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Combat trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810991/posterior-cruciate-ligament-injuries-associated-with-military-survival-swim-training
#1
Michael S Crowell, John S Mason, Matthew A Posner, Chad A Haley
OBJECTIVES: Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are relatively common injuries associated with athletic activities and high-energy trauma. Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries frequently accompany injury to the PCL. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires a comprehensive history and physical examination. Patients frequently report vague, nonspecific symptoms and the mechanism of injury is often useful in localizing injured structures. Two of the more common mechanisms for PCL injury include a direct blow to the proximal anterior tibia with the knee flexed, as well as a significant knee hyperextension injury...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810979/women-veterans-a-population-at-risk-for-fibromyalgia-the-associations-between-fibromyalgia-symptoms-and-quality-of-life
#2
Rita F D'Aoust, Alicia Gill Rossiter, Amanda Elliott, Ming Ji, Cecile Lengacher, Maureen Groer
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Federal Health Care recently published an executive summary from a round table discussion indicating that active duty and retired female military personnel are at high risk for adverse health outcomes unique to military service including complications related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), unreported sexual trauma, and musculoskeletal problems. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine began to review, evaluate, and summarize the literature on health outcomes in Gulf War-deployed and found sufficient evidence of a causal relationship with PTSD and suggestive evidence of an association with fibromyalgia (FM)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795405/genomewide-dna-methylation-analysis-in-combat-veterans-reveals-a-novel-locus-for-ptsd
#3
D Mehta, D Bruenig, T Carrillo-Roa, B Lawford, W Harvey, C P Morris, A K Smith, E B Binder, R McD Young, J Voisey
OBJECTIVE: Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation may play a key role in the aetiology and serve as biomarkers for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We performed a genomewide analysis to identify genes whose DNA methylation levels are associated with PTSD. METHOD: A total of 211 individuals comprising Australian male Vietnam War veterans (n = 96) and males from a general population belonging to the Grady Trauma Project (n = 115) were included. Genomewide DNA methylation was performed from peripheral blood using the Illumina arrays...
August 9, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780253/biomechanics-of-human-parietal-pleura-in-uniaxial-extension
#4
Luis E Morales Tenorio, Kelsey J Devine, Jayme Lee, Timothy M Kowalewski, Victor H Barocas
Tension pneumothorax, a major preventable cause of battlefield death, often arises from chest trauma and is treated by needle decompression to release trapped air from the pleural cavity. Surgical simulation mannequins are often employed to train medical personnel to perform this procedure properly. Accurate reproduction of the mechanical behavior of the parietal pleura, especially in response to needle penetration, is essential to maximize the fidelity of these surgical simulators. To date, however, the design of pleura-simulating material has been largely empirical and based on subjective practitioner feel rather than on the tissue properties, which have remained unknown...
July 29, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759775/forensic-mental-health-evaluations-of-military-personnel-with-traumatic-life-event-in-a-university-hospital-in-ankara-turkey
#5
Huseyin Balandiz, Abdullah Bolu
INTRODUCTION: The definition of psychological trauma has been rephrased with the DSM-5. From now on, witnessing someone else's traumatic event is also accepted as a traumatic life event. Therefore, the psychiatric examination of forensic cases gains importance for not overlooking a psychiatric trauma. This research aims to discuss the psychiatric examinations of military personnel who had a traumatic life event and to reveal psychiatric states of soldiers after trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The forensic reports prepared at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Forensic Medicine polyclinic between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2014 were examined, and among them the cases sent to GMMA Psychiatry polyclinic for psychiatric examination were analyzed retrospectively...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748419/can-we-train-military-surgeons-in-a-civilian-trauma-center
#6
H Uchino, V Y Kong, G V Oosthuizen, J L Bruce, W Bekker, G L Laing, D L Clarke
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to review the trauma workload and operative exposure in a major South African trauma center and provide a comparison with contemporary experience from major military conflict. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients admitted to the PMTS following trauma were identified from the HEMR. Basic demographic data including mechanism of injury and body region injured were reviewed. All operative procedures were categorized. The total operative volume was compared with those available from contemporary literature documenting experience from military conflict in Afghanistan...
July 26, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747121/assessment-of-yoga-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-for-combat-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Linda McCarthy, Judith Fuller, Georgina Davidson, Alicia Crump, Sandro Positano, Chris Alderman
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed yoga as an adjuvant strategy for symptoms of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Subjects had significant, combat-related PTSD. Control data were collected during an eight-week waiting period. Trauma-sensitive yoga sessions of 90 minutes duration were provided every seven days for eight weeks. Assessments included the PTSD checklist (PCL); the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS); the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP); the SF36 Quality of Life instrument; and a brief, structured pre-enrolment assessment of attitudes towards yoga...
