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nutrition, food, biochemistry, antioxidant

Ali Khan Shahbaz, Karolina Lewińska, Javed Iqbal, Qasim Ali, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad Iqbal, Farhat Abbas, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani
Nickel (Ni) contaminated soils pose a potential ecological risk to the environment, soil health, and quality of food produced on them. We hypothesized that application of miscanthus biochar (BC) and cationic zeolite (ZE) at various proportions into a Ni contaminated soil can efficiently immobilize Ni and reduce its bioavailability to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). An electroplating effluent contaminated soil was amended with BC and ZE, as sole treatments (2% w/w) and their combinations of various ratios (BC, ZE, BC25%ZE75%, BC50%ZE50% and BC75%ZE25%) for immobilization of Ni in the soil...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandro Colletti
BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are a family of natural antioxidants that in recent years have been studied and tested for their potential benefits towards cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to focus the attention on the presumed lipid-lowering and atheroprotective effects of polyphenols, administered either as individual molecules (nutritional supplements) and as functional foods, on the basis of the evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and their meta-analyses...
2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Adrees, Muhammad Ibrahim, Daniel C W Tsang, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Jörg Rinklebe, Filip M G Tack, Yong Sik Ok
Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in vegetables is an important environmental issue that threatens human health globally. Understanding the response of vegetables to Cd stress and applying management strategies may help to reduce the Cd uptake by vegetables. The aim of the present review is to summarize the knowledge concerning the uptake and toxic effects of Cd in vegetables and the different management strategies to combat Cd stress in vegetables. Leafy vegetables grown in Cd contaminated soils potentially accumulate higher concentrations of Cd, posing a threat to food commodities...
September 2017: Chemosphere
Ahmad H Ibrahim, Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan, Sawsan S Al-Rawi, Mohamed B Khadeer Ahamed, Aman Shah Bin Abdul Majid, Fouad Saleih R Al-Suede, Dan Ji, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
Fermented Virgin Coconut Oil (FVCO) is widely used in the Southeast Asia as food and traditional medicine. The objective of the present study is the evaluation of chronic safety of the commercialized FVCO of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg of FVCO was administered orally in rats (each group, n = 5) for the acute toxicity study and 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg for sub-chronic and chronic studies (each group, n = 10), respectively. The behavior, mortality, and body weight of the rats were assessed to determine the toxic effects of FVCO...
November 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Ae-Son Om, Yu-Na Song, GeonMin Noh, HaengRan Kim, JeongSook Choe
The leaves and stems of the plant Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCMLS) are rich in vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals which have antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and anti-cancer effects. However, RCMLS is not included in the Korean Food Standards Codex due to the lack of safety assurance concerning RCMLS. We evaluated single and repeated oral dose toxicity of RCMLS in Sprague-Dawley rats. RCMLS did not induce any significant toxicological changes in both male and female rats at a single doses of 2500 mg/kg/day...
January 8, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anne-Thea McGill
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome's underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population...
2014: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Stella A Ordoudi, Maria Z Tsimidou
The Crocin Bleaching Assay (CBA) appears in literature as an in vitro method for measuring antioxidant and prooxidant capacity of model dietary antioxidants, food formulations, pharmaceuticals, and biological samples. The assay is based on simple competitive reactions between a colored probe, crocin, and the test compounds/constituents for scavenging peroxyl radicals generated after thermolysis of a water-soluble azo-initiator. So far, several researchers in the fields of food chemistry, nutrition and clinical biochemistry have sporadically addressed critical views about advantages, limitations and potential field of CBA application...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Israel Felzenszwalb, Monica Regina da Costa Marques, José L Mazzei, Claudia A F Aiub
Superfruits have a high nutritional value due to their richness in nutrients, antioxidants, proven or potential health benefits and taste appeal. However, there are no scientific criteria for defining which fruits are superfruits. In Brazil, several palms have an edible palm heart, the best known and most widely appreciated of which is called Acai (Euterpe oleracea). Euterpe edulis Mart., commonly called jussara, is an evergreen species that grows in the rainforest. Having initially been consumed in the form of juice and pulp, they have since been incorporated as an ingredient in many foods...
August 2013: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Andrea Mahn, Alejandro Reyes
Broccoli offers many heath-promoting properties owing to its content of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic compounds. The concentration and bioavailability of polyphenols, glucosinolates, sulforaphane and selenium depend on plant biochemistry, cultivation strategy and type of processing. In this article, the main biochemical properties of broccoli are reviewed regarding their health-promoting effects. Additionally, the way these properties are affected by processing is discussed. Steaming and drying result in an apparent increment of sulforaphane content as well as antioxidant activity, most likely due to an increase of the extractability of antioxidants and sulforaphane...
December 2012: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Makoto Fujimoto, Koichi Tsuneyama, Takako Fujimoto, Carlo Selmi, M Eric Gershwin, Yutaka Shimada
BACKGROUND: Nutritional approaches are sought to overcome the limits of pioglitazone in metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a filamentous unicellular alga, reduces serum lipids and blood pressure while exerting antioxidant effects. AIM: To determine whether Spirulina may impact macrophages infiltrating the visceral fat in obesity characterizing our metabolic syndrome mouse model induced by the subcutaneous injection treatment of monosodium glutamate...
September 2012: Digestive and Liver Disease
Andréa F S Santos, Adriana C C Argolo, Patrícia M G Paiva, Luana C B B Coelho
Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0...
September 2012: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Mario C De Tullio
When considering the history of vitamin C, and the names given to this molecule in early days, the Latin proverb nomen est omen suddenly comes to mind. Around 1920, when Casimir Funk introduced the term Vitamin C to indicate the nutritional factor necessary to prevent the pathological state known as scurvy, the nature of the active molecule was still unknown (Davies MB, Austin J, Partridge DA (1991) Vitamin C: Its chemistry and biochemistry. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge UK). Almost in the same years, Albert Szent-Giörgyi was striving to identify a new 6-carbon sugar he had obtained in crystal form from oranges, lemons, cabbage and adrenal glands...
2012: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Yue-E Sun, Wei-Dong Wang, Hong-Wei Chen, Chao Li
Unsaturated lipids having various physiological roles are of significance in biochemistry, nutrition, medicine, and food. However, the susceptibility of lipids to oxidation is a major cause of quality deterioration in food emulsions. The reaction mechanism and factors that influence oxidation are appreciably different for emulsified lipids and bulk lipids. This article gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on autoxidation of oil-in-water food emulsions, especially those that contain unsaturated lipids, which are important in the food industry...
May 2011: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
J M Bourre
The objective of this update is to give an overview of the effects of dietary nutrients on the structure and certain functions of the brain. As any other organ, the brain is elaborated from substances present in the diet (sometimes exclusively, for vitamins, minerals, essential amino-acids and essential fatty acids, including omega- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids). However, for long it was not fully accepted that food can have an influence on brain structure, and thus on its function, including cognitive and intellectuals...
September 2006: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
J Shi, M Le Maguer
Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers...
2000: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
S P Richer
BACKGROUND: Reduced antioxidant defense of the retina secondary to poor nutrition and smoking combined with increased life expectancy and exposure to solar radiation can provide a triple assault on the aging retina. If left untreated, without prophylactic measures, 7.5 million American adults will suffer vision loss from ARM by the year 2020. METHODS: Better known pathobiologic interrelationships between ARM, nutritional/antioxidant status and UV/blue visible solar exposure risk based on animal research and recent epidemiologic studies is presented, along with an overview of ocular free radical biochemistry...
December 1993: Journal of the American Optometric Association
G F Combs, S B Combs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1984: Annual Review of Nutrition
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