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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911527/cellular-models-for-the-evaluation-of-the-antiobesity-effect-of-selected-phytochemicals-from%C3%A2-food-and-herbs
#1
REVIEW
Yen-Chen Tung, Pei-Hsuan Hsieh, Min-Hsiung Pan, Chi-Tang Ho
Dietary phytochemicals from food and herbs have been studied for their health benefits for a long time. The incidence of obesity has seen an incredible increase worldwide. Although dieting, along with increased physical activity, seems an easy method in theory to manage obesity, it is hard to apply in real life. Obesity treatment drugs and surgery are not successful or targeted for everyone and can have significant side effects. This low rate of success is the major reason that the overweight as well as the pharmaceutical industry seek alternative methods, including phytochemicals...
January 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904866/imm-h007-a-new-therapeutic-candidate-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-improves-hepatic-steatosis-in-hamsters-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#2
Huijie Shi, Qingchun Wang, Liu Yang, Shouxia Xie, Haibo Zhu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in humans, is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TGs) in hepatocytes. We tested whether 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (IMM-H007) can eliminate hepatic steatosis in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as a model of NAFLD. Compared with HFD-only controls, IMM-H007 treatment significantly lowered serum levels of TG, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in hamsters fed the HFD, with a prominent decrease in levels of serum transaminases and fasting insulin, without affecting fasting glucose levels...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891718/identification-expression-analysis-and-the-regulating-function-on-c-ebps-of-klf10-in-dalian-purple-sea-urchin-strongylocentrotus-nudus
#3
Kaikai Wu, Zhiying Jia, Qi'ai Wang, Zhenlin Wei, Zunchun Zhou, Xiaolin Liu
Accumulating evidence indicates that Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) play important roles in fat biology via the regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). However, KLFs and C/EBPs have not been identified from Strongylocentrotus nudus, and their roles in this species are not clear. In this study, the full-length cDNA of S. nudus KLF10 (SnKLF10) and three cDNA fragments of S. nudus C/EBPs (SnC/EBPs) were obtained. Examination of tissue distribution and expression patterns during gonadal development implied that SnKLF10 and SnC/EBPs play important roles in gonadal lipogenesis...
September 11, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891024/resveratrol-supplementation-improves-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-fed-blunt-snout-bream
#4
Dingdong Zhang, Yanan Yan, Hongyan Tian, Guangzhen Jiang, Xiangfei Li, Wenbin Liu
Here, we aimed to investigate whether resveratrol (RSV) can ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic disorder in fish. Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) with average weight 27.99 ± 0.56 g were fed a normal fat diet (NFD, 5% fat, w/w), a HFD (11% fat), or a HFD supplemented with 0.04, 0.36, or 1.08% RSV for 10 weeks. As expected, fish fed a HFD developed hepatic steatosis, as shown by elevated hepatic and plasma triglycerides, raised whole body fat, intraperitoneal fat ratio and hepatosomatic index, and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
September 10, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888611/comparison-of-mammary-lipid-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-and-goats-fed-diets-supplemented-with-starch-plant-oil-or-fish-oil
#5
L Bernard, P G Toral, Y Chilliard
A direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid (FA) responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression in the bovine has suggested interspecies differences in rumen and mammary lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer some potential mechanisms responsible for the differences in mammary lipogenesis due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887372/the-apolipoprotein-c-iii-gln38lys-variant-associated-with-human-hypertriglyceridemia-is-a-gain-of-function-mutation
#6
Meenakshi Sundaram, Kaitlin R Curtis, Mohsen Amir Alipour, Nicholas D LeBlond, Kaitlyn D Margison, Rebecca A Yaworski, Robin J Parks, Adam D McIntyre, Robert A Hegele, Morgan D Fullerton, Zemin Yao
Recent cell culture and animal studies have suggested expression of human apolipoprotein (apo) C-III in the liver has a profound impact on the triacylglycerol (TAG)-rich VLDL1 production under lipid-rich conditions. The apoC-III Gln38Lys variant was identified in subjects of Mexican origin with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. We postulated that Gln38Lys (C3QK), being a gain-of-function mutation, promotes hepatic VLDL1 assembly/secretion. To test this hypothesis, we expressed C3QK in McA-RH7777 cells and apoc3-null mice to contrast its effect with wildtype apoC-III (C3WT)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883496/overexpression-of-insig-2-inhibits-atypical-antipsychotic-induced-adipogenic-differentiation-and-lipid-biosynthesis-in-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#7
Chien-Chih Chen, Li-Wen Hsu, Kuang-Tzu Huang, Shigeru Goto, Chao-Long Chen, Toshiaki Nakano
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are considered to possess superior efficacy for treating both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia; however, AAP use often causes excessive weight gain and metabolic abnormalities. Recently, several reports have demonstrated that AAPs activate sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). SREBP, SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and insulin-induced gene (Insig) regulate downstream cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, we explored the effects of clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone on SREBP signaling and downstream lipid biosynthesis genes in the early events of adipogenic differentiation in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs)...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878197/fructose-consumption-lipogenesis-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Kasper W Ter Horst, Mireille J Serlie
Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Fructose-derived precursors also act as nutritional regulators of the transcription factors, including ChREBP and SREBP1c, that regulate the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL genes...
