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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#1
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775748/microrna-204-5p-regulates-3t3-l1-preadipocyte-proliferation-apoptosis-and-differentiation
#2
Jingjing Du, Peiwen Zhang, Mailin Gan, Xue Zhao, Yan Xu, Qiang Li, Yanzhi Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Mingzhou Li, Jinyong Wang, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Obesity due to excessive lipid accumulation is closely associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and inflammation. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie adipogenesis is crucial to develop treatments for diseases related to obesity. Here, we found that the microRNA-204-5p (miR-204-5p) was expressed at low levels in fat tissues from obese mice fed long-term with a high-fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-204-5p in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly inhibited or promoted 3T3-L1 proliferation, respectively, an effect mediated by regulating cell proliferation factors...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774529/inhibition-of-prmt3-activity-selectively-impairs-lxr-driven-transcription-of-hepatic-lipogenic-genes-in-vivo
#3
Joya E Nahon, Christianne Groeneveldt, Janine J Geerling, Miranda Van Eck, Menno Hoekstra
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Agonists for the liver X receptor (LXR) are considered promising therapeutic moieties in cholesterol-driven diseases by promoting cellular cholesterol efflux pathways. However, current clinical application of these agents is hampered by the concomitant LXR-induced activation of a lipogenic transcriptional network, leading to hepatic steatosis. Recent studies have suggested that protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) may act as a selective co-activator of LXR activity...
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773670/high-%C3%AE-tocopherol-dosing-increases-lipid-metabolism-by-changing-redox-state-in-damaged-rat-gastric-mucosa-and-liver-after-ethanol-treatment
#4
Marisela Olguín-Martínez, Diego R Hernández-Espinosa, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
Regeneration of ethanol-injured rat gastric mucosa must undergo changes in major metabolic pathways to achieve DNA replication and cell proliferation. These events are highly dependent on glucose utilization and inhibited by vitamin E (α-tocopherol) administration. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing lipid metabolism in the gastric mucosa and ethanol-induced gastric damage and the effect of α-tocopherol administration. For this, rates of fatty acid β-oxidation and lipogenesis were tested in gastric mucosa samples...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773061/development-of-novel-therapeutics-targeting-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-mutations-in-cancer
#5
Horrick Sharma
Isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (αKG). IDH 1 and IDH2 regulate several cellular processes, including oxidative respiration, glutamine metabolism, lipogenesis, and cellular defense against oxidative damage. Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have recently been observed in multiple tumor types, including gliomas, acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and chondrosarcoma. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations involve a gain in neomorphic activity that catalyze αKG conversion to (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG)...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769325/the-ancient-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-signaling-system-is-a-master-regulator-of-energy-and-carbon-metabolism-in-algae
#6
Rishiram Ramanan, Quynh-Giao Tran, Dae-Hyun Cho, Jae-Eun Jeong, Byung-Hyuk Kim, Sang-Yoon Shin, Sae-Hae Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Dae-Soo Kim, Seon-Jin Lee, Jose L Crespo, Hee-Gu Lee, Hee-Mock Oh, Hee-Sik Kim
Algae undergo a complete metabolic transformation under stress by arresting cell growth, inducing autophagy, and hyper-accumulating biofuel precursors such as triacylglycerols and starch. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this stress-induced transformation are still unclear. Here, we use biochemical, mutational, and 'omics' approaches to demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling mediates the homeostasis of energy molecules and influences carbon metabolism in algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the inhibition and knockdown (KD) of algal class III PI3K led to significantly decreased cell growth, altered cell morphology, and higher lipid and starch contents...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768196/loss-of-abhd15-impairs-the-anti-lipolytic-action-of-insulin-by-altering-pde3b-stability-and-contributes-to-insulin-resistance
#7
Wenmin Xia, Ariane R Pessentheiner, Dina C Hofer, Melina Amor, Renate Schreiber, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Thomas O Eichmann, Evelyn Walenta, Bianca Itariu, Gerhard Prager, Hubert Hackl, Thomas Stulnig, Dagmar Kratky, Thomas Rülicke, Juliane G Bogner-Strauss
Elevated circulating fatty acids (FAs) contribute to obesity-associated metabolic complications, but the mechanisms by which insulin suppresses lipolysis are poorly understood. We show that α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 15 (ABHD15) is required for the anti-lipolytic action of insulin in white adipose tissue (WAT). Neither insulin nor glucose treatments can suppress FA mobilization in global and conditional Abhd15-knockout (KO) mice. Accordingly, insulin signaling is impaired in Abhd15-KO adipocytes, as indicated by reduced AKT phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and de novo lipogenesis...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751049/increased-butyrate-priming-in-the-gut-stalls-microbiome-associated-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-hepatic-metabolic-reprogramming-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#8
