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Combat trauma

Pauline K Park, Jeremy W Cannon, Wen Ye, Lorne H Blackbourne, John B Holcomb, William Beninati, Lena M Napolitano
BACKGROUND: The overall incidence and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in civilian trauma settings have decreased over the past four decades; however, the epidemiology and impact of ARDS on modern combat casualty care are unknown. We sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, resource utilization, and mortality associated with ARDS in current combat casualty care. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of mechanically ventilated US combat casualties within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (formerly the Joint Theater Trauma Registry) during Operation Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom (October 2001 to August 2008) for ARDS development, resource utilization, and mortality...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Joseph K Maddry, Alejandra G Mora, Shelia Savell, Lauren K Reeves, Crystal A Perez, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: Medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) is the movement and en route care of injured and medically compromised patients by medical care providers via helicopter. Military MEDEVAC platforms provide lifesaving interventions that improve survival in combat. There is limited evidence to support decision making related to en route care and allocation of resources. The association between provider type and en route care is not well understood. Our objective was to describe MEDEVAC providers and identify associations between provider type, procedures performed, and outcomes...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Christine Anne Ganzer
: A review of recent research and its relevance for nurses in all settings. ABSTRACT: The last two decades have seen increasing numbers of women entering all branches of the U.S. armed forces. Now that women in the military are no longer prohibited from holding direct combat positions, they are often exposed to traumatic events that place them at higher risk for mental health conditions. Nurses working within the Veterans Affairs (VA) system and those working in non-VA settings are likely to encounter female veterans...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Nursing
Nicholas S Szuflita, Chris J Neal, Michael K Rosner, Ralph F Frankowski, Robert G Grossman
Spine injuries are more prevalent among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans than among veterans of previous conflicts. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the context, mode, and clinical outcomes of spine injuries sustained by U.S. military personnel in theater. Injury and clinical data from patients who sustained a spine injury in Iraq or Afghanistan between 2003 and 2008 were extracted from the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Fischer's exact test was used to compare demographic variables between battle and nonbattle spine injuries...
October 2016: Military Medicine
David R Tribble, Ping Li, Tyler E Warkentien, Bradley A Lloyd, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Anuradha Ganesan, William Bradley, Deepak Aggarwal, M Leigh Carson, Amy C Weintrob, Clinton K Murray
The Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study began in June 2009 as combat operations were decreasing in Iraq and increasing in Afghanistan. Our analysis examines the rate of infections of wounded U.S. military personnel from operational theaters in Iraq and Afghanistan admitted to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center between June 2009 and December 2013 and transferred to a participating U.S. hospital. Infection risk factors were examined in a multivariate logistic regression analysis (expressed as odds ratios [OR]; 95% confidence intervals [CI])...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Adrienne J Heinz, Nicole L Cohen, Lori Holleran, Jennifer A Alvarez, Marcel O Bonn-Miller
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a condition that disproportionately affects military veterans, is associated with heightened rates of aggression and suicide. Although experience with firearms is common among this population, virtually nothing is known regarding who is more likely to own a firearm and whether firearm ownership is differentially associated with psychological and behavioral risk factors among veterans with PTSD. Of 465 veterans (79% male) entering PTSD treatment, 28% owned a firearm (median number of firearms among owners = 3, range = 1-40)...
October 2016: Military Medicine
James Snyder, Abigail Gewirtz, Lynn Schrepferman, Suzanne R Gird, Jamie Quattlebaum, Michael R Pauldine, Katie Elish, Osnat Zamir, Charles Hayes
Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers' and mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents' positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members' emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and nondeployed mothers and their 4- to 13-year-old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child's symptoms...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Jean-Guillaume Meusnier, Charles Dewar, Erti Mavrovi, Frederic Caremil, Pierre-Francois Wey, Jean-Yves Martinez
BACKGROUND: Junctional hemorrhage (i.e., between the trunk and limbs) are too proximal for a tourniquet and difficult to compress. These hemorrhages are responsible for 20% of preventable deaths by bleeding on the battlefield. The majority of these involve the groin area. Devices allowing a proximal compression for arterial axes have been recently developed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two junctional- tourniquet models, the Combat Ready Clamp (CRoC®) and the SAM® Junctional Tourniquet (SJT), in simulated out-of-hospital trauma care when tourniquets were ineffective to stop the arterial flow...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Rebecca Rodin, George A Bonanno, Nadia Rahman, Nicole A Kouri, Richard A Bryant, Charles R Marmar, Adam D Brown
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests that the ability to flexibly express and suppress emotions ("expressive flexibility") supports successful adaptation to trauma and loss. However, studies have yet to examine whether individuals that meet criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression exhibit alterations in expressive flexibility. The present study aims to test whether lower levels of expressive flexibility are associated with PTSD and depression in combat-exposed veterans...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sharon Edwards, Jason Smith
Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, in civilian environments and on the battlefield. Trauma-induced haemorrhage is the principal cause of potentially preventable death, which is generally attributable to a combination of vascular injury and coagulopathy. Survival rates following severe traumatic injury have increased due to advanced trauma management initiatives and treatment protocols, influenced by lessons learned from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The use of tourniquets and intraosseous needles, early blood and blood product transfusion, administration of tranexamic acid in pre-hospital settings, and consultant-led damage control resuscitation incorporating damage control surgery have all played their part...