August 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740438/availability-and-use-of-hemostatic-agents-in-prehospital-trauma-patients-in-pennsylvania-translation-from-the-military-to-the-civilian-setting
#8
Adam Sigal, Anthony Martin, Adrian Ong
OBJECTIVE: To understand the translation of one innovation in trauma care from the military to the civilian setting, the adoption of topical hemostatic agents in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) community and in Trauma Centers in Pennsylvania. METHOD: We utilized an anonymous electronic survey of EMS Agency Administrative Officers and Trauma Center Coordinators. RESULTS: We received responses from 23% (93/402) Advanced Life Support and Air Medical agencies in the State...
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720187/experiences-with-regional-anesthesia-for-analgesia-during-prolonged-aeromedical-evacuation
#9
Jeffrey M Carness, Melissa A Wilson, Mark J Lenart, Danny E Smith, Susan F Dukes
INTRODUCTION: There is much debate regarding the appropriate analgesic management of patients undergoing medical evacuation following combat trauma. Our primary objective was to review the utility of regional anesthetic techniques in patients undergoing aeromedical evacuation following surgical limb amputation as treatment for combat trauma. METHODS: This study was conducted as an observational retrospective cohort whereby acutely injured amputee patients were identified via the U...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713319/neuropsychological-predictors-of-trauma-centrality-in-oif-oef-veterans
#10
Roland P Hart, Rohini Bagrodia, Nadia Rahman, Richard A Bryant, Roseann Titcombe-Parekh, Charles R Marmar, Adam D Brown
This study examined whether reduced performance on two neuropsychological tasks, cognitive flexibility and working memory, were associated with higher levels of trauma centrality. A growing body of research has shown that trauma centrality, the extent to which a person believes a potentially traumatic event has become central to their self-identity and life story, is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, PTSD is often associated with alterations in neuropsychological functioning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707521/increased-risk-of-attempted-suicide-in-australian-veterans-is-associated-with-total-and-permanent-incapacitation-unemployment-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-severity
#11
Katelyn Kerr, Madeline Romaniuk, Sarah McLeay, Andrew Khoo, Michael T Dent, Mark Boshen
BACKGROUND: Military veterans have higher rates of suicidality and completed suicides compared to the general population. Previous research has demonstrated suicidal behaviour is higher in US combat veterans who are younger, suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety and score lower on measures of health. However, research on predictors of suicide for Australian veterans is limited. The aim of this study was to identify significant demographic and psychological differences between veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attempted suicide and those with posttraumatic stress disorder who had not, as well as determine predictors of suicide attempts within an Australian cohort...
July 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696563/secondary-traumatization-and-differentiation-among-the-wives-of-former-pows-a-reciprocal-association
#12
Yael Lahav, Yafit Levin, Moshe Bensimon, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Zahava Solomon
Repercussions of war captivity may transmit to spouses of former prisoners of war (POW) via posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Overidentification with their partners underlies the PTSS experienced by former wives of POWs, thus implying impaired self-differentiation. Although wives' indirect exposure to their husbands' captivity and subsequent PTSS has been associated with the wives' PTSS and differentiation, the combined effects remain unclear. Furthermore, previous cross-sectional studies could not illuminate directionality...
August 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696288/inhibition-of-the-integrated-stress-response-reverses-cognitive-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Austin Chou, Karen Krukowski, Timothy Jopson, Ping Jun Zhu, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Peter Walter, Susanna Rosi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of long-term neurological disability, yet the mechanisms underlying the chronic cognitive deficits associated with TBI remain unknown. Consequently, there are no effective treatments for patients suffering from the long-lasting symptoms of TBI. Here, we show that TBI persistently activates the integrated stress response (ISR), a universal intracellular signaling pathway that responds to a variety of cellular conditions and regulates protein translation via phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693439/combatting-pain-after-orthopedic-trauma-surgery-perioperative-oral-extended-release-tapentadol-vs-extended-release-oxycodone-naloxone
#14
Gertrud Haeseler, Dirk Schaefers, Natalie Prison, Jörg Ahrens, Xiaofei Liu, Annika Karch
BACKGROUND: High post-operative pain scores after "minor" orthopedic/trauma surgery are in part attributed to inadequate prescription of opioid analgesics. Novel concepts aiming to achieve sufficient analgesia while minimizing opioid-related side effects by avoiding fluctuating plasma levels are based on perioperative oral administration of extended-release opioids beginning with the first dose pre-operatively. This is the first study to evaluate analgesic efficacy and side effect rates of extended-release tapentadol compared to oxycodone/naloxone following orthopedic/trauma surgery...
