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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789495/apolipoprotein-e-and-atherosclerosis-from-lipoprotein-metabolism-to-microrna-control-of-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Laura Bouchareychas, Robert L Raffai
Apolipoprotein (apo) E stands out among plasma apolipoproteins through its unprecedented ability to protect against atherosclerosis. Although best recognized for its ability to mediate plasma lipoprotein clearance in the liver and protect against macrophage foam cell formation, our recent understanding of the influence that apoE can exert to control atherosclerosis has significantly widened. Among apoE's newfound athero-protective properties include an ability to control exaggerated hematopoiesis, blood monocyte activation and aortic stiffening in mice with hyperlipidemia...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782146/multiscale-interfacial-strategy-to-engineer-mixed-metal-oxide-anodes-towards-an-enhanced-cycling-efficiency
#2
Yue Ma, Cheuk-Wai Tai, Shaowen Li, Kristina Edstrom, Bingqing Wei
Interconnected macro/mesoporous structures of mixed metal oxide (MMO) are developed on nickel foam as free-standing anodes for Li-ion batteries. The sustainable production is realized via a wet chemical etching process with bio-friendly chemicals. By means of the divalent iron doping during an in-situ re-crystallization process, the as-developed MMO anodes exhibit the enhanced levels of cycling efficiency. Furthermore, this atomic-scale modification coherently synergies with the encapsulation layer across a micrometer scale...
May 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777873/cinnamaldehyde-protects-vsmcs-against-ox-ldl-induced-proliferation-and-migration-through-s-arrest-and-inhibition-of-p38-jnk-mapks-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#3
Weifeng Li, Wenbing Zhi, Jinmeng Zhao, Qing Yao, Fang Liu, Xiaofeng Niu
Cinnamaldehyde (Cin), as a traditional flavor constituent isolated from the bark of Cinnamonum cassia Presl, has been commonly used for - digestive, cardiovascular and immune system diseases. The pathology of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) accelerated the progression of atherosclerosis. In our study, we found that cinnamaldehyde significantly suppressed ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammatory cytokine overproduction, as well as foam cell formation in VSMCs and macrophages. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and p65 NF-κB and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity...
May 16, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773402/hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose-hpmc-crosslinked-chitosan-ch-based-scaffolds-containing-bioactive-glass-bg-and-zinc-oxide-zno-for-alveolar-bone-repair
#4
Rabia Zeeshan, Zeeshan Mutahir, Haffsah Iqbal, Moazzam Ali, Farasat Iqbal, Kashif Ijaz, Faiza Sharif, Asma Tufail Shah, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Muhammad Yar, Shifang Luan, Ather Farooq Khan, Ihtesham-Ur-Rehman
The success of a dental implant relies on the presence of an optimal alveolar ridge. The aim of this study was to fabricate HPMC crosslinked chitosan based scaffolds for alveolar bone repair. Our results indicated that HPMC crosslinked CH/BG foams presented better morphological structure (132-90.5 μm) and mechanical responses (0.451 MPa with 100 mg BG) as confirmed by SEM analysis and fatigue testing respectively. Cytotoxicity analysis at day 2, 4 and 8 demonstrated that all composites were non-toxic and supported cellular viability...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772480/proteoglycan-4-regulates-macrophage-function-without-altering-atherosclerotic-lesion-formation-in-a-murine-bone-marrow-specific-deletion-model
#5
Joya E Nahon, Menno Hoekstra, Stefan R Havik, Peter J Van Santbrink, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Jan-Albert Kuivenhoven, Janine J Geerling, Miranda Van Eck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proteoglycan 4 (Prg4) has a high structural similarity with the established atherosclerosis-modulating proteoglycan versican, but its role in atherogenesis is still unknown. Therefore, the impact of Prg4 deficiency on macrophage function in vitro and atherosclerosis susceptibility in vivo was investigated. METHODS: The presence and localization of Prg4 was studied in atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, the effect of Prg4 deficiency on macrophage foam cell formation, cholesterol efflux and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response was determined...
May 5, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767463/mechanical-and-biological-properties-of-a-biodegradable-mg-zn-ca-porous-alloy
#6
Yong-Qiang Zhang, Yang Li, Huan Liu, Jing Bai, Ni-Rong Bao, Yue Zhang, Peng He, Jian-Ning Zhao, Li Tao, Feng Xue, Guang-Xin Zhou, Gen-Tao Fan
OBJECTIVES: As promising alternative to current metallic biomaterials, the porous Mg scaffold with a 3-D open-pore framework has drawn much attention in recent years due to its suitable biodegradation, biocompatibility, and mechanical properties for human bones. This experiment's aim is to study the mechanical properties, biosafety, and osteogenesis of porous Mg-Zn alloy. METHODS: A porous Mg-2Zn-0.3Ca (wt%) alloy was successfully prepared by infiltration casting, and the size of NaCl particles was detected by a laser particle size analyzer...