October 6, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
T L Landsman, T Touchet, S M Hasan, C Smith, B Russell, J Rivera, D J Maitland, E Cosgriff-Hernandez
: Uncontrolled hemorrhage accounts for more than 30% of trauma deaths worldwide. Current hemostatic devices focus primarily on time to hemostasis, but prevention of bacterial infection is also critical for improving survival rates. In this study, we sought to improve on current devices used for hemorrhage control by combining the large volume-filling capabilities and rapid clotting of shape memory polymer (SMP) foams with the swelling capacity of hydrogels. In addition, a hydrogel composition was selected that readily complexes with elemental iodine to impart bactericidal properties to the device...
October 6, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Gadi Zerach, Yafit Levin, Roy Aloni, Zahava Solomon
Objectives: The aversive, long-term toll of war captivity and fathers' combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) on adult offspring's mental health has been recently exemplified. However, studies that have examined the implication of PTSS of both fathers and mothers in the intergenerational transmission of trauma to offspring are still lacking. This prospective study assessed the unique and combined effects of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) fathers' and mothers' PTSS in adult offspring's PTSS...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Anthony P King, Stefanie R Block, Rebecca K Sripada, Sheila A M Rauch, Katherine E Porter, Todd K Favorite, Nicholas Giardino, Israel Liberzon
Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here, we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused) using a novel group therapy [mindfulness-based exposure therapy (MBET)] in Afghanistan (OEF) or Iraq (OIF) combat veterans with PTSD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Gregory J Hollis, Toby M Keene, Rory M Ardlie, David Ge Caldicott, Stuart G Stapleton
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe prehospital use of ketamine by ACT Ambulance Service, and frequency of endotracheal intubation. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients receiving prehospital ketamine between 1 January and 31 December 2013. Episodes were identified from the prehospital electronic patient care records, then linkage to ED records at two receiving hospitals. Demographics, dose, indication and occasions of intubation were analysed...
October 3, 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Todd M Bishop, Peter C Britton, Kerry L Knox, Wilfred R Pigeon
Disrupted sleep is common among combat veterans and can negatively impact response to mental health treatments. A trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) and imagery rehearsal therapy (IRT) for nightmares was conducted with 14 combat veterans diagnosed with insomnia, and who were experiencing posttraumatic stress and/or depression. In the case-series that follows veterans experienced clinically significant changes in sleep, and statistically significant reductions in insomnia, nightmare, depression and posttraumatic stress severity following treatment...
2016: Military Behavioral Health
Jennifer M Sabino, Julia Slater, Ian L Valerio
Scope and Significance: Reconstruction of traumatic injuries requiring tissue transfer begins with aggressive resuscitation and stabilization. Systematic advances in acute casualty care at the point of injury have improved survival and allowed for increasingly complex treatment before definitive reconstruction at tertiary medical facilities outside the combat zone. As a result, the complexity of the limb salvage algorithm has increased over 14 years of combat activities in Iraq and Afghanistan. Problem: Severe poly-extremity trauma in combat casualties has led to a large number of extremity salvage cases...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
Sanjay Maurya, Prem Singh Bhandari
Significance: Wounds sustained in a combat trauma often result in a composite tissue loss. Combat injuries, due to high energy transfer to tissues, lead to trauma at multiple anatomical sites. An early wound cover is associated with lower rate of infections and a faster wound healing. The concept of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the management of combat-related wounds has evolved from the civilian trauma and the wounds from nontraumatic etiologies. Recent Advances: Encouraged by the results of NPWT in noncombat-related wounds, the military surgeons during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom used this novel method in a large percentage of combat wounds, with gratifying results...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
Yael Lahav, Jacob Y Stein, Zahava Solomon
OBJECTIVE: War captivity may affect spouses of former-prisoners-of-war (ex-POWs) in many ways, including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and somatic difficulties manifested in negative perceived health. This is generally known as secondary traumatization. Theory suggests that development of secondary traumatization occurs through the relationship with the primary trauma survivor Figley (1986) , thus implying that the ability to keep balanced emotional distance in the relationship may play a pivotal role...
October 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Jessica C Rivera, Paul F Pasquina
Recent military combat operations have resulted in a high burden of extremity-related long-term disability due to limb amputation and persistent deficits despite limb reconstruction. The US Army amputee care programs, established at focused centers with interdisciplinary care teams, have redefined the standard of how rehabilitation following limb loss is undertaken as the limb reconstruction is just one part of the entire patient's restoration of wellness and reintegration. Inspired by this approached, comprehensive rehabilitation programs designed for patients with limb reconstruction have also excelled rehabilitation following a spectrum of severe limb trauma...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Heather C Yun, Clinton K Murray, Kenneth J Nelson, Michael J Bosse
Trauma to the extremities is disproportionately represented in casualties of recent conflicts, accounting for >50% of injuries sustained during operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Infectious complications have been reported in >25% of those evacuated for trauma, and 50% of such patients were treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Osteomyelitis has been reported in 9% (14% of intensive care unit patients), and deep-wound infection in 27% of type III open-tibia fractures. Infections complicating extremity trauma are frequently caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria and have been demonstrated to lead to failure of limb salvage, unplanned operative take-backs, late amputations, and decreased likelihood of returning to duty...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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