Ratanesh Kumar Seth, Diana Kimono, Firas Alhasson, Sutapa Sarkar, Muayad Albadrani, Stephen K Lasley, Ronnie Horner, Patricia Janulecewicz, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Kimberly Sullivan, Saurabh Chatterjee
Most of the associated pathologies in Gulf War Illness (GWI) have been ascribed to chemical and pharmaceutical exposures during the war. Since an increased number of veterans complain of gastrointestinal (GI), neuroinflammatory and metabolic complications as they age and there are limited options for a cure, the present study was focused to assess the role of butyrate, a short chain fatty acid for attenuating GWI-associated GI and metabolic complications. Results in a GWI-mouse model of permethrin and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) exposure showed that oral butyrate restored gut homeostasis and increased GPR109A receptor copies in the small intestine (SI)...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747118/hydroxytyrosol-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-in-diet-induced-obesity-mice
#9
Ningning Wang, Yang Liu, Yanan Ma, Deliang Wen
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a principal organelle responsible for energy and nutrient management. Its dysfunction has been viewed in the context of obesity and related glucolipid metabolic disorders. However, therapeutic approaches to improve ER adaptation and systemic energy balance in obesity are limited. Thus, we examined whether hydroxytyrosol (HT), an important polyphenolic compound found in virgin olive oil, could correct the metabolic impairments in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Here, we found that HT gavage for 10 weeks significantly ameliorated glucose homeostasis and chronic inflammation and decreased hepatic steatosis in DIO mice...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743930/lxr%C3%A9-participates-in-the-mtor-s6k1-srebp-1c-signaling-pathway-during-sodium-palmitate-induced-lipogenesis-in-hepg2-cells
#10
Youping Zhou, Shengjie Yu, Can Cai, Li Zhong, Huihong Yu, Wei Shen
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate how the signaling pathway downstream of mTOR/S6K1 contributes to the regulation of SREBP-1c expression during lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. Methods: The model of steatosis was established using human hepatocytes HepG2 and inducting them with sodium palmitate. mTOR, S6K1 and LXRα were inhibited by rapamycin, PF-4708671 and siRNA-LXRα, respectively. After a variety of different treatment, the levels of intracellular triglycerides, the accumulation of lipid droplets and the expression levels of related genes were detected...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743929/neonatal-overfeeding-induced-glucocorticoid-overexposure-accelerates-hepatic-lipogenesis-in-male-rats
#11
Fan Yang, Yanyan Dai, Cuiting Min, Xiaonan Li
Background: Postnatal overfeeding activates tissue glucocorticoid (GC) activity by up-regulating 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) and increasing sensitivity to high-fat (HF) diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of postnatal overfeeding on GC regulation and lipogenesis in the liver and to observe the impact of GC on hepatocyte lipid metabolism. Methods: In vivo , Male Sprague-Dawley rat pup litters were adjusted to litter sizes of three (small litter, SL) or ten (normal litter, NL) on postnatal day 3 and then given standard chow from postnatal week 3 (W3) to W13...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740221/effect-of-sitagliptin-on-hepatic-histological-activity-and-fibrosis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-patients-a-1-year-randomized-control-trial
#12
Shahinul Alam, Jhumur Ghosh, Golam Mustafa, Mohammad Kamal, Nooruddin Ahmad
Background/purpose: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) expression is directly associated with hepatic lipogenesis and liver injury in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study has been designed to elucidate the histological improvement of NASH with the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin. Materials and methods: In this open-label randomized control trial, paired liver biopsy was taken from 40 NASH patients. Sitagliptin 100 mg was given once daily to the SL group and no sitagliptin was given to the L group for 1 year...
2018: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735021/influence-of-prednisolone-on-parameters-of-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-indices-for-stearoyl-coa-and-%C3%AE-6-desaturase-activity-in-healthy-males-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#13
I G Pranger, D H van Raalte, M Brands, M H A Muskiet, I P Kema, M J Serlie, M Diamant, S J L Bakker, F A J Muskiet
Glucocorticoid treatment decreases liver insulin sensitivity and may modify fatty acid metabolism. We investigated the influence of oral prednisolone on indices for de novo lipogenesis (DNLi), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCDi) and Δ6-desaturase (D6Di) activity in healthy males. In addition, we explored whether the changes may be associated with prednisolone-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Thirty-two healthy young males (mean ± SD age 22 ± 3 years, BMI 22.4 ± 1...
May 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733968/molecular-characterization-of-elongase-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-6-elovl6-genes-in-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus-and-their-potential-roles-in-adaptation-to-cold-temperature
#14
Jingwen Chen, Yun Cui, Jie Yan, Jimin Jiang, Xiaojuan Cao, Jian Gao
Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined...
