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foam cell

John M Frostad, Daniele Tammaro, Luciano Santollani, Simone Bochner de Araujo, Gerald G Fuller
Understanding and enabling the control of the properties of foams is important for a variety of commercial processes and consumer products. In these systems, the role of surface active compounds has been the subject of many investigations using a wide range of techniques. The study of their influence on simplified geometries such as two bubbles in a liquid or a thin film of solution (such as in the well-known Scheludko cell), has yielded important fundamental understanding. Similarly, in this work an interferometric technique is used to study the dynamic evolution of the film formed by a single bubble being pressed against a planar air-liquid interface...
October 18, 2016: Soft Matter
G W Wang, D H Shen, W Y Zhang, K X Xu, T Xu, H Hu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the changing trends in Gleason score (GS) of Chinese prostate carcinoma (PCa) from January 1995 to December 2014. METHODS: In the study, 875 patients admitted to hospital from January 1995 to December 2004 (1995-2004) and from January 2005 to December 2014 (2005-2014) were divided into two groups. The mean levels and proportions of GS, primary and secondary grades were studied. The patients were divided into four groups according to age: <60, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 years...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Daisuke Koya
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in both the elderly and patients with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Aging processes contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Calorie restriction (CR) is recognized as a dietary intervention for promoting longevity and delaying age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis. Sirt1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, is considered an anti-aging molecule and is induced during CR. Sirt1 deacetylates target proteins and is linked to cellular metabolism, the redox state and survival pathways...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Er-Wen Huang, Can-Zhao Liu, Si-Jia Liang, Zheng Zhang, Xiao-Fei Lv, Jie Liu, Jia-Guo Zhou, Yong-Bo Tang, Yong-Yuan Guan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophage-derived foam cell formation (MFCF) is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by scavenger receptors is indispensable for MFCF. Endophilin-A2 has been reported to regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endophilin-A2 regulates oxLDL uptake and MFCF by mediating CME of oxLDL-scavenger receptor complexes. METHODS: In vitro MFCF was induced by oxLDL treatment...
October 6, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Ronald Bush, Peggy Bush
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to determine by histological evaluation and clinical correlation the most effective sclerosant concentration of Sotradecol® (sodium tetradecyl sulfate) and Asclera® (polidocanol) for the treatment of leg telangiectasia. METHODS: Histological studies were completed on 40 patients, all of whom were female with a mean age of 53. After sclerotherapy with varying concentrations of sclerosant solutions for the treatment of 0.8 mm and 1 mm leg telangiectasia, histological specimens were examined for the following criteria: luminal changes, subintimal changes, smooth muscle wall alterations, and vessel wall integrity...
October 12, 2016: Phlebology
Jade DE Oliveira, Marcos R Straliotto, Gianni Mancini, Claudia P Figueiredo, Antônio L Braga, João B R Teixeira, Andreza F Bem
Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Thus, reducing LDL oxidation is a potential approach to decrease the risk of the atherosclerosis. Organoselenium compounds have demonstrated promising atheroprotective properties in experimental models. Herein, we tested the in vitro atheroprotective capability of a modified organoselenium compound, Compound HBD, in protecting isolated LDL from oxidation as well as foam cells formation...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Xueyan Yang, Meihui Yin, Lan Yu, Meili Lu, Hongxin Wang, Futian Tang, Yingjie Zhang
We previously reported that simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, inhibits atherosclerosis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of simvastatin on mouse peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, the early feature of atherosclerosis, and explore its mechanisms. The results showed that simvastatin decreased cholesterol content and DiI-oxLDL (1,1'-didodecyl 3,3,3',3'-indocarbocyanine perchlorate - oxidized low-density lipoprotein) uptake, reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the medium, down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (a fatty acid receptor), and reduced the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages treated with oxLDL...
August 16, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Filip K Swirski, Matthias Nahrendorf, Peter Libby
Inflammation furnishes a series of pathogenic pathways that couple the risk factors for atherosclerosis with altered behavior of the intrinsic cells of the arterial wall, endothelium, and smooth muscle and promote the disease and its complications. Myeloid cells participate critically in all phases of atherosclerosis from initiation through progression, and ultimately the thrombotic consequences of this disease. Foam cells, lipid-laden macrophages, constitute the hallmark of atheromata. Much of the recent expansion in knowledge of the roles of myeloid cells in atherosclerosis revolves around the functional contributions of subsets of monocytes, precursors of macrophages, the most abundant myeloid cells in the atheroma...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Akira Sato
 The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Therefore, probes for detection of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) in atherosclerotic plaques and plasma are expected to be useful for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Recently, we found that four fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled heptapeptides (Lys-Trp-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Gly-Asp, KP6)-(FITC)KP6 and (FITC-AC)KP6- and then substitution with D-Lys at the N-terminus-(FITC)dKP6 and (FITC-AC)dKP6- bind with high specificity and high affinity to two oxidized forms of LDL, heavily oxidized LDL and minimally modified LDL (MM-LDL), through binding to lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized phosphatidylcholine, present abundantly in heavily oxidized LDL and MM-LDL...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Lingman Ma, Lifen Qian, Qidi Ying, Yan Zhang, Changlin Zhou, Guanzhong Wu
Here, we investigated whether I4, which was initially developed as a hypoglycemic agent, possesses anti-atherosclerotic activity and attempted to elucidate the probable mechanism of action underlying this activity. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet and simultaneously administered I4, glimepiride, or pioglitazone once daily for 12 weeks, and the atherosclerotic vascular lesions, lipid content, and expression levels of LOX-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and Bax/Bcl-2 in mouse aortas were assessed. RAW264.7 macrophage-derived foam cells were obtained via ox-LDL stimulation to investigate the lipid-lowering, anti-atherosclerotic inflammation and anti-apoptotic effect of I4...
