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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132272/traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-conceptual-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-considerations-in-the-context-of-co-occurrence
#1
Jennifer J Vasterling, Shawna N Jacob, Ann Rasmusson
The events leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often psychologically traumatic (e.g., motor vehicle accidents) or occur within a broader context of psychological trauma, such as military combat or recurrent interpersonal violence. In such cases, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop and serve to complicate TBI recovery. Likewise, brain trauma may impede emotional resolution following psychological trauma exposure. This article addresses comorbid PTSD and TBI, including the epidemiology of PTSD following TBI; the clinical presentation of the comorbidity; potential mechanisms that complicate recovery from psychological trauma and TBI when they co-occur; and considerations for the clinical management of PTSD in the context of TBI, including implications for both psychosocial and psychopharmacological PTSD treatments...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131993/the-structure-of-co-occurring-ptsd-and-depression-symptoms-in-a-cohort-of-marines-pre-and-post-deployment
#2
J Ben Barnes, Adele M Hayes, Ateka A Contractor, William P Nash, Brett T Litz
Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder are the most frequently co-occurring problems following potentially traumatic events. It is unclear whether these comorbidities represent two correlated but distinct disorders or a common post-event response. We sought to inform this question by examining the distinctiveness of PTSD and depression symptoms at four cross-sectional time points, using data from a parent prospective longitudinal study of 858 Marines evaluated before deployment and approximately 1, 5, and 8 months after returning from the Afghanistan war...
November 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116045/contemporary-noise-induced-hearing-loss-nihl-prevention
#3
Wiesław Sułkowski, Kalina Owczarek, Jurek Olszewski
Hearing impairment caused by noise, traditionally called - depending on the duration of exposure - acute or chronic acoustic trauma, includes, in addition to presbyacusis, the most common adult population of hearing impaired. In Poland - according to the report of the Central Statistical Office (GUS, 2011), the number of workers employed in NDN exceeded the noise level (85 dB) is about 200 thousand, the highest in the mining, metal and metal products production, textiles and wood production. According to the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of on June 30, 2009, on the list of occupational diseases (Journal of Laws No...
August 31, 2017: Otolaryngologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115646/a-new-perspective-on-life-saving-procedures-in-a-battlefield-setting-emergency-cricothyroidotomy-needle-thoracostomy-and-chest-tube-thoracostomy-with-night-vision-goggles
#4
Sedat Bilge, Attila Aydın, Meltem Bilge, Cemile Aydın, Erdem Çevik, Mehmet Eryılmaz
BACKGROUND: In the patients with multiple and serious trauma, early applications of life-saving procedures are related to improved survival. We tried to experimentally determine the feasibility of life-saving interventions that are performed with the aid of night vision goggles (NVG) in nighttime combat scenario. METHODS: Chest tube thoracostomy (CTT), emergency cricothyroidotomy (EC), and needle thoracostomy (NT) interventions were performed by 10 combatant medical staff...
November 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097176/how-shall-we-transfuse-hippolyta
#5
Brendan C Graham, Lindsey J Graham, Carl H Rose, Jeffrey L Winters
The US Department of Defense recently made the decision to open direct ground combat roles to women. Blood product transfusion is an essential component of the US Military guidelines for tactical combat casualty care and damage control resuscitation, but blood transfusion carries with it the specific side effect of alloimmunization-a uniquely significant side effect for young women who may desire subsequent pregnancies. Presently to be considered are the changes that may need to be made to blood transfusion in the setting of battlefield medicine to optimally care for combat-injured women, as a majority of the existing data regarding the risks of transfusion in the trauma setting involve predominantly men...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077240/training-and-assessing-critical-airway-breathing-and-hemorrhage-control-procedures-for-trauma-care-live-tissue-versus-synthetic-models
#6
Danielle Hart, Robert Rush, Gregory Rule, Joseph Clinton, Gregory Beilman, Shilo Anders, Rachel Brown, Mary Ann McNeil, Troy Reihsen, Jeffrey Chipman, Robert Sweet
INTRODUCTION: Optimal teaching and assessment methods and models for emergency airway, breathing and hemorrhage interventions are not currently known. The University of Minnesota Combat Casualty Training consortium (UMN CCTC) was formed to explore the strengths and weaknesses of synthetic training models (STMs) versus Live tissue (LT) models. In this study, we compare the effectiveness of best in class STMs versus an anesthetized caprine (goat) model for training and assessing 7 procedures: Junctional hemorrhage control, Tourniquet (TQ) placement, Chest seal, Needle thoracostomy (NCD), Nasopharyngeal airway (NPA), Tube thoracostomy, and Cricothyrotomy (Cric)...
