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Combat trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528244/heart-rate-variability-of-chronic-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-korean-veterans
#1
Joo Eon Park, Ji Yeon Lee, Suk-Hoon Kang, Jin Hee Choi, Tae Yong Kim, Hyung Seok So, In-Young Yoon
Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have lower heart rate variability (HRV) than the general population, but findings in this area have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of HRV in patients with PTSD and to evaluate associations between PTSD symptoms and HRV indices. Sixty-eight patients with PTSD and 73 controls without PTSD were evaluated. HRV was measured in all subjects after they completed self-reported questionnaires. Patients with PTSD had significantly more depressed moods, anxiety, and poorer sleep quality than individuals in the non-PTSD group...
May 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520687/3-nacl-adenosine-lidocaine-mg2-alm-bolus-and-4-hours-drip-infusion-reduces-noncompressible-hemorrhage-by-60-in-a-rat-model
#2
Hayley L Letson, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Noncompressible torso hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially survivable trauma in far-forward combat environments. Our aim was to examine the effect of small-volume 3% NaCl adenosine, lidocaine, and Mg (ALM) bolus and 0.9% NaCl/ALM "drip" on survivability and cardiac/gut/kidney function in a rat model of hepatic hemorrhage and shock. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (428 ± 4 g) were anesthetized and randomly assigned to one of five groups (n = 16): (1) Sham, (2) No treatment, (3) Saline controls, (4) ALM therapy, and (5) Hextend...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508360/genome-to-phenome-a-systems-biology-approach-to-ptsd-using-an-animal-model
#3
Nabarun Chakraborty, James Meyerhoff, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating illness that imposes significant emotional and financial burdens on military families. The understanding of PTSD etiology remains elusive; nonetheless, it is clear that PTSD is manifested by a cluster of symptoms including hyperarousal, reexperiencing of traumatic events, and avoidance of trauma reminders. With these characteristics in mind, several rodent models have been developed eliciting PTSD-like features. Animal models with social dimensions are of particular interest, since the social context plays a major role in the development and manifestation of PTSD...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506142/the-frustrated-and-helpless-healer-pathways-approaches-to-posttraumatic-stress-disorders
#4
Donald Moss
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a psychophysiological disorder, characterized by the following: chronic sympathetic nervous activation; persisting perceptual/sensory vigilance for threats; recurrent distressing memories of the event, including intrusive memories, flashbacks lived as if in the present moment, and nightmares; and a persisting negative emotional state including fear and shame. The psychophysiological basis for this disorder calls for psychophysiologically based interventions. This article presents the case narrative of a 29-year-old national guardsman, exposed to combat trauma and later to civilian trauma in public safety work...
July 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496410/clinical-applications-of-iso-inertial-eccentric-overload-yoyo%C3%A2-resistance-exercise
#5
REVIEW
Per A Tesch, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Tommy R Lundberg
In the quest for a viable non-gravity dependent method to "lift weights" in space, our laboratory introduced iso-inertial resistance (YoYo™) exercise using spinning flywheel(s), more than 25 years ago. After being thoroughly tested in individuals subjected to various established spaceflight analogs, a multi-mode YoYo™ exercise apparatus was eventually installed on the International Space Station in 2009. The method, applicable to any muscle group, provides accommodated resistance and optimal muscle loading through the full range of motion of concentric actions, and brief episodes of eccentric overload...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493727/military-sexual-trauma-is-associated-with-eating-disorders-while-combat-exposure-is-not
#6
Jessica Y Breland, Rosemary Donalson, Yongmei Li, Claire L Hebenstreit, Lizabeth A Goldstein, Shira Maguen
OBJECTIVE: There are strong associations among trauma and eating disorders. However, while trauma and eating disorders are more common among veterans than other populations, there is little information on how military-specific stressors affect eating disorder risk. This study's objective was to determine whether military sexual trauma and combat exposure were independent predictors of eating disorders among women veterans, a high-risk group. METHOD: Participants were women age 18-70, using VA medical center services, without psychotic disorders or suicidal ideation (N = 407)...
May 11, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489272/fear-learning-alterations-after-traumatic-brain-injury-and-their-role-in-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms
#7
Daniel E Glenn, Dean T Acheson, Mark A Geyer, Caroline M Nievergelt, Dewleen G Baker, Victoria B Risbrough
BACKGROUND: It is unknown how traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One potential mechanism is via alteration of fear-learning processes that could affect responses to trauma memories and cues. We utilized a prospective, longitudinal design to determine if TBI is associated with altered fear learning and extinction, and if fear processing mediates effects of TBI on PTSD symptom change. METHODS: Eight hundred fifty two active-duty Marines and Navy Corpsmen were assessed before and after deployment...