May 16, 2018: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764011/efficacy-and-safety-of-autologous-stromal-vascular-fraction-in-the-treatment-of-empty-nose-syndrome
#7
Do-Youn Kim, Hye Ran Hong, Eun Wook Choi, Sang Won Yoon, Yong Ju Jang
Objectives: Regenerative treatment using stem cells may serve as treatment option for empty nose syndrome (ENS), which is caused by the lack of turbinate tissue and deranged nervous system in the nasal cavity. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in the treatment of ENS. Methods: In this prospective observational clinical study, we enrolled 10 ENS patients who volunteered to undergo treatment of ENS through the injection of autologous SVF...
May 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763901/5-aminolevulinic-acid-mediated-sonodynamic-therapy-alleviates-atherosclerosis-via-enhancing-efferocytosis-and-facilitating-a-shift-in-the-th1-th2-balance-toward-th2-polarization
#8
Yang Yang, Yuanyuan Liu, Xi Chen, Jie Gong, Zhen Huang, Wei Wang, Yuanqi Shi, Yu Wang, Jianting Yao, Zhaoqian Shen, Zhen Tian, Hong Jin, Ye Tian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We and other groups have demonstrated that 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated sonodynamic therapy (ALA-SDT) induces macrophage and foam cell apoptosis and stabilizes atherosclerosis (AS) plaques in animal models. Lymphocytes also play vital roles in the development of AS. The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of ALA-SDT on T helper (Th) cell fate and function, Th subset differentiation, and atherosclerotic lesion stability. METHODS: We utilized ALA-SDT on Western diet-fed apoE-/-mice in vivo and human Jurkat cells in vitro...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762654/testing-of-disposable-protective-garments-against-isocyanate-permeation-from-spray-polyurethane-foam-insulation
#9
Michael P Mellette, Dhimiter Bello, Yalong Xue, Michael Yost, Anila Bello, Susan Woskie
Background: Diisocyanates (isocyanates), including methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), are the primary reactive components of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation. They are potent immune sensitizers and a leading cause of occupational asthma. Skin exposure to isocyanates may lead to both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and possibly contribute to systemic sensitization. More than sufficient evidence exists to justify the use of protective garments to minimize skin contact with aerosolized and raw isocyanate containing materials during SPF applications...
May 12, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760701/human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-modulate-monocytes-macrophages-and-alleviate-atherosclerosis
#10
Ximei Zhang, Feng Huang, Weixuan Li, Jun-Long Dang, Jia Yuan, Julie Wang, Dong-Lan Zeng, Can-Xing Sun, Yan-Ying Liu, Qian Ao, Hongmei Tan, Wenru Su, Xiaoxian Qian, Nancy Olsen, Song Guo Zheng
Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular diseases. Current evidences indicate that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSC) have shown anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, the function of GMSC in controlling atherosclerosis is far from clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the role of GMSC in atherosclerosis, examining the inhibition of GMSC on macrophage foam cell formation, and further determining whether GMSC could affect the polarization and activation of macrophages under different conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751497/epigenetic-regulation-of-atp-binding-cassette-protein-a1-abca1-gene-expression-a-new-era-to-alleviate-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Mohamed Zaiou, Ahmed Bakillah
The most important function of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is its ability to remove cholesterol from cells and tissues involved in the early stages of atherosclerosis back to the liver for excretion. The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 are responsible for the major part of cholesterol efflux to HDL in macrophage foam cells. Thus, promoting the process of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) by upregulating mainly ABCA1 remains one of the potential targets for the development of new therapeutic agents against atherosclerosis...
May 3, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749038/vascular-differentiation-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-3-d-auxetic-scaffolds
#12
Liqing Song, Mohammad Faisal Ahmed, Yan Li, Changchun Zeng, Yan Li
Auxetic scaffolds, i.e. scaffolds that can display negative Poisson's ratio, have unique physical properties and can expand transversally when axially strained or contract under compression. Auxetic materials have been used for bioprostheses and artery stents due to the enhanced compressive strength and shear stiffness. In vascular tissue engineering, auxetic scaffolds allow the widening of blood vessels when blood flows through (creating compressive stress) to prevent the blockage. However, the influence of auxetic materials on the cellular fate decision in local environment is unclear...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748186/dicer-in-macrophages-prevents-atherosclerosis-by-promoting-mitochondrial-oxidative-metabolism
#13
Yuanyuan Wei, Judit Corbalán-Campos, Rashmi Gurung, Lucia Natarelli, Mengyu Zhu, Nicole Exner, Florian Erhard, Franziska Greulich, Claudia Geißler, N Henriette Uhlenhaut, Ralf Zimmer, Andreas Schober
Background -Alternative macrophage activation, which relies on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, plays a central role in resolution of inflammation and prevents atherosclerosis. Moreover, macrophages handle large amounts of cholesterol and triglycerides derived from the engulfed modified lipoproteins during atherosclerosis. Although several microRNAs regulate macrophage polarization, the role of microRNA-generating enzyme Dicer in macrophage activation during atherosclerosis is unknown. Methods -To evaluate the role of Dicer in atherosclerosis, Apoe-/- mice with or without macrophage-specific Dicer deletion were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks...
