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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166642/effect-of-calcium-infiltrated-hydroxyapatite-scaffolds-on-the-hematopoietic-fate-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#1
Qinghao Zhang, Jörg C Gerlach, Eva Schmelzer, Ian Nettleship
Foamed hydroxyapatite offers a three-dimensional scaffold for the development of bone constructs, mimicking perfectly the in vivo bone structure. In vivo, calcium release at the surface is assumed to provide a locally increased gradient supporting the maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cells niche. We fabricated hydroxyapatite scaffolds with high surface calcium concentration by infiltration, and used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model to study the effects on hematopoietic lineage direction...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162602/rosuvastatin-reduces-aortic-sinus-and-coronary-artery-atherosclerosis-in-sr-b1-scavenger-receptor-class-b-type-1-apoe-apolipoprotein-e-double-knockout-mice-independently-of-plasma-cholesterol-lowering
#2
Pei Yu, Ting Xiong, Christine B Tenedero, Paul Lebeau, Ran Ni, Melissa E MacDonald, Peter L Gross, Richard C Austin, Bernardo L Trigatti
OBJECTIVE: Rosuvastatin has been widely used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. However, its antiatherosclerotic properties have not been tested in a mouse model that could mimic human coronary heart disease. The present study was designed to test the effects of rosuvastatin on coronary artery atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis in SR-B1 (scavenger receptor class B type 1) and apoE (apolipoprotein E) double knockout mice. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Three-week-old SR-B1(-/)(-)/apoE(-/)(-) mice were injected daily with 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin for 2 weeks...
November 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161303/nonlinear-dynamics-of-early-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-may-determine-the-efficacy-of-high-density-lipoproteins-hdl-in-plaque-regression
#3
Alexander D Chalmers, Christina A Bursill, Mary R Myerscough
We use a computational model to explore the effect of foam cell accumulation on plaque regression following an increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) influx into the plaque. Atherosclerotic plaque formation is the outcome of cellular and cytokine responses to low density lipoproteins (LDL) that penetrate the artery wall following an injury to the endothelium and become modified. We modelled the cells and cytokines that are most important in plaque formation using partial differential equations. The model includes monocytes and macrophages, foam cells, macrophage chemoattractants, endothelium-stimulating cytokines, modified low density lipoproteins (mod LDL) and HDL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161079/a-new-frontier-in-immunometabolism-cholesterol-in-lung-health-and-disease
#4
Michael B Fessler
The lung has a unique relationship to cholesterol that is shaped by its singular physiology. On the one hand, the lungs receive the full cardiac output and have a predominant dependence on plasma lipoprotein uptake for their cholesterol supply. On the other hand, surfactant lipids, including cholesterol, are continually susceptible to oxidation owing to direct environmental exposure and must be cleared or recycled because of the very narrow biophysical mandates placed upon surfactant lipid composition. Interestingly, increased lipid-laden macrophage "foam cells" have been noted in a wide range of human lung pathologies...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159765/characteristic-comparison-of-meningitis-and-non-meningitis-of-streptococcus-suis-in-an-experimentally-infected-porcine-model
#5
Yingying Sun, Hongtao Liu, Rui Du, Shuguang Li, Guanggang Qu, Rining Zhu, Shuang Zhao, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Wenyu Han, Liancheng Lei
This study tested the differences of meningitis and non-meningitis of Streptococcus suis (SS). In this study, an infected pig model of streptococcal meningitis was established. Compared with the non-meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ001 group), the meningitis Streptococcus suis group (JZLQ022) exhibited neurological symptoms, such as ataxia and foaming at the mouth, and the brain showed a large area of congestion at 5 days post-infection (p.i.). Moreover, bacterial counts, white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and blood glucose in the blood reached a peak and were significantly higher than those of the JZLQ001 group at 3 days p...
November 20, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159532/a-multiphysics-approach-for-modeling-early-atherosclerosis
#6
M P Thon, A Hemmler, A Glinzer, M Mayr, M Wildgruber, A Zernecke-Madsen, M W Gee
This work is devoted to the development of a mathematical model of the early stages of atherosclerosis incorporating processes of all time scales of the disease and to show their interactions. The cardiovascular mechanics is modeled by a fluid-structure interaction approach coupling a non-Newtonian fluid to a hyperelastic solid undergoing anisotropic growth and a change of its constitutive equation. Additionally, the transport of low-density lipoproteins and its penetration through the endothelium is considered by a coupled set of advection-diffusion-reaction equations...