May 10, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488917/contrasting-gender-and-combat-versus-military-sexual-traumas-psychiatric-symptom-severity-and-morbidities-in-treatment-seeking-veterans
#8
Minden B Sexton, Greer A Raggio, Lauren B McSweeney, Caitlin C Authier, Sheila A M Rauch
BACKGROUND: Military sexual trauma (MST) and military combat trauma (MCT) are significant risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no studies have directly contrasted the clinical profiles of Veterans between military-related traumas. Moreover, a notable gender difference in the likelihood of trauma exposure limits our ability to disentangle gender and trauma type. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address these gaps, we aimed at (1) contrasting psychiatric complaints in Veterans with MST versus MCT exposure and (2) investigating gender differences in Veterans with MST histories...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486955/changes-in-affect-after-completing-a-mailed-survey-about-trauma-two-pre-and-post-test-studies-in-former-disability-applicants-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Maureen Murdoch, Shannon Marie Kehle-Forbes, Melissa Ruth Partin
BACKGROUND: One potential concern with using mailed surveys containing trauma-related content is the possibility of re-traumatizing survivors without a trained mental health professional present. Prior research provides insufficient guidance regarding the prevalence and magnitude of this risk because the psychological harms of trauma-related surveys have typically been estimated using single post-test observations. Post-test observations cannot quantify magnitude of change in participants' emotional states and may over or under estimate associations between participants' characteristics (risk factors) and post-survey upset...
May 10, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486327/tourniquets-in-trauma-care-a-review-of-application
#10
Brian Cornelius, Ryan Campbell, Pat McGauly
Traumatic hemorrhage has been identified as the leading cause of battlefield death in recent conflicts. Although injury patterns are not directly reproducible to the civilian world, treatment advancements can be used to provide care to patients worldwide. Long-standing dogma regarding the use of tourniquets has been disproved, and there is now recognition of the critical role that tourniquets play in trauma care. The history and evolution of tourniquets, including the identification of previous faults in application, will lead to an examination of the current devices in use along with evidence-based recommendations for use...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486180/the-association-between-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-shorter-telomere-length-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Xuemei Li, Jiang Wang, Jianghua Zhou, Pan Huang, Jiping Li
OBJECTIVE: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder, which may accelerate aging. Many study have investigated the association between telomeres length and PTSD, but results from published studies are contradictory. Therefore, Meta-analysis approaches were conducted to give more precise estimate of relationship between telomere length and PTSD. METHOD: We systematically reviewed the databases of PUBMED, PsycINFO, Medline(Ovid SP) and EMBASE for all articles on the association between telomere length and PTSD...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484418/blast-exposure-white-matter-integrity-and-cognitive-function-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-combat-veterans
#12
Iliyan Ivanov, Corey Fernandez, Effie M Mitsis, Dara L Dickstein, Edmund Wong, Cheuk Y Tang, Jessie Simantov, Charlene Bang, Erin Moshier, Mary Sano, Gregory A Elder, Erin A Hazlett
The long-term effects of blast exposure are a major health concern for combat veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. We used an optimized diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm to assess white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA) in blast-exposed Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (n = 40) scanned on average 3.7 years after deployment/trauma exposure. Veterans diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were compared to combat veterans with blast exposure but no TBI diagnosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483389/battlefield-trauma-induced-hypothermia-transitioning-the-preferred-method-of-casualty-rewarming
#13
REVIEW
Brad L Bennett, John B Holcomb
For centuries, cold and wet weather has affected military combat operations leading to tremendous loss of manpower caused by cold-weather-related injuries including trench foot, frostbite, and hypothermia. The initial battlefield management of hypothermia in military personnel had not advanced significantly following many wars and conflicts until 2006. The aim of this review is to: 1) provide an overview of trauma-induced hypothermia (TIH); 2) highlight the Department of Defense strategy for the implementation of a hypothermia clinical management program for battlefield (prehospital) casualties; 3) highlight the research and development of the Hypothermia Prevention and Management Kit (HPMK) as the preferred field rewarming system for battlefield TIH; and 4) emphasize how the HPMK can be easily transitioned to the civilian sector for active rewarming of both accidental and TIH patients...
