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Combat trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331939/volumetric-muscle-loss-injury-repair-using-in-situ-fibrin-gel-cast-seeded-with-muscle-derived-stem-cells-mdscs
#1
Nadine Matthias, Samuel D Hunt, Jianbo Wu, Jonathan Lo, Laura A Smith Callahan, Yong Li, Johnny Huard, Radbod Darabi
Volumetric muscle defect, caused by trauma or combat injuries, is a major health concern leading to severe morbidity. It is characterized by partial or full thickness loss of muscle and its bio-scaffold, resulting in extensive fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, the ideal therapeutic option is to use stem cells combined with bio-scaffolds to restore muscle. For this purpose, muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) are a great candidate due to their unique multi-lineage differentiation potential. In this study, we evaluated the regeneration potential of MDSCs for muscle loss repair using a novel in situ fibrin gel casting...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326127/skill-sets-required-for-the-management-of-military-head-face-and-neck-trauma-a-multidisciplinary-consensus-statement
#2
John Breeze, R Blanch, J Baden, A M Monaghan, D Evriviades, S E Harrisson, S Roberts, A Gibson, N MacKenzie, D Baxter, A J Gibbons, S Heppell, J G Combes, R F Rickard
INTRODUCTION: The evolution of medical practice is resulting in increasing subspecialisation, with head, face and neck (HFN) trauma in a civilian environment usually managed by a combination of surgical specialties working as a team. However, the full combination of HFN specialties commonly available in the NHS may not be available in future UK military-led operations, necessitating the identification of a group of skill sets that could be delivered by one or more deployed surgeons. METHOD: A systematic review was undertaken to identify those surgical procedures performed to treat acute military head, face, neck and eye trauma...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313890/violence-in-paradise-cranial-trauma-in-the-prehispanic-population-of-gran-canaria-canary-islands
#3
Teresa Delgado-Darias, Verónica Alberto-Barroso, Javier Velasco-Vázquez
OBJECTIVES: This paper addresses the prevalence and pattern of physical violence in the prehispanic society of Gran Canaria and discusses its link with the social structure and insular context in which that people lived. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 347 prehispanic crania from Guayadeque Ravine (575-1415 AD) have been examined in order to determine the frequency, types, location, and timing of trauma. RESULTS: Craniofacial injuries are present in 27...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309952/application-of-tourniquet-in-civilian-trauma-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#4
Charlotte Beaucreux, Benoît Vivien, Ethan Miles, Sylvain Ausset, Pierre Pasquier
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of a tourniquet (TQ) in case of extremity haemorrhages is well recognised to prevent death on the battlefield. However, little is known about the usefulness of TQ in civilian trauma settings, including terrorist attack situations. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse the evidence-based medical literature in order to precise the use of TQ in the management of extremity haemorrhages in civilian setting. METHODS: Analysis of all studies published until 12/31/2016 on the Embase, Medline and Opengrey databases...
January 5, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307034/emergency-department-imaging-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-during-combat-operations-in-iraq-and-afghanistan
#5
Jason F Naylor, Michael D April, Jamie L Roper, Guyon J Hill, Paul Clark, Steven G Schauer
BACKGROUND: Military hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan treated children with traumatic injuries during the recent conflicts. Diagnostic imaging is an integral component of trauma management; however, few published data exist on its use in the wartime pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: The authors describe the emergency department (ED) utilization of radiology resources for pediatric trauma patients in Iraq and Afghanistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric patients admitted to military fixed-facility hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016...