May 10, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747398/on-demand-microwave-assisted-fabrication-of-gelatin-foams
#14
Shane D Frazier, Anastasia N Aday, Wil V Srubar
Ultraporous gelatin foams (porosity >94%, ρ ≈ 0.039⁻0.056 g/cm³) have been fabricated via microwave radiation. The resulting foam structures are unique with regard to pore morphology (i.e., closed-cell) and exhibit 100% macroporosity (pore size 332 to 1700 μm), presence of an external skin, and densities similar to aerogels. Results indicate that the primary foaming mechanism is governed by the vaporization of water that is tightly bound in secondary structures (i.e., helices, β-turns, β-sheets) that are present in dehydrated gelatin films but not present in the foams after microwave radiation (700 Watts)...
May 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746302/ldl-and-foam-cell-formation-as-the-basis-of-atherogenesis
#15
Alexander N Orekhov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipoprotein-induced intracellular lipid accumulation (foam cell formation) is a trigger of atherogenesis at the subendothelial arterial cell level. The purpose of this review is to describe the recent data related to the possible mechanisms of LDL-induced formation of lipid-laden foam cells and their role in the onset and development of atherosclerotic lesion. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting current studies are related to the factors affecting foam cell formation...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745647/ultralight-microcellular-polymer-graphene-nanoplatelet-foams-with-enhanced-dielectric-performance
#16
Mahdi Hamidinejad, Biao Zhao, Raymond K M Chu, Nima Moghimian, Hani E Naguib, Tobin Filleter, Chul B Park
Dielectric polymer nanocomposites with high dielectric constant (ε'), and low dielectric loss (tan δ) are extremely desirable in the electronics industry. Percolative polymer-graphene nanoplatelet (GnP) composites have shown great promise as dielectric materials for high-performance capacitors. Herein an industrially-viable technique for manufacturing a new class of ultralight polymer composite foams using commercial GnPs with excellent dielectric performance is presented. Using this method, the high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-GnPs composites with a microcellular structure were fabricated by melt mixing...
May 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740794/focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-with-heterozygous-apolipoprotein-e5-glu3lys
#17
Masaru Sasaki, Tetsuhiko Yasuno, Kenji Ito, Akira Matsunaga, Satoshi Hisano, Yasuhiro Abe, Katsuhisa Miyake, Kosuke Masutani, Hitoshi Nakashima, Takao Saito
Apolipoprotein (apo) E5 is a rare apoE isoform. The apoE5 (Glu3Lys) variant, which is caused by the substitution of lysine with glutamic acid at codon 3, has a relative frequency of 0.1% in Japan. Previous studies have reported that apoE5 (Glu3Lys) is associated with hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases, but this isoform has higher LDL receptor-binding activity than that of normal apoE3. Nephropathy associated with apoE5 (Glu3Lys) alone has not yet been reported. We present a case of a 51-year-old man with nephrotic syndrome...
May 8, 2018: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738371/apoa-1-mimetic-peptide-elk-2a2k2e-decreases-inflammatory-factor-levels-via-the-abca1-jak2-stat3-ttp-axis-in-thp-1-derived-macrophages
#18
Jia-Lin Wang, Duo Gong, Xin-Yan Hu, Su Wu, Xi-Long Zheng, Jie Wu, Xiao-Er Tang, Da-Wei Zhang, Chao-Ke Tang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) mimetic peptide ELK-2A2K2E regulates inflammatory cytokine expression via activating the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)- tristetraprolin (TTP) signaling pathway in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cells were treated with the apoA-1 mimetic peptide ELK-2A2K2E at different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 80 μg/ml) or incubated with ELK-2A2K2E (40 μg/ml) for different times (0, 6, 12, 24 h)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737518/mir-181a-inhibits-vascular-inflammation-induced-by-ox-ldl-via-targeting-tlr4-in-human-macrophages
#19
Xian-Jin Du, Jing-Min Lu, Yin Sha
Atherosclerosis is a kind of chronic inflammation disease with lipid accumulation in in blood vessel linings. Increasing evidence has reported that microRNAs can exert crucial roles in atherosclerosis. In previous study, miR-181a has been implicated to be abnormally expressed in atherosclerosis mice, however its detailed function in atherosclerosis remains uninvestigated. Hence, in our current study, we focused on the biological role of miR-181a in atherosclerosis progression. Ox-LDL has been commonly identified as an important atherosclerosis regulator...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737246/role-of-ox-ldl-and-lox-1-in-atherogenesis
#20
Ajoe John Kattoor, Sri Harsha Kanuri, Jawahar L Mehta
Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) plays a central role in atherosclerosis by acting on multiple cells such as endothelial cells, macrophages, platelets, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells through LOX-1. LOX-1 is a 50 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as receptor for ox-LDL, modified lipoproteins, activated platelets and advance glycation end-products. Ox-LDL through LOX-1, in endothelial cells, cause increase in leukocyte adhesion molecules, activates pathways of apoptosis, increase reactive oxygen species and cause endothelial dysfunction...
May 7, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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