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foam cell

Xiaokai Li, Siyuan Feng, Yi Luo, Keren Long, Zhenghao Lin, Jideng Ma, Anan Jiang, Long Jin, Qianzi Tang, Mingzhou Li, Xun Wang
Macrophage-derived foam cells were one of the hallmarks of atherosclerosis, and microRNAs played an important role in the formation of foam cells. In order to explore the roles of miRNA in the formation of foam cells, we investigated miRNA expression profiles in foam cells through high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 84 miRNAs were differentially expressed between RAW 264.7 macrophages and foam cells induced by ox-LDL. Thirty miRNAs were upregulated and 54 miRNAs were downregulated. GO terms and KEGG pathways analysis revealed that the target genes of most of DE miRNAs were mainly enriched in "cell differentiation," "endocytosis," "MAPK signaling pathway," and "FoxO signaling pathway...
January 10, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Yvonne Baumer, Qimin Ng, Gregory E Sanda, Amit K Dey, Heather L Teague, Alexander V Sorokin, Pradeep K Dagur, Joanna I Silverman, Charlotte L Harrington, Justin A Rodante, Shawn M Rose, Nevin J Varghese, Agastya D Belur, Aditya Goyal, Joel M Gelfand, Danielle A Springer, Christopher Ke Bleck, Crystal L Thomas, Zu-Xi Yu, Mårten Cg Winge, Howard S Kruth, M Peter Marinkovich, Aditya A Joshi, Martin P Playford, Nehal N Mehta
Inflammation is critical to atherogenesis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that accelerates atherosclerosis in humans and provides a compelling model to understand potential pathways linking these diseases. A murine model capturing the vascular and metabolic diseases in psoriasis would accelerate our understanding and provide a platform to test emerging therapies. We aimed to characterize a new murine model of skin inflammation (Rac1V12) from a cardiovascular standpoint to identify novel atherosclerotic signaling pathways modulated in chronic skin inflammation...
January 11, 2018: JCI Insight
Lee C Mangum, Xiang Hou, Abdolsamad Borazjani, Jung Hwa Lee, Matthew K Ross, J Allen Crow
Macrophage foam cells store excess cholesterol as cholesteryl esters, which need to be hydrolyzed for cholesterol efflux. We recently reported that silencing expression of carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) in human THP-1 macrophages (CES1KD macrophages) reduced cholesterol uptake and decreased expression of CD36 and scavenger receptor-A in cells loaded with acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL). Here, we report that CES1KD macrophages exhibit reduced transcription of cytochrome P450 27A1 ( CYP27A1 ) in non-loaded and acLDL-loaded cells...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical Journal
C A Garcia-Gonzalez, Joana Barros, Ana Rey-Rico, Pablo Redondo, José L Gómez-Amoza, Angel Concheiro, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Fernando J Monteiro
Advanced porous synthetic scaffolds are particularly suitable for regeneration of damaged tissues, but there is the risk of infections due to the colonization of microorganisms forming biofilms. Supercritical foaming is an attractive processing method to prepare bone scaffolds regulating simulataneously the porosity and loading of bioactive compounds without loss of activity. In this work, scaffolds made of poly--caprolactone (50 kDa) containing chitosan and an antimicrobial agent (vancomycin) were processed by supercritical CO2 foaming for bone regeneration purposes...
January 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chao Chen, Dan Yan, Xin Luo, Wenjia Gao, Guanjie Huang, Ziwu Han, Yan Zeng, Zhihong Zhu
In this work, hierarchical core-shell NiMoO4@Ni-Co-S nanorods were first successfully grown on nickel foam by a facile two-step method to fabricate a bind-free electrode. The well-aligned electrode structure wrapped by Ni-Co-S nanosheets takes advantage of the excellent nanostructural properties and outstanding electrochemical performances owing to the synergistic effects of both nickel molybdenum oxides and nickel cobalt sulfides. The prepared core-shell nanorods in a three-electrode cell yielded a high specific capacitance of 2...