September 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874144/circadian-disruption-promotes-tumor-growth-by-anabolic-host-metabolism-experimental-evidence-in-a-rat-model
#9
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Raful Navarro-Espíndola, Mara A Guzmán-Ruíz, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ana López-Bago, Ricardo Lascurain, Cinthya Córdoba-Manilla, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND: Light at night creates a conflicting signal to the biological clock and disrupts circadian physiology. In rodents, light at night increases the risk to develop mood disorders, overweight, disrupted energy metabolism, immune dysfunction and cancer. We hypothesized that constant light (LL) in rats may facilitate tumor growth via disrupted metabolism and increased inflammatory response in the host, inducing a propitious microenvironment for tumor cells. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to LL or a regular light-dark cycle (LD) for 5 weeks...
September 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871635/fatty-acid-synthase-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-feline-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
J Z Walz, J Saha, A Arora, A Khammanivong, M G O'Sullivan, E B Dickerson
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an aggressive and treatment-resistant malignancy in both feline and human patients. Recent work has demonstrated aberrant expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an increased capacity for lipogenesis in human OSCC and other cancers. In human OSCC, inhibition of FASN decreased cell viability and growth in vitro, and diminished tumour growth and metastasis in murine preclinical models. This study aimed to characterize FASN as a therapeutic target in feline OSCC. Immunohistochemistry revealed high FASN expression in primary feline OSCC tumours, and FASN expression was detected in OSCC cell lines (3 feline and 3 human) by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
September 4, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870006/down-regulation-of-hepatic-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-adipocytes-by-pinus-densiflora-bark-extract
#11
Hyemyoung Ahn, Jeongho Jeong, Knowledge Mudhibadi Moyo, Yungsun Ryu, Bokkee Min, Seong Ho Yun, Hwa Yeon Kim, Wooki Kim, Gwang Woong Go
Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) bark extract, PineXol (PX), was investigated on its potential anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation effects in vitro. It was hypothesized that PX treatment (25-150 µg/mL) would reduce the lipid synthesis in HepG2 hepatocytes as well as lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hepatocytes' intracellular triglycerides and cholesterol were decreased in the PX 150 µg/mL treatment group compared to the control (p<0.05). Consequently, de novo lipogenic proteins; acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, elongase of very long chain fatty acids 6, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, were significantly decreased in hepatocytes by PX 150 µg/mL treatment compared to the control (p<0...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869898/3-o-glucosylation-of-quercetin-enhances-inhibitory-effects-on-the-adipocyte-differentiation-and-lipogenesis
#12
Chang Won Lee, Jeong Yeon Seo, Jisun Lee, Ji Won Choi, Sarang Cho, Jae Youn Bae, Jae Kyung Sohng, Sung Oog Kim, Jihoon Kim, Yong Il Park
Glycosylation of natural flavonoids with various sugar moieties can affect their physicochemical and pharmacological properties. In this study, the plant flavonoids quercetin aglycon (Quer) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (Q3G) were evaluated and compared for their potential anti-obesity effects. The Q3G dose-dependently reduced the TG contents and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells, by 52% and 60% at 20μM, respectively, compared to differentiated control (100%), which were 1.6-fold and 2.4-fold higher reduction than Quer...
September 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867720/chronic-rapamycin-treatment-improved-metabolic-phenotype-but-inhibited-adipose-tissue-browning-in-high-fat-diet-fed-c57bl-6j-mice
#13
Yan Wang, Zhi He, Xianhui Li
Rapamycin (Rap) has been demonstrated to affect lipid metabolism through stimulating lipolysis, inhibiting de novo lipogenesis and reducing adiposity. In the present study, we investigated rapamycin exposure's influence on adipose tissue browning in high-fat diet-induced fatty mice. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed normal chow or high-fat diet for a period of 6 weeks and then divided into three groups: (1) Nor group: mice fed with normal chow; (2) high fat diet (HFD) group: fatty mice fed with high-fat diet; (3) Rap group: high-fat diet-fed fatty mice treated intragastrically with rapamycin at a dose of 2...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867301/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-as-a-nexus-of-metabolic-and-hepatic-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Varman T Samuel, Gerald I Shulman
NAFLD is closely linked with hepatic insulin resistance. Accumulation of hepatic diacylglycerol activates PKC-ε, impairing insulin receptor activation and insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis. Peripheral insulin resistance indirectly influences hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by increasing flux of substrates that promote lipogenesis (glucose and fatty acids) and gluconeogenesis (glycerol and fatty acid-derived acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator of pyruvate carboxylase). Weight loss with diet or bariatric surgery effectively treats NAFLD, but drugs specifically approved for NAFLD are not available...