October 27, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071337/evaluation-of-military-use-of-tranexamic-acid-and-associated-thromboembolic-events
#7
Luke R Johnston, Carlos J Rodriguez, Eric A Elster, Matthew J Bradley
Importance: Since publication of the CRASH-2 and MATTERs studies, the US military has included tranexamic acid (TXA) in clinical practice guidelines. While TXA was shown to decrease mortality in trauma patients requiring massive transfusion, improper administration and increased risk of venous thromboembolism remain a concern. Objective: To determine the appropriateness of TXA administration by US military medical personnel based on current Joint Trauma System clinical practice guidelines and to determine if TXA administration is associated with venous thromboembolism...
October 25, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067429/association-of-prehospital-blood-product-transfusion-during-medical-evacuation-of-combat-casualties-in-afghanistan-with-acute-and-30-day-survival
#8
Stacy A Shackelford, Deborah J Del Junco, Nicole Powell-Dunford, Edward L Mazuchowski, Jeffrey T Howard, Russ S Kotwal, Jennifer Gurney, Frank K Butler, Kirby Gross, Zsolt T Stockinger
Importance: Prehospital blood product transfusion in trauma care remains controversial due to poor-quality evidence and cost. Sequential expansion of blood transfusion capability after 2012 to deployed military medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) units enabled a concurrent cohort study to focus on the timing as well as the location of the initial transfusion. Objective: To examine the association of prehospital transfusion and time to initial transfusion with injury survival...
October 24, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058357/identifying-disease-foci-from-static-and-dynamic-effective-connectivity-networks-illustration-in-soldiers-with-trauma
#9
D Rangaprakash, Michael N Dretsch, Archana Venkataraman, Jeffrey S Katz, Thomas S Denney, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Brain connectivity studies report group differences in pairwise connection strengths. While informative, such results are difficult to interpret since our understanding of the brain relies on region-based properties, rather than on connection information. Given that large disruptions in the brain are often caused by a few pivotal sources, we propose a novel framework to identify the sources of functional disruption from effective connectivity networks. Our approach integrates static and time-varying effective connectivity modeling in a probabilistic framework, to identify aberrant foci and the corresponding aberrant connectomics network...
October 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040202/re-examination-of-a-battlefield-trauma-golden-hour-policy
#10
Jeffrey T Howard, Russ S Kotwal, Alexis R Santos, Matthew J Martin, Zsolt T Stockinger
BACKGROUND: Most combat casualties who die, do so in the prehospital setting. Efforts directed toward alleviating prehospital combat trauma death, known as killed in action (KIA) mortality, have the greatest opportunity for eliminating preventable death. METHODS: 4,542 military casualties injured in Afghanistan from September 11, 2001 to March 31, 2014 were included in this retrospective analysis to evaluate proposed explanations for observed KIA reduction following a mandate by Secretary of Defense Robert M...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036483/a-decade-of-war-prospective-trajectories-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-deployed-us-military-personnel-and-the-influence-of-combat-exposure
#11
Carrie J Donoho, George A Bonanno, Ben Porter, Lauren Kearney, Teresa M Powell
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder among service members and veterans. The clinical course of PTSD varies across individuals, and patterns of symptom development have yet to be clearly delineated. Previous studies have been limited by convenience sampling, short follow-up periods, and inability to account for combat-related trauma. To determine the trajectories of PTSD symptoms among deployed military personnel with and without combat exposure, we used data from a population-based representative sample of 8,178 US service members participating in the Millennium Cohort Study from 2001-2011...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029772/inhibition-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-with-rapamycin-prevents-trauma-induced-heterotopic-ossification
#12
Ammar T Qureshi, Devaveena Dey, Erin M Sanders, Jonathan G Seavey, Allison M Tomasino, Kaitlyn Moss, Benjamin Wheatley, David Cholok, Shawn Loder, John Li, Benjamin Levi, Thomas A Davis
A pressing clinical need exists for 63% to 65% of combat-wounded service members and 11% to 20% of civilians who develop heterotopic ossification (HO) after blast-related extremity injury and traumatic injuries, respectively. The mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is a central cellular sensor of injury. We evaluated the prophylactic effects of rapamycin, a selective inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, on HO formation in a rat model of blast-related, polytraumatic extremity injury. Rapamycin was administered intraperitoneally daily for 14 days at 0...
