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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209562/vinexin-%C3%AE-ablation-inhibits-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice-by-inactivating-the-akt-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-axis
#1
Hongjing Guan, Wen-Lin Cheng, Junhong Guo, Meng-Lin Chao, Yan Zhang, Jun Gong, Xue-Yong Zhu, Zhi-Gang She, Zan Huang, Hongliang Li
BACKGROUND: Vinexin β is a novel adaptor protein that regulates cellular adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization, signal transduction, and transcription; however, the exact role that vinexin β plays in atherosclerosis remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunoblot analysis showed that vinexin β expression is upregulated in the atherosclerotic lesions of both patients with coronary heart disease and hyperlipemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and is primarily localized in macrophages indicated by immunofluorescence staining...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209012/a-case-of-verruciform-xanthoma-arising-in-the-tongue
#2
Yukihiro Hiraishi, Itaru Tojyo, Norifumi Kiga, Koji Tanimoto, Shigeyuki Fujita
Verruciform Xanthoma (VX) is a rare lesion of the oral cavity. Histologically, it is characterized by papillary or verrucous proliferation of squamous epithelium and numerous foam cells. VX arising in the tongue is comparatively rare, as most cases of VX in oral cavity occur in gingiva. A 65-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a mass on the left side of the tongue. The lesion was yellowish, and its surface was granulated. The patient had neither tenderness nor any symptoms. The lesion was clinically diagnosed to be a benign tumor, and hence, biopsy was performed, according to which it was diagnosed as hyperparakeratosis...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207870/impaired-hdl2-mediated-cholesterol-efflux-is-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-families-with-early-onset-coronary-heart-disease-and-low-hdl-cholesterol-level
#3
Timo Paavola, Sanna Kuusisto, Matti Jauhiainen, Sakari Kakko, Tiia Kangas-Kontio, Jari Metso, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Risto Bloigu, Minna L Hannuksela, Markku J Savolainen, Tuire Salonurmi
OBJECTIVE: The potential of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to facilitate cholesterol removal from arterial foam cells is a key function of HDL. We studied whether cholesterol efflux to serum and HDL subfractions is impaired in subjects with early coronary heart disease (CHD) or metabolic syndrome (MetS) in families where a low HDL-cholesterol level (HDL-C) predisposes to early CHD. METHODS: HDL subfractions were isolated from plasma by sequential ultracentrifugation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205069/transcriptomic-analysis-of-thp-1-macrophages-exposed-to-lipoprotein-hydrolysis-products-generated-by-lipoprotein-lipase
#4
Narmadaa Thyagarajan, Jenika D Marshall, Arthur T Pickett, Clemens Schumacher, Yanbo Yang, Sherri L Christian, Robert J Brown
Macrophage lipoprotein lipase (LPL) induces lipid accumulation and promotes atherosclerosis. However, the effects of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL on macrophage-derived foam cell formation are not clearly understood. Thus, we analyzed the transcriptomic response to hydrolysis products via microarray analyses on RNA isolated from human THP-1 macrophages incubated with total lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL. The expression of 183 transcripts was significantly upregulated and 133 transcripts were significantly downregulated...
February 15, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202546/identification-of-a-novel-series-of-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidative-phospholipid-oxidation-products-containing-cyclopentenone-moiety-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-implication-in-atherosclerosis
#5
Jianhong Lu, Shuyuan Guo, Xinli Xue, Qun Chen, Jing Ge, Yujuan Zhuo, Huiqin Zhong, Buxing Chen, Mingming Zhao, Wei Han, Takashi Suzuki, Mingjiang Zhu, Lin Xia, Claus Schneider, Timothy S Blackwell, Ned A Porter, Lemin Zheng, Sotirios Tsimikas, Huiyong Yin
Oxidative stress and inflammation are two major contributing factors to atherosclerosis, a leading cause for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Oxidation of phospholipids on the surface of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles generated under oxidative stress has been associated with the progression of atherosclerosis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. We identified a novel series of oxidation products containing cyclopentenone moiety, termed deoxy-A2/J2-isoprostanes-phosphocholine (deoxy-A2/J2-IsoP-PC), from 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) in vivo using mass spectrometry and by comparison to a chemically synthesized standard...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193630/mycolates-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-modulate-the-flow-of-cholesterol-for-bacillary-proliferation-in-murine-macrophages
#6
Ilke Vermeulen, Mark Baird, Juma Al-Dulayymi, Muriel Smet, Jan Verschoor, Johan Grooten
The differentiation of macrophages into lipid-filled foam cells is a hallmark of the lung granuloma that forms in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). Mycolic acids (MAs), the abundant lipid virulence factors in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), can induce this foam phenotype possibly as a way to perturb host cell lipid homeostasis to support the infection. It is not exactly clear how MAs allow differentiation of foam cells during Mtb infection. Here we investigated how chemically synthetic MAs, each with a defined stereochemistry similar to natural Mtb-associated mycolates, influence cell foamy phenotype and mycobacterial proliferation in murine host macrophages...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192887/linking-resistin-inflammation-and-cardiometabolic-diseases
#7
Hyeong Kyu Park, Mi Kyung Kwak, Hye Jeong Kim, Rexford S Ahima
Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive substances that are associated with chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While resistin was first known as an adipocyte-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents, it is predominantly expressed and secreted by macrophages in humans. Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that increased resistin levels are associated with the development of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease...