November 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156574/infectious-agents-in-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases-through-oxidative-stress
#7
REVIEW
Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Francesca Falasca, Ombretta Turriziani, Rosa Sessa
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that vascular oxidative stress is a critical feature of atherosclerotic process, potentially triggered by several infectious agents that are considered as risk co-factors for the atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). C. pneumoniae has been shown to upregulate multiple enzymatic systems capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as NADPH oxidase (NOX) and cyclooxygenase in vascular endothelial cells, NOX and cytochrome c oxidase in macrophages as well as nitric oxide synthase and lipoxygenase in platelets contributing to both early and late stages of atherosclerosis...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155735/quantification-of-monocyte-transmigration-and-foam-cell-formation-from-individuals-with-chronic-inflammatory-conditions
#8
Thomas A Angelovich, Anna C Hearps, Anna Maisa, Theodoros Kelesidis, Anthony Jaworowski
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of CAD, is initiated by the transmigration of innate immune monocytes to inflammatory sites of deposited lipid called fatty streaks, which are present in arterial walls of medium to large arteries. The key pathogenic feature of lesions at this early stage of atherosclerosis is the maturation of monocytes which migrate into arteries to form foam cells or lipid-laden macrophages. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that risk of atherosclerosis is increased by chronic inflammatory conditions accompanying diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and HIV, as well as general ageing, and that this risk is predicted by monocyte activation...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154769/extracellular-lipids-accumulate-in-human-carotid-arteries-as-distinct-three-dimensional-structures-and-have-proinflammatory-properties
#9
Satu Lehti, Su D Nguyen, Ilya Belevich, Helena Vihinen, Hanna M Heikkilä, Rabah Soliymani, Reijo Käkelä, Jani Saksi, Matti Jauhiainen, Gregory A Grabowski, Outi Kummu, Sohvi Hörkkö, Marc Baumann, Perttu J Lindsberg, Eija Jokitalo, Petri T Kovanen, Katariina Öörni
Lipid accumulation is a key characteristic of advancing atherosclerotic lesions. Here we analyzed the ultrastructure of the accumulated lipids in endarterectomized human carotid atherosclerotic plaques using three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy, a method never used in this context before. 3D-electron microscopy revealed intracellular lipid droplets and extracellular lipoprotein particles. The majority of the particles were aggregated and some connected to needle-shaped or sheet-like cholesterol crystals...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140707/grapefruit-flavonoid-naringenin-regulates-the-expression-of-lxr%C3%AE-in-thp-1-macrophages-by-modulating-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#10
Javier Saenz, Consuelo Santa-María, Maria Edith Reyes-Quiroz, Isabel Geniz, Juan Jiménez, Francisco Sobrino, Gonzalo Alba
The present work investigates the modulation of grapefruit flavonoid naringenin over Liver X Receptor alpha (LXRα) and its target genes in THP-1 macrophages, focusing on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) implication. Naringenin induced LXRα at mRNA and protein levels besides influencing the expression of LXRα target genes ABCA1, ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette A1 and G1), and SREBP1c (sterol response element binding protein 1c) in THP-1 macrophages. The increased LXRα mRNA and protein expression was reverted when AMPK was inhibited by its chemical inhibitor, compound C or by transfection with AMPK α1 and α2 siRNA...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137829/effects-of-removal-and-reinsertion-of-headless-compression-screws
#11
Simon M Donald, Rui Niu, Christopher W Jones, Belinda J Smith, Elizabeth C Clarke, Richard D Lawson
PURPOSE: This study investigates the loss of compression when 3 commonly used headless compression screws are backed out (reversed), and assesses the ability to re-establish compression with screws of greater diameter. METHODS: Two investigators tested 3 screw designs (Acutrak 2, Synthes HCS, Medartis SpeedTip CCS) in 2 diameters and lengths. Each design had 10 test cycles in a polyurethane foam bone model with compression recorded using a washer load cell. A 28-mm screw of the narrower diameter was inserted until 2 mm recessed and then reversed 30°, 60°, 90°, 180°, 270°, 360°, and 720°...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137283/c1q-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-protein-3-protects-macrophages-against-lps-induced-lipid-accumulation-inflammation-and-phenotype-transition-via-ppar%C3%AE-and-tlr4-mediated-pathways
#12
Jiale Lin, Qi Liu, Hui Zhang, Xingtao Huang, Ruoxi Zhang, Shuyuan Chen, Xuedong Wang, Bo Yu, Jingbo Hou
Macrophage inflammation and foam cell formation are critical events during the initiation and development of atherosclerosis (AS). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is a novel adipokine with anti-inflammatory and cardioprotection properties; however, little is known regarding the influence of CTRP3 on AS. As macrophages play a key role in AS, this study investigated the effects of CTRP3 on macrophage lipid metabolism, inflammatory reactions, and phenotype transition, as well as underlying mechanisms, to reveal the relationship between CTRP3 and AS...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136780/cml-cd36-accelerates-atherosclerotic-progression-via-inhibiting-foam-cell-migration
#13
Suining Xu, Lihua Li, Jinchuan Yan, Fei Ye, Chen Shao, Zhen Sun, Zhengyang Bao, Zhiyin Dai, Jie Zhu, Lele Jing, Zhongqun Wang
Among the various complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis causes the highest disability and morbidity. A multitude of macrophage-derived foam cells are retained in atherosclerotic plaques resulting not only from recruitment of monocytes into lesions but also from a reduced rate of macrophage migration from lesions. Nε-carboxymethyl-Lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product, is responsible for most complications of diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of CML/CD36 accelerating atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration...
