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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606828/moving-threat-attention-and-distance-change-interact-in-threat-responding
#1
Inna Arnaudova, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt, Tom Beckers
Defensive reactions need to be quick and appropriate to ensure survival. Thus, it is crucial that threats trigger immediate action upon detection, even in the absence of awareness. In addition, the form of such action should be appropriate to the imminence of the threat. Thus, attention should be guided by signals of increasing threat imminence. We examined whether subliminally presented threat stimuli provoke automatic avoidance tendencies, and whether threat cues' distance change and threat potential determine attention allocation...
September 8, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405100/fearing-shades-of-grey-individual-differences-in-fear-responding-towards-generalisation-stimuli
#2
Inna Arnaudova, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt, Tom Beckers
Individual differences in fear generalisation have been proposed to play a role in the aetiology and/or maintenance of anxiety disorders, but few data are available to directly support that claim. The research that is available has focused mostly on generalisation of peripheral and central physiological fear responses. Far less is known about the generalisation of avoidance, the behavioural component of fear. In two experiments, we evaluated how neuroticism, a known vulnerability factor for anxiety, modulates an array of fear responses, including avoidance tendencies, towards generalisation stimuli (GS)...
July 12, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924608/harnessing-the-power-of-play-in-emotionally-focused-family-therapy-with-preschool-children
#3
Amber B Willis, Darryl R Haslam, J Maria Bermudez
Emotionally focused family therapy (EFFT) is an attachment-based therapy model that has been used with older children and adolescents. More recently, it has been suggested for use with young children. EFFT holds promise as a clinical treatment for young children coping with attachment problems, but more detailed guidelines are needed for implementing the model with this age-group. Whereas preschool and kindergarten age children are less able to participate in talk therapy than older children, accommodations need to be made to this approach when the identified patient is a young child...
February 29, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257618/avoidance-learning-a-review-of-theoretical-models-and-recent-developments
#4
REVIEW
Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt, Tom Beckers
Avoidance is a key characteristic of adaptive and maladaptive fear. Here, we review past and contemporary theories of avoidance learning. Based on the theories, experimental findings and clinical observations reviewed, we distill key principles of how adaptive and maladaptive avoidance behavior is acquired and maintained. We highlight clinical implications of avoidance learning theories and describe intervention strategies that could reduce maladaptive avoidance and prevent its return. We end with a brief overview of recent developments and avenues for further research...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26200111/effects-of-approach-avoidance-training-on-the-extinction-and-return-of-fear-responses
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Inna Arnaudova, Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt, Tom Beckers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exposure therapy for anxiety involves confronting a patient with fear-evoking stimuli, a procedure based partially on Pavlovian extinction. Exposure and other extinction-based therapies usually lead to (partial) reduction of fear symptoms, but a substantial number of patients experience a return of fear after treatment. Here we tested whether the combination of fear extinction with modification of approach-avoidance tendencies using an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) would result in the further reduction of conditioned fear and/or help prevent return of fear after extinction...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25917538/gold-nanoparticles-and-or-n-acetylcysteine-mediate-carrageenan-induced-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-concentration-dependent-manner
#6
Marcos M S Paula, Fabricia Petronilho, Francieli Vuolo, Gabriela K Ferreira, Leandro De Costa, Giulia P Santos, Pauline S Effting, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Alexandre G Dal-Bó, Tiago E Frizon, Paulo C L Silveira, Ricardo A Pinho
We report the effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in an acute inflammation model induced by carrageenan (CG) and compared this effect with those induced by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) alone and by the synergistic effect of NAC and AuNP together. Male Wistar rats received saline or saline containing CG administered into the pleural cavity, and some rats also received NAC (20 mg/kg) subcutaneously and/or AuNP administered into the pleural cavity immediately after surgery. Four hours later, the rats were sacrificed and pleural exudates obtained for evaluation of cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase activities...
October 2015: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25588069/individualizing-oral-busulfan-dose-after-using-a-test-dose-in-patients-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-pharmacokinetic-characterization
#7
Cristiane Effting, Adriano de Moraes Arantes, Luciana V Queiroz Labre, Wilsione J Carneiro, Jerônimo R de Oliveira Neto, César Bariani, Caroline R Rodrigues, Andryne R Rodrigues, Luiz C Cunha
BACKGROUND: Busulfan is an alkylating agent used for conditioning patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with a narrow therapeutic range and highly variable pharmacokinetics. High concentrations induce toxicity, especially hepatic veno-occlusive disease, also referred to as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. This study aimed to assess busulfan pharmacokinetic variability in pretransplant conditioning regimens using an analytical method validated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector (HPLC/PDA)...
February 2015: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23913713/emotion-focused-family-therapy-for-eating-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents
#8
REVIEW
Adèle Lafrance Robinson, Joanne Dolhanty, Leslie Greenberg
UNLABELLED: Family-based therapy (FBT) is regarded as best practice for the treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents. In FBT, parents play a vital role in bringing their child or adolescent to health; however, a significant minority of families do not respond to this treatment. This paper introduces a new model whereby FBT is enhanced by integrating emotion-focused therapy (EFT) principles and techniques with the aims of helping parents to support their child's refeeding and interruption of symptoms...