February 16, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188730/involvement-of-histone-methylation-in-macrophage-apoptosis-and-unstable-plaque-formation-in-methionine-induced-hyperhomocysteinemic-apoe-mice
#8
Guangzhi Cong, Ru Yan, Hui Huang, Kai Wang, Ning Yan, Ping Jin, Na Zhang, Jianjun Hou, Dapeng Chen, Shaobin Jia
AIMS: Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis and promotes unstable plaque formation. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis induced by Hhcy. However, the exact mechanism is still undefined. Lesional apoptotic cells and necrotic core formation contribute greatly to the progression of plaque. The present study sought to determine whether modification of histone methylation is involved in macrophage apoptosis and unstable plaque formation in the condition of Hhcy...
February 7, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179975/particulate-release-from-nanoparticle-loaded-shape-memory-polymer-foams
#9
Adam L Nathan, Grace K Fletcher, Mary Beth B Monroe, Wonjun Hwang, Scott M Herting, Sayyeda M Hasan, Brandis K Keller, Duncan J Maitland
Highly porous, open-celled shape memory polymer (SMP) foams are being developed for a number of vascular occlusion devices. Applications include abdominal aortic and neurovascular aneurysm or peripheral vascular occlusion. A major concern with implanting these high surface area materials in the vasculature is the potential to generate unacceptable particulate burden, in terms of number, size, and composition. This study demonstrates that particulate numbers and sizes in SMP foams are in compliance with limits stated by the most relevant standard and guidance documents...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179570/architected-cellular-ceramics-with-tailored-stiffness-via-direct-foam-writing
#10
Joseph T Muth, Patrick G Dixon, Logan Woish, Lorna J Gibson, Jennifer A Lewis
Hierarchical cellular structures are ubiquitous in nature because of their low-density, high-specific properties, and multifunctionality. Inspired by these systems, we created lightweight ceramic architectures composed of closed-cell porous struts patterned in the form of hexagonal and triangular honeycombs by direct foam writing. The foam ink contains bubbles stabilized by attractive colloidal particles suspended in an aqueous solution. The printed and sintered ceramic foam honeycombs possess low relative density (∼6%)...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178978/enhanced-extracellular-production-of-recombinant-proteins-in-escherichia-coli-by-co-expression-with-bacillus-cereus-phospholipase-c
#11
Lingqia Su, Qi Jiang, Lingang Yu, Jing Wu
BACKGROUND: Our laboratory has reported a strategy for improving the extracellular production of recombinant proteins through co-expression with Thermobifida fusca cutinase, which increases membrane permeability via its phospholipid hydrolysis activity. However, the foam generated by the lysophospholipid product makes the fermentation process difficult to control in a fermentor. Phospholipase C (PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to produce sn1,2-diacylglycerides and organic phosphate, which do not induce foam formation...
February 8, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173800/oxidized-ldl-induced-jab1-influences-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-independent-inflammatory-signaling-in-human-macrophages-during-foam-cell-formation
#12
Anja Schwarz, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Hans Schwarzbach, Ralf Kinscherf
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) mediates the transformation of macrophages (MΦ) to cholesterol-rich foam cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines during atherogenesis. JAB1 (Jun activation domain binding protein-1) is present in all stages of human plaques, involved in the Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and controls nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Thus, we were interested in the role of JAB1 during foam cell formation of MΦ after oxLDL exposition...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170101/torsion-estimation-of-particle-paths-through-porous-media-observed-by-in-situ-time-resolved-microtomography
#13
C Blankenburg, A Rack, C Daul, J Ohser
The torsion distribution of cell paths in two-phase flow of a cell suspension through a porous medium is an important quantity for chromatographic processes. It can be estimated from cell tracking in sequences of three-dimensional images of a suspension pumped through the medium, where the images are acquired by in-situ time-resolved microtomography using synchrotron radiation and inline phase contrast modus. This contribution presents a new method for estimating path torsion from discrete positions, where the estimation is based on an appropriate discretization of the differential-geometric formula of the torsion of a space curve...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168325/macrophages-in-vascular-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis
#14
REVIEW
Clement Cochain, Alma Zernecke
Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation of the arterial wall, and its main complications-myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke-together constitute the first cause of death worldwide. Accumulation of lipid-laden macrophage foam cells in the intima of inflamed arteries has long been recognized as a hallmark of atherosclerosis. However, in recent years, an unexpected complexity in the mechanisms of macrophage accumulation in lesions, in the protective and pathogenic functions performed by macrophages and how they are regulated has been uncovered...