January 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295023/gender-specific-risk-factors-for-psychopathology-and-reduced-functioning-in-a-post-9-11-veteran-sample
#6
Arielle A J Scoglio, Steven D Shirk, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza, Carolyn M Mazure, Crystal L Park, Sherry A McKee, Elizabeth A Porter, Shane W Kraus
U.S. combat veterans frequently encounter challenges after returning from deployment, and these challenges may lead to difficulties in psychological and social functioning. Currently, research is limited on gender-related differences within this population, despite female veterans comprising a growing portion of the U.S. military with roles and exposures similar to their male counterparts. Using secondary analysis, we examined 283 returning combat veterans (female = 29.4%) for differences in psychopathology and trauma history...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294997/traumatic-events-exposure-and-psychological-trauma-in-children-victims-of-war-in-the-gaza-strip
#7
Antonio L Manzanero, María Crespo, Susana Barón, Teresa Scott, Sofián El-Astal, Fairouz Hemaid
The present article studies war-related trauma and its effects on children living in the Gaza Strip, 6 months after the attack launched by the Israeli army on July 8, 2014, which lasted for 51 days. The objective was twofold: (a) to identify the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events and (b) to examine the symptoms of traumatic stress in children as described by their parents or tutors using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Data from 1,850 male and female children aged between 6 and 15 years living in the Gaza Strip were collected throughout the months of February and April 2015, that is 6 months after the attack...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294964/rape-crisis-counseling-trauma-contagion-and-supervision
#8
Niveen Rizkalla, Maya Zeevi-Barkay, Steven P Segal
This study of rape crisis counselors considers whether increased exposure to victims' trauma is associated with increased supervision-believed necessary to combat trauma contagion-and whether such supervision will reduce the negative impact of such exposure. One hundred six women counselors in seven of nine rape crisis centers in Israel completed anonymous questionnaires documenting their work and trauma exposure. Trauma exposure was defined by counselors' number of victim-contact hours per week and their assessment of the trauma severity they experienced...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282479/what-drives-the-relationship-between-combat-and-alcohol-problems-in-soldiers-the-roles-of-perception-and-marriage
#9
Bonnie M Vest, D Lynn Homish, Rachel A Hoopsick, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: While the relationship between combat exposure and alcohol problems is well-established, the role of perceptions of trauma is less understood. The goal of this study was to explore associations between National Guard (NG) and reserve soldiers' perceptions of combat experiences as traumatic and alcohol problems, and to examine marital satisfaction as a possible protective factor. METHODS: The Operation: SAFETY study recruited US Army Reserve and NG soldiers and their partners to complete a questionnaire covering many physical and mental health, military service, and substance use topics...
December 27, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280931/pre-injury-patient-characteristics-and-post-injury-neurological-status-are-associated-with-mortality-following-spinal-cord-injury
#10
David S Casper, Benjamin Zmistowski, Gregory D Schroeder, James C McKenzie, John Mangan, Jayanth Vatson, Alan S Hilibrand, Alexander R Vaccaro, Christopher K Kepler
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVES.: This study investigates the association between SCI and post-injury mortality. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) are severe conditions treated in the acute trauma setting. Due to neurological deficits, unstable spinal columns, and associated injuries, these patients often have complex inpatient hospitalizations with significant morbidity and mortality. It is assumed that a high rate of post-injury mortality would follow such severe injuries; however, the effect of SCI, and its treatment on predictors of longevity remain largely unknown...
December 26, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279322/assessment-of-bullet-effectiveness-based-on-a-human-vulnerability-model
#11
Susu Liu, C Xu, Y Wen, G Li, J Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Penetrating wounds from explosively propelled fragments and bullets are the most common causes of combat injury. There is a requirement to assess the potential effectiveness of bullets penetrating human tissues in order to optimise preventive measures and wound trauma management. METHODS: An advanced voxel model based on the Chinese Visible Human data was built. A digital human vulnerability model was established in combination with wound reconstruction and vulnerability assessment rules, in which wound penetration profiles were obtained by recreating the penetration of projectiles into ballistic gelatin...
December 25, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274254/french-lyophilized-plasma-versus-fresh-frozen-plasma%C3%A2-for-the-initial-management-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy-a-randomized-open-label-trial
#12
Delphine Garrigue, Anne Godier, Alexandre Glacet, Julien Labreuche, Eric Kipnis, Camille Paris, Alain Duhamel, Eric Resch, Anne Bauters, François Machuron, Pascale Renom, Patrick Goldstein, Benoit Tavernier, Anne Sailliol, Sophie Susen
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend to begin haemostatic resuscitation immediately in trauma patients. We aimed to investigate if French Lyophilised Plasma (FLyP) was more effective than Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) for the initial management of the trauma-induced-coagulopathy. METHODS: In an open-label, phase 3, randomized trial (NCT02750150), we enrolled adult trauma patients requiring an emergency pack of 4 plasma units within 6 hours of injury. We randomly assigned patients to receive 4-FLyP units or 4-FFP units...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261592/whole-blood-and-hextend-bookends-of-modern-tactical-combat-casualty-care-field-resuscitation-and-starting-point-for-multi-functional-resuscitation-fluid-development
#13
Forest R Sheppard, Thomas A Mitchell, Antoni R Macko, Darren M Fryer, Leasha J Schaub, Kassandra M Ozuna, Jacob J Glaser
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death in traumatically injured civilian and military populations. Pre-hospital resuscitation largely relies on crystalloid and colloid intra-vascular expansion, as whole blood and component blood therapy are logistically arduous. In this experiment, we evaluated the bookends of Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines recommendations of pre-hospital resuscitation with Hextend and whole blood in a controlled hemorrhagic shock model within non-human primates, as means of a multi-functional resuscitative fluid development...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261091/association-of-enterococcus-spp-with-severe-combat-extremity-injury-intensive-care-and-polymicrobial-wound-infection
#14
Rae A Heitkamp, Ping Li, Katrin Mende, Samandra T Demons, David R Tribble, Stuart D Tyner
BACKGROUND: Combat-related extremity wound infections can complicate the recovery of injured military personnel. The Enterococcus genus contains both commensal and pathogenic bacteria found in many combat wounds. We describe the patient population susceptible to Enterococcus infection, the characteristics of Enterococcus spp. isolated from combat-related wounds, and the microbiological profile of Enterococcus-positive wounds. METHODS: Patient and culture data were obtained from the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study...