January 2015: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23889193/integration-of-a-high-na-light-microscope-in-a-scanning-electron-microscope
#9
A C Zonnevylle, R F C Van Tol, N Liv, A C Narvaez, A P J Effting, P Kruit, J P Hoogenboom
We present an integrated light-electron microscope in which an inverted high-NA objective lens is positioned inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM objective lens and the light objective lens have a common axis and focal plane, allowing high-resolution optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on the same area of a sample simultaneously. Components for light illumination and detection can be mounted outside the vacuum, enabling flexibility in the construction of the light microscope...
October 2013: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23755030/individual-differences-in-discriminatory-fear-learning-under-conditions-of-ambiguity-a-vulnerability-factor-for-anxiety-disorders
#10
Inna Arnaudova, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Marieke Effting, Yannick Boddez, Merel Kindt, Tom Beckers
Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear-conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning...
2013: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23409024/simultaneous-correlative-scanning-electron-and-high-na-fluorescence-microscopy
#11
Nalan Liv, A Christiaan Zonnevylle, Angela C Narvaez, Andries P J Effting, Philip W Voorneveld, Miriam S Lucas, James C Hardwick, Roger A Wepf, Pieter Kruit, Jacob P Hoogenboom
Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a unique method for investigating biological structure-function relations. With CLEM protein distributions visualized in fluorescence can be mapped onto the cellular ultrastructure measured with electron microscopy. Widespread application of correlative microscopy is hampered by elaborate experimental procedures related foremost to retrieving regions of interest in both modalities and/or compromises in integrated approaches. We present a novel approach to correlative microscopy, in which a high numerical aperture epi-fluorescence microscope and a scanning electron microscope illuminate the same area of a sample at the same time...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22223096/what-s-wrong-with-fear-conditioning
#12
Tom Beckers, Angelos-Miltiadis Krypotos, Yannick Boddez, Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt
Fear conditioning is one of the prime paradigms of behavioural neuroscience and a source of tremendous insight in the fundamentals of learning and memory and the psychology and neurobiology of emotion. It is also widely regarded as a model for the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders in a diathesis-stress model of psychopathology. Starting from the apparent paradox between the adaptive nature of fear conditioning and the dysfunctional nature of pathological anxiety, we present a critique of the human fear conditioning paradigm as an experimental model for psychopathology...
January 2013: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17451643/contextual-control-of-human-fear-associations-in-a-renewal-paradigm
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Marieke Effting, Merel Kindt
The original model of behavior change suggests that extinction is context dependent whereas fear acquisition is context independent [Bouton, M. E. & Ricker, S. T. (1994). Renewal of extinguished responding in a second context. Animal Learning and Behavior, 22, 317-324]. Supportive evidence stems mainly from animal studies, showing that after acquisition (conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)) in Context A and extinction in Context B, fear is renewed by presenting the CS in acquisition Context A (ABA renewal) or in a novel Context C (ABC renewal)...
September 2007: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16916856/cognitive-behavioural-therapies-and-exercise-programmes-for-patients-with-fibromyalgia-state-of-the-art-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
S van Koulil, M Effting, F W Kraaimaat, W van Lankveld, T van Helmond, H Cats, P L C M van Riel, A J L de Jong, J F Haverman, A W M Evers
This review provides an overview of the effects of non-pharmacological treatments for patients with fibromyalgia (FM), including cognitive-behavioural therapy, exercise training programmes, or a combination of the two. After summarising and discussing preliminary evidence of the rationale of non-pharmacological treatment in patients with FM, we reviewed randomised, controlled trials for possible predictors of the success of treatment such as patient and treatment characteristics. In spite of support for their suitability in FM, the effects of non-pharmacological interventions are limited and positive outcomes largely disappear in the long term...
May 2007: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15629753/transfer-of-newly-acquired-stimulus-valence-between-identities-in-dissociative-identity-disorder-did
#15
Rafaële J C Huntjens, Madelon L Peters, Albert Postma, Liesbeth Woertman, Marieke Effting, Onno van der Hart
Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) frequently report episodes of interidentity amnesia, that is amnesia for events experienced by other identities. The goal of the present experiment was to test the implicit transfer of trauma-related information between identities in DID. We hypothesized that whereas declarative information may transfer from one identity to another, the emotional connotation of the memory may be dissociated, especially in the case of negative, trauma-related emotional valence...
February 2005: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/5792821/two-procedures-for-studying-partial-reinforcement-effts-in-classical-conditioning-of-the-planarian
#16
R M Yaremko, H D Kimmel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1969: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/5350219/efft-of-hypophysectomy-on-lipid-composition-in-the-immature-rat
#17
B Jensen, O S Privett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1969: Journal of Nutrition
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