May 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729371/involvement-of-glucocorticoid-prereceptor-metabolism-and-signaling-in-rat-visceral-adipose-tissue-lipid-metabolism-after-chronic-stress-combined-with-high-fructose-diet
#15
Biljana Bursać, Ana Djordjevic, Nataša Veličković, Danijela Vojnović Milutinović, Snježana Petrović, Ana Teofilović, Ljupka Gligorovska, Frederic Preitner, Luc Tappy, Gordana Matić
Both fructose overconsumption and increased glucocorticoids secondary to chronic stress may contribute to overall dyslipidemia. In this study we specifically assessed the effects and interactions of dietary fructose and chronic stress on lipid metabolism in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week 20% high fructose diet and 4-week chronic unpredictable stress, separately and in combination, on VAT histology, glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism, glucocorticoid receptor subcellular redistribution and expression of major metabolic genes...
May 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727774/effects-of-environmental-stressors-on-lipid-metabolism-in-aquatic-invertebrates
#16
Min-Chul Lee, Jun Chul Park, Jae-Seong Lee
Lipid metabolism is crucial for the survival and propagation of the species, since lipids are an essential cellular component across animal taxa for maintaining homeostasis in the presence of environmental stressors. This review aims to summarize information on the lipid metabolism under environmental stressors in aquatic invertebrates. Fatty acid synthesis from glucose via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway is mostly well-conserved across animal taxa. The structure of free fatty acid (FFA) from both dietary and DNL pathway could be transformed by elongase and desaturase...
April 25, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725525/intake-of-phytic-acid-and-myo-inositol-lowers-hepatic-lipogenic-gene-expression-and-modulates-gut-microbiota-in-rats-fed-a-high-sucrose-diet
#17
Yukako Okazaki, Ayaka Sekita, Tetsuyuki Katayama
Dietary phytic acid (PA) was recently reported by our group to suppress hepatic lipogenic gene expression and modulate gut microbiota in rats fed a high-sucrose (HSC) diet. The present study aimed to investigate whether the modulatory effects of PA depend on the dietary carbohydrate source and are attributed to the myo-inositol (MI) ring of PA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an HSC or a high-starch (HSR) diet with or without 1.02% sodium PA for 12 days. Subsequently, the rats were fed the HSC diet, the HSC diet containing 1...
May 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725424/overexpression-of-atp-citrate-lyase-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-tissues-and-its-effect-on-the-human-renal-carcinoma-cells-in-vitro
#18
Lichen Teng, Yongsheng Chen, Yan Cao, Wentao Wang, Yongpeng Xu, Yanjie Wang, Jiayin Lv, Changfu Li, Yajuan Su
ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) is a key enzyme of lipogenesis in cells. However, ACLY expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and its association with clinicopathological parameters remain unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate ACLY expression levels in RCC and adjacent normal tissues. This study included 33 patients with clear cell RCC (ccRCC). ACLY protein was assayed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting methods. ACLY mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725130/mir-422a-regulates-cellular-metabolism-and-malignancy-by-targeting-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-2-in-gastric-cancer
#19
Zhongyuan He, Zheng Li, Xuan Zhang, Kai Yin, Weizhi Wang, Zhipeng Xu, Bowen Li, Lei Zhang, Jianghao Xu, Guangli Sun, Lu Wang, Qing Li, Xiaoxu Huang, Lu Zhang, Diancai Zhang, Hao Xu, Zekuan Xu
Increasing evidence indicates that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a crucial role in human malignancies. Here, we showed that microRNA-422a (miR-422a) expression was dramatically downregulated in gastric cancer (GC) samples and cell lines compared with normal controls, and that its expression level was inversely related to tumor size and depth of infiltration. Functional studies revealed that the overexpression of miR-422a in GC tumor cells suppressed cell proliferation and migration, and drove a metabolic shift from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation...
May 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723837/effects-of-diethylene-glycol-dibenzoate-and-bisphenol-a-on-the-lipid-metabolism-of-danio-rerio
#20
Stefania Santangeli, Valentina Notarstefano, Francesca Maradonna, Elisabetta Giorgini, Giorgia Gioacchini, Isabel Forner-Piquer, Hamid R Habibi, Oliana Carnevali
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are known to disrupt normal metabolism and can influence the incidence of obesity in animals and humans. EDCs can exert adverse effects at low concentrations, often in a non-monotonic dose-related fashion. Among EDCs, Bisphenol A (BPA) is extensively used in the production of polycarbonate plastic, and is among the most abundant contaminants in the world. Diethylene glycol dibenzoate (DGB), an approved alternative to phthalates in the production of plastic and latex products, however, is less abundant and its effects are almost completely unknown...
April 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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