January 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuko Fujiwara, Kotaro Hama, Makoto Tsukahara, Ryosuke Izumi-Tsuzuki, Toru Nagai, Mihoko Ohe-Yamada, Keizo Inoue, Kazuaki Yokoyama
Macrophage foam cells play critical roles in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis by synthesizing and accumulating cholesteryl ester (CE) in lipid droplets. However, in analyzing lipid metabolism in foam cell formation, studies have focused on the sterol group, and little research has been done on the acyl chains. Therefore, we adapted a model system using liposomes containing particular acyl chains and examined the effect of various acyl chains on foam cell formation. Of the phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes tested containing PS, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol, we found that unsaturated (C18:1), but not saturated (C16:0 and C18:0), PS liposomes induced lipid droplet formation, indicating that foam cell formation depends on the nature of the acyl chain of the PS liposomes...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Maysam Sodagari, Krutika Invally, Lu-Kwang Ju
Rhamnolipids are well-known microbial surfactants with many potential applications. Their production cost, however, remains high due to the severe foaming tendency in aerobic fermentation and the relatively low productivity and yield. In this study, we assessed the boundaries set by these constraints after optimization of basic parameters such as dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), pH and carbon sources. DO 10% and pH 5.5-5.7 were found optimal; cell growth and/or rhamnolipid production were slower at lower DO (5%) or pH (5...
March 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Yun-Nan Lin, Chieh-Han Chuang, Shih-Hao Huang, Shu-Hung Huang, Tsai-Ming Lin, I-Wen Lin, Sin-Daw Lin, Yur-Ren Kuo
RATIONALE: Although numerous reconstruction protocols have been reported for lower leg trauma, those for distal leg trauma remain few. We present the case of a woman with an implant exposure wound, who was successfully treated through fat grafting, without major flap surgery. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 83-year-old woman with an exposed implant in lower extremity received reconstruction surgery once and the surgery failed. She refused additional major surgery and negative pressure wound therapy...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Qi Wang, Qian Zhou, Qicheng Zhang, Rongjia Shi, Shangshang Ma, Wenbo Zhao, Min Zhou
Preparation of high performance electrochemical biosensing interface for the sensitive and rapid detection of human metabolites is of great interest for health care and biomedical science. In this paper, based on the adhesion technique of marine mussels, we designed and prepared a novel biosensor with a micro/nano-biointerface of Fe3O4-Mn3(PO3)2@Ni foam, which offered a three dimensional (3D) living environment for real cell. The constructed biosensor with a 3D micro/nano-biointerface of Fe3O4-Mn3(PO3)2@Ni foam was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and elemental mapping...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
Arian Ehterami, Mansure Kazemi, Bahareh Nazari, Payam Saraeian, Mahmoud Azami
It is well established that the piezoelectric effect plays an important physiological role in bone growth, remodeling and fracture healing. Barium titanate, as a well-known piezoelectric ceramic, is especially an attractive material as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. In this regard, we tried to fabricate a highly porous barium titanate based scaffolds by foam replication method and polarize them by applying an external electric field. In order to enhance the mechanical and biological properties, polarized/non-polarized scaffolds were coated with gelatin and nanostructured HA and characterized for their morphologies, porosities, piezoelectric and mechanical properties...
December 30, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Miho Kojima, Nana Ozawa, Yusaku Mori, Yui Takahashi, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Remina Shirai, Rena Watanabe, Kengo Sato, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Shinji Koba, Youichi Kobayashi, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
Catestatin, a catecholamine-release inhibitory peptide, has multiple cardiovascular activities. Conflicting results have been recently reported by increased or decreased plasma levels of catestatin in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there have been no previous reports regarding the effects of catestatin on arteriosclerosis. This study evaluated the vasoprotective effects of catestatin on human macrophages, human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and aortic atherosclerosis and wire injury-induced femoral artery neointimal hyperplasia in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Zhihui Chang, Chaoji Huangfu, Andrew T Grainger, Jingang Zhang, Qiyong Guo, Weibin Shi
Complete ligation of the common carotid artery near its bifurcation induces neointimal formation due to smooth muscle cell proliferation in normolipidemic wild-type mice, but it was unknown what would happen to hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. Examination of these mice revealed rapid development of atherosclerotic lesions in completely ligated carotid arteries within 4 weeks. Mice were fed a Western diet, starting 1 week before ligation, or a chow diet. Foam cell lesions formed as early as 1 week after ligation in mice fed the Western diet and 2 weeks in mice fed the chow diet...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Hung-Chih Lin, Chong-Kuei Lii, Hui-Chun Chen, Ai-Hsuan Lin, Ya-Chen Yang, Haw-Wen Chen
oxLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide, the bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anticancer functions. Scavenger receptors (SRs), including class A SR (SR-A) and CD36, are responsible for the internalization of oxLDL. In contrast, receptors for reverse cholesterol transport, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, mediate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Pragya A Nair, Rochit Singhal
Xanthelasma palpebrarum is the most common cutaneous xanthoma, characterized by yellowish plaques over eyelids - most commonly, over the inner canthus of the upper lid. It is triggered by hyperlipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus. Xanthelasma results from perivascular infiltration of mono- and multinucleated foam cells within lipid-laden cytoplasmic vacuoles in the superficial reticular dermis. Different modalities of treatment, such as simple surgical excision, cryotherapy, chemical peeling with trichloroacetic acid, radiofrequency, and laser, are used in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Jah Yeon Choi, Jiheun Ryu, Hyun Jung Kim, Joon Woo Song, Joo Hee Jeon, Dae-Hee Lee, Dong Joo Oh, Dae-Gab Gweon, Wang-Yuhl Oh, Hongki Yoo, Kyeongsoon Park, Jin Won Kim
Rationale: Atherosclerotic plaque is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving lipid accumulation within arterial walls. In particular, macrophages mediate plaque progression and rupture. While PPARγ agonist is known to have favorable pleiotropic effects on atherogenesis, its clinical application has been very limited due to undesirable systemic effects. We hypothesized that the specific delivery of a PPARγ agonist to inflamed plaques could reduce plaque burden and inflammation without systemic adverse effects...
2018: Theranostics
Yuyu Yang, Xueyan Li, Liying Peng, Lin An, Ningyuan Sun, Xuewen Hu, Ping Zhou, Yong Xu, Ping Li, Jun Chen
NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to be protective in atherosclerosis. The loss of Nrf2 in macrophages enhances foam cell formation and promotes early atherogenesis. Tanshindiol C (Tan C) is isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for the treatment of several cardiovascular diseases for many years. This study was aimed to test the potential role of Tan C against macrophage foam cell formation and to explore the underlying mechanism. Firstly, we observed that Tan C markedly suppressed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced macrophage foam cell formation...
December 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Haofeng Ning, Dan Liu, Xiaochen Yu, Xiuru Guan
Macrophage autophagy has a protective role in the development of atherosclerosis; however, it turns dysfunctional in advanced lesions with an increase in p62/sequestosome-1 protein. Little is known about the role and significance of p62 accumulation in atherosclerosis. The present study investigated the association between p62 expression and the process of foam cell formation. Foam cell models were established through incubation of THP-1-derived macrophages with oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and the process of foam cell formation was detected by Oil red O staining...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Petteri Rinne, James J Kadiri, Mauricio Velasco-Delgado, Salla Nuutinen, Miro Viitala, Maija Hollmén, Martina Rami, Eriika Savontaus, Sabine Steffens
OBJECTIVE: The MC1-R (melanocortin 1 receptor) is expressed by monocytes and macrophages where it mediates anti-inflammatory actions. MC1-R also protects against macrophage foam cell formation primarily by promoting cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1) and ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 1). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether global deficiency in MC1-R signaling affects the development of atherosclerosis...
December 28, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Shokufeh Varshoy, Bahram Khoshnevisan, Mohsen Behpour
The hydrogen storage capacity of Ni-Sn, Ni-Sn/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni/Sn-coated MWCNT electrodes was investigated by using a chronopotentiometry method. The Sn layer was electrochemically deposited inside pores of nanoscale Ni foam. The MWCNTs were put on the Ni-Sn foam with nanoscale porosities using an electrophoretic deposition method (EPD) and coated with Sn nanoparticles by an electroplating process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results indicated that the Sn layer and MWCNTs are successfully‎ deposited on the surface of Ni substrate...
December 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
Isadora S Deschamps, Gabriel L Magrin, Ricardo S Magini, Márcio C Fredel, Cesar A M Benfatti, Júlio C M Souza
Objectives: After tooth loss, dimensional alterations on the alveolar bone ridge can occur that can negatively affect the placement of dental implants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the synthesis, and mechanical properties of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds coated with bioabsorbable polymers, namely, collagen and poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PDLLA). Materials and Methods: β-TCP powder was obtained by reactive milling and then characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS)...
October 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
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