December 20, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241815/litigation-in-orthopedic-surgery-what-can-we-do-to-prevent-it-systematic-analysis-of-126-legal-actions-involving-four-university-hospitals-in-france
#15
J Mouton, R Gauthé, M Ould-Slimane, S Bertiaux, S Putman, F Dujardin
INTRODUCTION: Orthopedic surgery produces 20% of medical malpractice claims. However only a few studies have examined the reasons for and consequences of these disputes, and they have usually been limited to a single hospital. This led us to perform a retrospective analysis of the claims at four teaching hospitals in northwestern France. The goals were 1) to describe the circumstances that led to these claims and recommend ways to prevent them, and 2) to describe the conduct of the proceedings and their financial and social outcomes...
December 11, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230306/cultural-shift-in-mental-illness-a-comparison-of-stress-responses-in-world-war-i-and-the-vietnam-war
#16
Rasjid Skinner, Paul M Kaplick
Objectives: Post-traumatic stress disorder is an established diagnostic category. In particular, over the past 20 years, there has been an interest in culture as a fundamental factor in post-traumatic stress disorder symptom manifestation. However, only a very limited portion of this literature studies the historical variability of post-traumatic stress within a particular culture. Design: Therefore, this study examines whether stress responses to violence associated with armed conflicts have been a culturally stable reaction in Western troops...
December 2017: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229376/combat-related-guilt-and-the-mechanisms-of-exposure-therapy
#17
Benjamin Trachik, Clint Bowers, Sandra M Neer, Vu Nguyen, B Christopher Frueh, Deborah C Beidel
Exposure therapy (EXP) is one of the most widely used and empirically supported treatments for PTSD; however, some researchers have questioned its efficacy with specific populations and in targeting specific symptoms. One such symptom, guilt, has garnered increased attention in the PTSD treatment literature, as it is associated with worse symptomatology and outcomes. The current study examined cognitive changes in guilt in response to Intensive (3-week) and Standard (17-week) Trauma Management Therapy (TMT), and the potential mechanisms underlying TMT treatment...
November 27, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226792/posttraumatic-world-assumptions-among-treatment-seeking-refugees
#18
F Jackie June Ter Heide, Marieke Sleijpen, Niels van der Aa
The clinical relevance of negative changes in cognitions about oneself, others, and the world is reflected in the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM-5 and complex posttraumatic stress disorder in the ICD-11. Although such changes in cognition have been posited to be especially relevant for traumatised refugees, few studies have examined this in refugee populations. The present study used a cross-sectional design to compare negative cognitions among 213 adult treatment-seeking refugees with those in previously published samples from the general population, veterans with combat-related PTSD, and whiplash victims...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218283/early-reconstructions-of-complex-lower-extremity-battlefield-soft-tissue-wounds
#19
Ali Ebrahimi, Nasrin Nejadsarvari, Azin Ebrahimi, Hamid Reza Rasouli
BACKGROUND: Severe lower extremity trauma as a devastating combat related injury is on the rise and this presents reconstructive surgeons with significant challenges to reach optimal cosmetic and functional outcomes. This study assessed early reconstructions of complex lower extremity battlefield soft tissue wounds. METHODS: This was a prospective case series study of battled field injured patients which was done in the Department of Plastic Surgery, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences hospitals, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2015...
September 2017: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214626/a-descriptive-analysis-of-data-from-the-department-of-defense-joint-trauma-system-prehospital-trauma-registry
#20
Stephen G Schauer, Michael D April, Jason F Naylor, Joshua J Oliver, Cord W Cunningham, Andrew D Fisher, Russ S Kotwal
The active battlefield is an environment of chaos and confusion. Depending on the scale of combat, the chaos and confusion often extend into the prehospital combat setting with multiple personnel and units involved in the chain of care of casualties. The chaos of the prehospital combat setting has led to limitations in the availability of data for performance improvement and research. The Department of Defense (DoD) Joint Trauma System (JTS) Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) was developed in conjunction with the updated Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) card and a TCCC after action report (AAR), and currently serves as the prehospital repository and module of the DoD Trauma Registry (DoDTR)...
October 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
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