November 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136772/trimethylamine-n-oxide-promotes-atherosclerosis-via-cd36-dependent-mapk-jnk-pathway
#14
Jin Geng, Chenchen Yang, Bingjian Wang, Xiwen Zhang, Tingting Hu, Yang Gu, Ju Li
BACKGROUND: Many studies have identified trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as a new risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. It has been suggested that TMAO promotes atherosclerosis development. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: Apoe-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet and given water with or without TMAO for 8-week. Histological and immunohistological analyses were used to evaluate the atherogenic effect of TMAO in vivo. We also employed peritoneal elicited macrophages and RAW264...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135917/asperlin-inhibits-lps-evoked-foam-cell-formation-and-prevents-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice
#15
Yue Zhou, Ran Chen, Dong Liu, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo, Wenhan Lin
Asperlin is a marine-derived natural product with antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. In the present study, we isolated asperlin from a marine Aspergillus versicolor LZD4403 fungus and investigated its anti-atherosclerotic effects in vitro and in vivo. Asperlin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharides (LPS)- but not oxidated low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-evoked foam cell formation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Supplementation with asperlin also suppressed LPS-elicited production of pro-inflammatory factors in RAW264...
November 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134505/upregulated-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-expression-in-human-and-murine-atherosclerotic-plaques
#16
Hui Liu, Hongjun Jin, Junbin Han, Xuyi Yue, Hao Yang, Mohamed A Zayed, Robert J Gropler, Zhude Tu
PURPOSE: Dysregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) signaling contributes to inflammation-related pathophysiological changes in cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis (AS). S1PR1-targeting compounds significantly reduce lesion size in murine models of AS. Therefore, characterization of S1PR1 expression in vitro and in vivo in atherosclerotic plaque could enable mechanistic studies and inform S1PR1 targeted therapies. PROCEDURES: H&E staining and immunostaining studies were performed on variably diseased human femoral endarterectomy plaque specimens, as well as mouse aortic sections from ApoE(-/-) mice maintained on a high-fat diet (AS mice)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133624/histopathological-histomorphometrical-and-radiological-evaluations-of-hydroxyapatite-bioactive-glass-and-fluorapatite-bioactive-glass-nanocomposite-foams-as-cell-scaffolds-in-rat-tibia-an-in-vivo-study
#17
Maryam Seyedmajidi, Sina Haghanifar, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki, Seyedali Seyedmajidi
Bone defects are common and persistent problems in clinical orthopedics and dentistry. The development of synthetic reconstruction materials is essential owing to the restricted access to natural bone grafts, disease transmission risks, surgical costs, donor-site morbidity, infections, and immune response-related complications. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the histopathological, histomorphometrical, and radiological characteristics of composite foams containing hydroxyapatite/bioactive glass (HA/BG) and fluorapatite/bioactive glass (FA/BG) as cell scaffolds in rat tibia reconstruction...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131573/flexible-and-lightweight-pressure-sensor-based-on-carbon-nanotube-thermoplastic-polyurethane-aligned-conductive-foam-with-superior-compressibility-and-stability
#18
Wenju Huang, Kun Dai, Yue Zhai, Hu Liu, Pengfei Zhan, Jiachen Gao, Guo-Qiang Zheng, Chuntai Liu, Changyu Shen
Flexible and lightweight carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) conductive foam with a novel aligned porous structure was fabricated. The density of the aligned porous material was as low as 0.123 g•cm-3. Homogeneous dispersion of CNTs was achieved through the skeleton of the foam, and an ultralow percolation threshold of 0.0023 vol.% was obtained. Compared with the disordered foam, mechanical properties of the aligned foam were enhanced and the piezoresistive stability of the flexible foam was improved significantly...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127504/glycocalyx-in-atherosclerosis-relevant-endothelium-function-and-as-a-therapeutic-target
#19
REVIEW
Ronodeep Mitra, Gerard Leland O'Neil, Ian Chandler Harding, Ming Jie Cheng, Solomon Arko Mensah, Eno Essien Ebong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cell surface-attached extracellular glycocalyx (GCX) layer is a major contributor to endothelial cell (EC) function and EC-dependent vascular health and is a first line of defense against vascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Here, we highlight our findings regarding three GCX-dependent EC functions, which are altered when GCX is shed and in atherosclerosis. We discuss why the GCX is a viable option for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: GCX regulated EC activities such as barrier and filtration function, active cell-to-cell communication, and vascular tone mediation contribute to function of the entire vascular wall...
November 10, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124551/mechanical-characterization-and-material-modeling-of-diabetic-aortas-in-a-rabbit-model
#20
Jianhua Tong, F Yang, X Li, X Xu, G X Wang
Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1.6-2.2 kg) were collected and the type 1 diabetic rabbit model was induced by injection of alloxan. A total of 15 control and 15 diabetic rabbit (abdominal) aortas were harvested. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were performed to measure ultimate tensile strength and to characterize biaxial mechanical behaviors of the aortas...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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