August 29, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867186/dietary-%C3%AE-conglycinin-prevents-acute-ethanol-induced-fatty-liver-in-mice
#15
Reina Ikaga, Dongyang Li, Tomomi Yamazaki
Alcoholic fatty liver is the earliest stage of alcohol-induced liver disease leading to liver cirrhosis. β-Conglycinin, one of the soy proteins, is known to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Therefore, we examined whether β-conglycinin feeding has an effect on the prevention of acute ethanol-induced fatty liver in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with 20 energy% β-conglycinin or casein for 4 weeks prior to ethanol administration and were then given ethanol or glucose, as a control, by gavage...
August 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866102/liver-steatosis-in-hypothalamic-obese-rats-improves-after-duodeno-jejunal-bypass-by-reduction-in-de-novo-lipogenesis-pathway
#16
Gabriela Moreira Soares, Kathia Regina Cantelli, Sandra Lucinei Balbo, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Ana Claudia Paiva Alegre-Maller, Helena Cristina Barbosa-Sampaio, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Allan Cezar Faria Araújo, Maria Lúcia Bonfleur
AIMS: Hypothalamic obesity is a severe condition without any effective therapy. Bariatric operations appear as an alternative treatment, but the effects of this procedure are controversial. We, herein, investigated the effects of duodeno-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery upon the lipid profile and expression of genes and proteins, involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, in hypothalamic obese (HyO) rats. METHODS: During the first 5days of life, male newborn Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate [4g/kg body weight, HyO group] or saline (control, CTL group)...
August 30, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864987/the-long-term-effect-of-the-periconception-period-on-the-embryo-s-epigenetic-profile-and-phenotype-the-role-of-maternal-disease-such-as-diabetes-and-how-the-effect-is-mediated-example-from-a-rabbit-model
#17
Bernd Fischer, Maria Schindler, S Mareike Pendzialek, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Katarzyna Joanna Grybel, René Thieme, Anne Navarrete Santos
Maternal metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus with diabetogenic hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia change periconceptional developmental conditions in utero. In preimplantation rabbit embryos, all major metabolic pathways are affected. Alterations in protein, lipid and glucose metabolism, adipokines, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are described in this review. The embryonic metabolism is characterized by a high plasticity which enables survival of most preimplantation embryos under the non-physiological developmental conditions in diabetic mothers...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860003/sleep-restriction-induced-energy-methylation-and-lipogenesis-metabolic-switches-in-rat-liver
#18
Arjun Sengupta, Seth D Rhoades, Eun Ji Kim, Soumyashant Nayak, Gregory R Grant, Peter Meerlo, Aalim M Weljie
Sleep curtailment is ubiquitous in modern day society. Sleep debt is associated with maladaptive physiological changes that can lead to cardiometabolic and neuropsychiatric pathologies. Recent literature has shown the effects of sleep restriction (SR) on systemic metabolic profiles in biofluids, implying that tissue-specific metabolomes are impacted by SR. To test this hypothesis, we assessed hepatic metabolic profiles of rats after 5days of SR using UPLC-MS based metabolomics analysis and gene expression analysis...
August 28, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859855/degradation-of-phlpp2-by-kctd17-via-a-glucagon-dependent-pathway-promotes-hepatic-steatosis
#19
KyeongJin Kim, Dongryeol Ryu, Paola Dongiovanni, Lale Ozcan, Shruti Nayak, Beatrix Ueberheide, Luca Valenti, Johan Auwerx, Utpal B Pajvani
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develops, in part, via excess insulin-stimulated hepatic de novo lipogenesis, which increases, paradoxically, in patients with obesity-induced insulin resistance. Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 (PHLPP2) terminates insulin signaling by dephosphorylating Akt; levels of PHLPP2 are reduced in livers from obese mice. We investigated whether loss of hepatic PHLPP2 is sufficient to induce fatty liver in mice, mechanisms of PHLPP2 degradation in fatty liver, and expression of genes that regulate PHLPP2 in livers of patients with NAFLD...
August 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857232/hepatic-ppar%C3%AE-coactivator-1%C3%AE-drives-mitochondrial-and-anabolic-signatures-that-contribute-to-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression
#20
Elena Piccinin, Claudia Peres, Elena Bellafante, Simon Ducheix, Claudio Pinto, Gaetano Villani, Antonio Moschetta
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1β (PGC-1 β) coactivator is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism as well as of antioxidant defense. Specifically in the liver PGC-1β also promotes de novo lipogenesis, thus sustaining cellular anabolic processes. Given the relevant pathogenic role of mitochondrial and fatty acid metabolism in hepatocarcinoma (HCC), here we pointed to PGC-1β as a putative novel transcriptional player in the development and progression of HCC...
August 31, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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