November 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023137/sexual-vs-nonsexual-currently-most-upsetting-trauma-a-fresh-look-at-attenuation-of-sexual-response-alcohol-intoxication-and-post-traumatic-stress
#13
Elizabeth R Bird, Martin Seehuus, Julia R Heiman, Kelly Cue Davis, Jeanette Norris, William H George
This study examined the dependence of sexual response (vaginal pulse amplitude [VPA] and subjective sexual arousal) on alcohol intoxication (.10% breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] versus no alcohol) and the nature of a woman's currently most upsetting traumatic event (C-MUTE), whether it was sexual (e.g., rape) or nonsexual (e.g., combat). Self-reported sexual outcomes were also compared by C-MUTE type. A total of 117 women completed background measures and either drank alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017066/a-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-posttraumatic-cognitions-inventory-with-veterans-seeking-treatment-following-military-trauma-exposure
#14
Minden B Sexton, Margaret T Davis, Diana C Bennett, David H Morris, Sheila A M Rauch
Trauma-related beliefs have salient relationships to the development and maintenance of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following stress exposure. The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) has the potential to be a standard assessment of this critical construct. However, some critical aspects of validity and reliability appear to vary by population. To date, the PTCI has not been psychometrically evaluated for use with military-specific traumas such as combat and military sexual trauma (MST). Based on exploratory and confirmatory analyses with 949 Veterans seeking trauma-focused treatment for military traumas, we found a four factor model (negative view of the self, negative view of the world, self-blame, and negative beliefs about coping competence) provided the best fit...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994885/management-of-combat-related-facial-injuries
#15
Ali Mardassi, Senda Turki, Hajer Mbarek, Amani Hachicha, Ghassen Chebbi, Sonia Benzarti, Maher Abouda
INTRODUCTION: Combat-related facial injuries involve various lesions of the mouth, the eye sockets and the facial bones. The goal of this study is to precise the particularities of these affections and their therapeutic management. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed about 56 cases of combat-related facial injuries over a period of 5 years (2010 - 2014). RESULTS: Our study included 56 male patients with an average age of 29 years (20-37)...
December 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994516/the-implication-of-combat-stress-and-ptsd-trajectories-in-metabolic-syndrome-and-elevated-c-reactive-protein-levels-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Zahava Solomon, Yafit Levin, Einor Ben Assayag, Orit Furman, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shlomo Berliner, Avi Ohry
OBJECTIVE: This study sheds light on the importance of long-term follow-up of trauma survivors, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories, and early detection of health risk factors in trauma survivors. The present study prospectively assessed the following over 23 years: (1) the association of psychological and physiologic stress during captivity with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which includes hypertension; elevated levels of insulin, triglycerides, and fasting glucose; decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and obesity and (2) the implication of PTSD trajectories in elevated CRP levels and MetS...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967639/tissue-engineered-bone-for-treatment-of-combat-related-limb-injuries
#17
R G Vasyliev, V M Oksymets, A E Rodnichenko, A V Zlatska, O S Gubar, I M Gordiienko, D O Zubov
AIM: Based on our preliminary positive clinical results with use of cultured bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in traumatology, our aim was to develop living three-dimensional tissue-engineered bone equivalent transplantation technology for restoration of critical sized bone defects caused by combat related high energy trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To fabricate bone equivalent we used devitalized allogeneic bone scaffolds (blocks and chips) seeded with cultured autologous cells: bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in mix with periosteal progenitor cells and endothelial progenitor cells...
September 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961597/political-affiliation-probable-ptsd-and-symptoms-of-depression-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-combat-veterans-a-pilot-study
#18
Jeffrey M Lating, Rich A Moore, Martin F Sherman, Matthew W Kirkhart, George S Everly, Justin K Chen
Ideological commitment of military personnel has been associated with mitigating trauma and protecting mental health. This pilot study assessed whether Democratic and Republican political affiliation differentially predicted probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of depression in 62 male Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans. The Liberalism-Conservatism Scale, the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were assessment measures. Results revealed that Democratic combat veterans had stronger liberal attitudes than Republican combat veterans (r = 0...
October 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961596/longitudinal-changes-in-combat-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-operation-enduring-freedom-operation-iraqi-freedom-operation-new-dawn-veterans-with-hazardous-alcohol-use-the-role-of-avoidance-coping
#19
Joohyun Lee, Kyle Possemato, Paige C Ouimette
Military personnel who have experienced combat trauma are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A greater recognition of the complex array of vulnerability factors that contribute to PTSD severity has led researchers to examine other non-combat-related factors. This longitudinal study examined a number of pre-, peri-, and postdeployment factors hypothesized to contribute to PTSD symptomatology among returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn veterans presenting with at least subthreshold PTSD symptoms and hazardous alcohol use in a primary care setting...
October 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959220/stress-related-mental-health-symptoms-in-coast-guard-incidence-vulnerability-and-neurocognitive-performance
#20
Richard J Servatius, Justin D Handy, Michael J Doria, Catherine E Myers, Christine E Marx, Robert Lipsky, Nora Ko, Pelin Avcu, W Geoffrey Wright, Jack W Tsao
U.S. Coast Guard (CG) personnel face occupational stressors (e.g., search and rescue) which compound daily life stressors encountered by civilians. However, the degree CG personnel express stress-related mental health symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is understudied as a military branch, and little is known concerning the interplay of vulnerabilities and neurocognitive outcomes in CG personnel. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, recruiting 241 active duty CG personnel (22% female) to assess mental health, personality, and neurocognitive function...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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