt2(+/-) mice, treated Pcyt2(+/-) mice, and Pcyt2(+/+) mice...
September 6, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064013/changes-in-liver-proteins-of-rats-fed-standard-and-high-fat-and-sucrose-diets-induced-by-fish-omega-3-pufas-and-their-combination-with-grape-polyphenols-according-to-quantitative-proteomics
#19
Lucía Méndez, Sergio Ciordia, María Soledad Fernández, Silvia Juárez, Antonio Ramos, Manuel Pazos, José M Gallardo, Josep Lluís Torres, M Rosa Nogués, Isabel Medina
This study considered the physiological modulation of liver proteins due to the supplementation with fish oils under two dietary backgrounds: standard or high in fat and sucrose (HFHS), and their combination with grape polyphenols. By using a quantitative proteomics approach, we showed that the capacity of the supplements for regulating proteins depended on the diet; namely, 10 different proteins changed into standard diets, while 45 changed into the HFHS diets and only scarcely proteins were found altered in common...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059952/atp-citrate-lyase-genetics-molecular-biology-and-therapeutic-target-for-dyslipidemia
#20
Amy C Burke, Murray W Huff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) has re-emerged as a drug target for LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. We review ACLY as a therapeutic strategy, its genetics, its molecular and cellular biology, and also its inhibition. RECENT FINDINGS: ACLY is a critical enzyme linking glucose catabolism to lipogenesis by providing acetyl-CoA from mitochondrial citrate for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Human genetic variants have been associated with enhanced growth and survival of several cancers, and with attenuated plasma triglyceride responses to dietary fish oil...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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