May 5, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482208/pre-treatment-cortisol-awakening-response-predicts-symptom-reduction-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-treatment
#14
A E Rapcencu, R Gorter, M Kennis, S J H van Rooij, E Geuze
Dysfunction of the HPA-axis has frequently been found in the aftermath of trauma exposure with or without PTSD. Decreasing HPA-axis reactivity to different stress cues has been reported during PTSD treatment. The cortisol awakening response (CARi) is a well-validated, standardized measure of HPA-axis reactivity which can be easily acquired in the clinical setting. Whether CARi changes over time in traumatized individuals are specific to PTSD treatment is unknown. Furthermore, a possible role for the baseline CARi in predicting symptom reduction after treatment in PTSD has not been examined before...
April 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481839/high-ratio-plasma-resuscitation-does-not-improve-survival-in-pediatric-trauma-patients
#15
Jeremy W Cannon, Michael A Johnson, Robert C Caskey, Matthew A Borgman, Lucas P Neff
BACKGROUND: Damage control resuscitation (DCR) including balanced resuscitation with high ratios of plasma (PLAS) and platelets (PLT) to packed red blood cells (PRBC) improves survival in adult patients. We sought to evaluate the effect of a high ratio PLAS to PRBC resuscitation strategy in massively transfused pediatric patients with combat injuries. METHODS: The Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) was queried from 2001-2013 for pediatric trauma patients (<18 years)...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480093/the-public-health-threat-of-road-traffic-accidents-in-nigeria-a-call-to-action
#16
REVIEW
Noc Onyemaechi, U R Ofoma
Public health experts worldwide concede that there is a global epidemic of road traffic accidents (RTA). Globally, RTA is the leading cause of injury-related deaths. In Nigeria, injuries and deaths resulting from RTA are on the rise and are Nigeria's third-leading cause of overall deaths, the leading cause of trauma-related deaths and the most common cause of disability. Do RTA constitute a public health problem in Nigeria? If so, is there a pragmatic approach to combat this problem? A systematic literature search using the advanced features of various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google, and directory of open access journals was carried out using the key words " RTA, public health problem, government response, Nigeria...
July 2016: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478767/veterans-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-exhibit-altered-emotional-processing-and-attentional-control-during-an-emotional-stroop-task
#17
M M Khanna, A S Badura-Brack, T J McDermott, C M Embury, A I Wiesman, A Shepherd, T J Ryan, E Heinrichs-Graham, T W Wilson
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with attention allocation and emotional regulation difficulties, but the brain dynamics underlying these deficits are unknown. The emotional Stroop task (EST) is an ideal means to monitor these difficulties, because participants are asked to attend to non-emotional aspects of the stimuli. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and the EST to monitor attention allocation and emotional regulation during the processing of emotionally charged stimuli in combat veterans with and without PTSD...
May 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464968/prehospital-interventions-during-mass-casualty-events-in-afghanistan-a-case-analysis
#18
Steven G Schauer, Michael D April, Erica Simon, Joseph K Maddry, Robert Carter, Robert A Delorenzo
BACKGROUND: Mass-casualty (MASCAL) events are known to occur in the combat setting. There are very limited data at this time from the Joint Theater (Iraq and Afghanistan) wars specific to MASCAL events. The purpose of this report was to provide preliminary data for the development of prehospital planning and guidelines. METHODS: Cases were identified using the Department of Defense (DoD; Virginia USA) Trauma Registry (DoDTR) and the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR)...
May 3, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457327/an-epidemiologic-overview-of-13%C3%A2-years-of-firearm-hospitalizations-in-pennsylvania
#19
Brian W Gross, Alan D Cook, Cole D Rinehart, Caitlin A Lynch, Eric H Bradburn, Katherine A Bupp, Chet A Morrison, Frederick B Rogers
BACKGROUND: Gun violence is a controversial public health issue plagued by a lack of recent research. We sought to provide a 13-y overview of firearm hospitalizations in Pennsylvania, analyzing trends in mode, intent, and outcome. We hypothesized that no adjusted change in mortality or functional status at discharge (FSD) would be observed for gunshot wound (GSW) victims over the study period. METHODS: All admissions to the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study database from 2003 to 2015 were queried...
April 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452878/inefficacy-of-standard-vital-signs-for-predicting-mortality-and-the-need-for-prehospital-life-saving-interventions-in-blunt-trauma-patients-transported-via-helicopter-a-repeated-call-for-new-measures
#20
Nehemiah T Liu, John B Holcomb, Charles E Wade, Jose Salinas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of traditional vital signs for predicting mortality and the need for prehospital life-saving interventions (LSIs) in blunt trauma patients requiring helicopter transport to a Level I trauma center. Our hypothesis was that standard vital signs are not sufficient for identifying or determining treatment for those patients most at risk. METHODS: This study involved prehospital trauma patients suffering from blunt trauma (motor vehicle/cycle collision) and transported from the point of injury via helicopter...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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