February 6, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165070/monodisperse-polystyrene-foams-via-polymerization-of-foamed-emulsions-structure-and-mechanical-properties
#15
J Elsing, T Stefanov, M D Gilchrist, C Stubenrauch
Foamed styrene-in-water emulsions can serve as templates for solid polystyrene foams as the pore size dpore in the solid polystyrene foam matches the bubble size dbubble of the liquid foam template. By producing monodisperse foamed emulsions with a microfluidic device it is possible to adjust the pore size, the connectivity of the pores, as well as the density of the solid polystyrene foams. The pore size can be tuned either by varying the gas pressure used to form the emulsion or by varying the chip dimension...
February 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164782/types-a-and-b-niemann-pick-disease
#16
REVIEW
Edward H Schuchman, Robert J Desnick
The eponym Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) refers to a group of patients who present with varying degrees of lipid storage and foam cell infiltration in tissues, as well as overlapping clinical features including hepatosplenomegaly, pulmonary insufficiency and/or central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Due to the pioneering work of Roscoe Brady and co-workers, we now know that there are two distinct metabolic abnormalities that account for NPD. The first is due to the deficient activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM; "types A & B" NPD), and the second is due to defective function in cholesterol transport ("type C" NPD)...
January 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164480/real-time-raman-and-srs-imaging-of-living-human-macrophages-reveals-cell-to-cell-heterogeneity-and-dynamics-of-lipid-uptake
#17
Clara Stiebing, Tobias Meyer, Ingo Rimke, Christian Matthäus, Michael Schmitt, Stefan Lorkowski, Jürgen Popp
Monitoring living cells in real-time is important in order to unravel complex dynamic processes in life sciences. In particular the dynamics of initiation and progression of degenerative diseases is intensely studied. In atherosclerosis the thickening of arterial walls is related to high lipid levels in the blood stream, which trigger the lipid uptake and formation of droplets as neutral lipid reservoirs in macrophages in the arterial wall. Unregulated lipid uptake finally results in foam cell formation, which is a hallmark of atherosclerosis...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164151/graphene-foam-as-a-three-dimensional-platform-for-myotube-growth
#18
Eric Krueger, A Nicole Chang, Dale Brown, Josh Eixenberger, Raquel Brown, Sepideh Rastegar, Katie M Yocham, Kurtis D Cantley, David Estrada
This study demonstrates the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into functional myotubes on 3-dimensional graphene foam bioscaffolds. Specifically, we establish both bare and laminin coated graphene foam as a biocompatible platform for muscle cells and identify that electrical coupling stimulates cell activity. Cell differentiation and functionality is determined by the expression of myotube heavy chain protein and Ca(2+) fluorescence, respectively. Further, our data show that the application of a pulsed electrical stimulus to the graphene foam initiates myotube contraction and subsequent localized substrate movement of over 100 micrometers...
August 8, 2016: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161504/hydrothermal-synthesis-of-manganese-phosphate-graphene-foam-composite-for-electrochemical-supercapacitor-applications
#19
Abdulmajid Abdallah Mirghni, Moshawe Jack Madito, Tshifhiwa Moureen Masikhwa, Kabir O Oyedotun, Abdulhakeem Bello, Ncholu Manyala
Manganese phosphate (Mn3(PO4)2 hexagonal micro-rods and (Mn3(PO4)2 with different graphene foam (GF) mass loading up to 150mg were prepared by facile hydrothermal method. The characterization of the as-prepared samples proved the successful synthesis of Mn3(PO4)2 hexagonal micro-rods and Mn3(PO4)2/GF composites. It was observed that the specific capacitance of Mn3(PO4)2/GF composites with different GF mass loading increases with mass loading up to 100mg, and then decreases with increasing mass loading up to 150mg...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155270/high-strength-nanocomposite-aerogels-of-ternary-composition-poly-vinyl-alcohol-clay-and-cellulose-nanofibrils
#20
Andong Liu, Lilian Medina, Lars A Berglund
Clay aerogels are foam-like materials with potential to combine high mechanical performance with fire retardancy. However, the compression strength of these aerogels is much lower than theoretically predicted values. High-strength aerogels with more than 95% porosity were prepared from a ternary material system based on poly(vinyl alcohol), montmorillonite clay platelets, and cellulose nanofibrils. A hydrocolloidal suspension of the three components was subjected to freeze-drying so that a low-density aerogel foam was formed...
February 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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