October 7, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Tianlin Liu, Xin Zhang, Yuan Luo, Yuanliang Huang, Gang Wu
Bone tissue engineering technique is a promising strategy to repair large-volume bone defects. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional construct by combining icariin (a small-molecule Chinese medicine), allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and a siliceous mesostructured cellular foams-poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (SMC-PHBHHx) composite scaffold. We hypothesized that the slowly released icariin could significantly promote the efficacy of SMC-PHBHHx/allogeneic BMSCs for repairing critical-size bone defects in rats...
2016: Stem Cells International
Junfeng Wang, Xinshan Song, Yuhui Wang, Befkadu Abayneh, Yi Ding, Denghua Yan, Junhong Bai
The microbial fuel cell coupled with constructed wetland (CW-MFC) microcosms were operated under fed-batch mode for evaluating the effect of electrode materials on bioelectricity generation and microbial community composition. Experimental results indicated that the bioenergy output in CW-MFC increased with the substrate concentration; maximum average voltage (177mV) was observed in CW-MFC with carbon fiber felt (CFF). In addition, the four different materials resulted in the formation of significantly different microbial community distribution around the anode electrode...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Zubin Zhou, Zhengliang Xu, Feng Wang, Ye Lu, Peipei Yin, Chaolai Jiang, Yingjie Liu, Hua Li, Xiaowei Yu, Yuqiang Sun
To rescue the oxidative stress induced inhibition of osteogenesis, vitamin C (VC) was chemically modified onto three-dimensional graphene foams (3D GFs), then their regulation on osteogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) was studied. Combined action of VC + GF significantly decreased H2O2-induced oxidative stress, and rescued H2O2-inhibited cell viability, differentiation and osteogenesis of BM-MSCs in vitro. Further studies revealed that Wnt pathway may be involved in this protection of osteogenesis...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Ji-Young Joo, Gil Sun Cha, Jin Chung, Ju-Youn Lee, Sung-Jo Kim, Jeomil Choi
BACKGROUND: Although periodontal pathogens show a strong association with the development of atherosclerosis, little is known about how a microorganism contributes to disease onset and progression. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a major risk factor of atherogenesis. The principal objective of our study was to evaluate the ability of peptide 19 (Pep19) of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) heat shock protein (HSP) as a potent inducer of LDL oxidation, and as a secondary objective, to compare this ability with that of Pep19 from different bacteria...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Jiang Jiang, Zhuoran Li, Hongjun Wang, Yue Wang, Mark A Carlson, Matthew J Teusink, Matthew R MacEwan, Linxia Gu, Jingwei Xie
Herein, a robust method to fabricate expanded nanofiber scaffolds with controlled size and thickness using a customized mold during the modified gas-foaming process is reported. The expansion of nanofiber membranes is also simulated using a computational fluid model. Expanded nanofiber scaffolds implanted subcutaneously in rats show cellular infiltration, whereas non-expanded scaffolds only have surface cellular attachment. Compared to unexpanded nanofiber scaffolds, more CD68(+) and CD163(+) cells are observed within expanded scaffolds at all tested time points post-implantation...
October 6, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Yi Cao, Jimin Long, Yuejia Ji, Gui Chen, Yuexin Shen, Yu Gong, Juan Li
Increasing evidence suggests that exposure of particulate matter (PM) from traffic vehicles, e.g., diesel exhaust particles (DEP), was associated with adverse vascular effects, e.g., acceleration of atherosclerotic plaque progression. By analogy, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) could also induce similar effects. The formation of lipid laden foam cells, derived predominately from macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), is closely associated with the development of atherosclerosis and adverse vascular effects...
October 6, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
Chao Xue, Jun Gong, Yuming Guo, Jun Yin, Xiaohua He, Hua Huang, Xuefeng Zhou, Jinping Zhao
BACKGROUND: TRPV4, a non-selective cation channel, is involved in lipometabolism and atherosclerosis. However, whether TRPV4 participates in oxygenized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced foam cell formation remains unknown. The present study investigates the effect of oxLDL on the expression of TRPV4 in macrophages and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The expression of TRPV4 in RAW264.7 and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced U937, THP-1 cells was detected by immunofluorescence, and western blot was used to detect the TRPV4 expression before and after PMA induction...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Medica
Minh-Minh Ho, Deborah A Fraser
We characterized the transcriptional effects of complement opsonization on foam cell formation in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). RNA-sequencing was used to identify the pathways modulated by complement protein C1q during HMDM ingestion of the atherogenic lipoproteins oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL). All raw data were submitted to the MIAME-compliant database Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GEO: GSE80442;
December 2016: Data in Brief
Oren Rom, Hila Korach-Rechtman, Tony Hayek, Yael Danin-Poleg, Haim Bar, Yechezkel Kashi, Michael Aviram
The unsaturated aldehyde acrolein is pro-atherogenic, and the polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice (PJ), known for its anti-oxidative/anti-atherogenic properties, inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark feature of early atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate two unexplored areas of acrolein atherogenicity: macrophage lipid metabolism and the gut microbiota composition. The protective effects of PJ against acrolein atherogenicity were also evaluated. Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice that were fed acrolein (3 mg/kg/day) for 1 month showed significant increases in serum and aortic cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxides...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Fen Liu, Yi Wang, Jing Xu, Fangqiang Liu, Rongdang Hu, Hui Deng
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are positively correlated with periodontal disease. However, the molecular mechanisms linking atherosclerosis and periodontal infection are not clear. This study aimed to determine whether Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) altered the expression of genes regulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages in the presence of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: THP-1-derived macrophages were exposed to different concentrations (0...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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