July 11, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689067/individual-variation-in-plasma-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-levels-in-relation-to-the-development-of-combat-related-ptsd-in-a-large-military-cohort
#15
Alieke Reijnen, Elbert Geuze, Eric Vermetten
In an attempt to decrease the risk of developing mental health problems after military deployment, it is important to find biological markers to identify those at risk. Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are potential biomarkers for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because they are involved in the regulation of stress and anxiety. Therefore, the aim was to examine whether plasma OT (pOT) and AVP (pAVP) levels before and after deployment are biomarkers for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms over time in addition to other known risk factors...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668522/the-traumatic-bone-trauma-induced-heterotopic-ossification
#16
REVIEW
Devaveena Dey, Benjamin M Wheatley, David Cholok, Shailesh Agarwal, Paul B Yu, Benjamin Levi, Thomas A Davis
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common occurrence after multiple forms of extensive trauma. These include arthroplasties, traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, extensive burns in the civilian setting, and combat-related extremity injuries in the battlefield. Irrespective of the form of trauma, heterotopic bone is typically endochondral in structure and is laid down via a cartilaginous matrix. Once formed, the heterotopic bone typically needs to be excised surgically, which may result in wound healing complications, in addition to a risk of recurrence...
June 15, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663541/the-effect-of-trauma-and-ptsd-on-telomere-length-an-exploratory-study-in-people-exposed-to-combat-trauma
#17
Tae Yong Kim, Se Joo Kim, Jong Rak Choi, Seung-Tae Lee, Jieun Kim, In Sik Hwang, Hae Gyung Chung, Jin Hee Choi, Hae Won Kim, Se Hyun Kim, Jee In Kang
Telomere length has been suggested to be a cellular marker for age-related diseases as well as psychosocial stress. The present study investigated whether telomere length is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among veterans exposed to combat trauma in the Vietnam War. The potentially associated factors on cellular aging were considered. Korean male veterans with (n = 122) and without (n = 120) PTSD were included and leukocyte telomere length was measured with a quantitative PCR-based technique...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646388/skin-conductance-reactivity-to-standardized-virtual-reality-combat-scenes-in-veterans-with-ptsd
#18
Mascha van 't Wout, Christopher M Spofford, William S Unger, Elizabeth B Sevin, M Tracie Shea
Interest in virtual reality (VR) as a clinical tool to augment posttraumatic stress (PTSD) treatment has grown substantially in recent years due to advances in VR technology. Moreover, its potential assisted use in the PTSD diagnostic process has been recognized. In this study we examined physiological responding, skin conductance, to a standardized presentation of non-personalized combat-related VR events (e.g. encountering enemy fire; explosions) as compared to non-combat classroom VR events in 19 Veterans with and 24 Veterans without combat-related PTSD who had been deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan...
June 23, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644123/pin-malposition-in-external-fixator-stabilization-of-combat-related-pelvic-fractures
#19
Mark P Coseo, Dustin J Schuett, Kevin M Kuhn, Joseph Bellamy
The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of pin placement in patients with unstable pelvic fractures undergoing either iliac crest or supra-acetabular external fixation. A retrospective review was performed of computed tomography (CT) scans and injury characteristics for all patients presenting to a North Atlantic Treaty Organization Medical Treatment Facility with data entered into the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from January 2008 to October 2013 who underwent pelvic external fixation for unstable pelvic ring injuries...
2017: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640037/epidemiology-of-major-depressive-disorder-disability-in-the-us-military-fy-2007-2012
#20
Elizabeth R Packnett, Hoda Elmasry, Christine F Toolin, David N Cowan, Michael R Boivin
This study assesses the incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) disability discharge and retirement in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force and describes MDD comorbidity. Service members with a disability discharge for either MDD (n = 2,882) or any nonpsychiatric disability (n = 56,145), between fiscal years 2007 and 2012, were included in the study population. Those with MDD disability at first evaluation but not at last evaluation were excluded. The incidence of MDD disability discharge increased significantly in the Army and Air Force between fiscal years 2007 and 2012...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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