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Rudolph M Navari
The approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting in a cancer patient should begin with a complete assessment, including the frequency, duration, and intensity of the nausea/vomiting; associated activities; and whether anorexia or cachexia is present. It is important to determine whether the nausea and vomiting is related to treatment (chemotherapy, radiation) or is independent of cancer treatment. Nausea/vomiting unrelated to chemotherapy and/or radiation may have an etiology for which there is a specific and potentially successful intervention...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Babita Saigal, Laura Guerra
BACKGROUND: A common class-specific toxicity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors is stomatitis. Some patients experience a severe form of mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS) that can have a negative effect on nutritional status, compromise quality of life, and potentially lead to nonadherence, reducing the efficacy of cancer therapy. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to address an unmet need for education about mIAS among oncology nurses and patients and to share findings about everolimus-related stomatitis from the SWISH trial...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Meghan Mastrangelo
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens are the backbone of chemotherapy for germ cell testicular cancer. Cisplatin is administered for five days, causing an overlap of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Although CINV is widely researched, studies involving multiday chemotherapy regimens are limited. OBJECTIVES: This article synthesizes the research in antiemetics used in multiday cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens and provides recommendations to optimize antiemetic therapy...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Yue Ma, Chunquan Zheng, Le Shi
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), commonly divided into CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is an inflammatory disease which mechanism remain unclear. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been proved to be a negative regulator of inflammation response while its role in pathogenesis of CRS has yet to be revealed. This research study was designed to investigate the relationship between the expression level and biologic role of LRRK2 in CRS. Methods: Expression of LRRK2 mRNA and noncoding repressor of NFAT (NRON) were examined by qRT-PCR...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Shengye Liu, Long Zhou, Liyu Yang, Shuai Mu, Tao Fang, Qin Fu
Background: Prolonged and over-dosed administration of glucocorticoids results in more bone remodeling, leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, which is primarily due to dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of gastrodin, a natural bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Gastrodia elata, on osteoblastic cells in vivo and in vitro . Materials and Methods: The anti-dexamethasone (DEX) effects of gastrodin on primary osteoblasts were measured by cell viability, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis in vitro , and also extensively examined in a rat model in vivo ...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Peng You, Ning Chen, Lin Su, Tao Peng, Guodong Chen, Yulan Liu
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) has a crucial role in regulating the balance of type 17 T-helper cells (Th17) and T regulatory cells (Tregs) that are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, while the function of local TGF-β1 in this process has remained to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of different local TGF-β1 levels on the Treg/Th17 balance and on the dexamethasone efficacy in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Renping Liu, Peihong Wang, Caiqing Wu, Juan Chen, Chengxin Li, Yongtao Xie, Qi Wang, Jianming Liu, Huan He, Jing Zhu
Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) is a constituent of several Chinese medicines used clinically to treat inflammatory diseases, including airway inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HDW serves a protective role in suppressing chronic airway inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chronic smoking was induced via exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 days, increasing the exposure time for up to 5 min per day and the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Peter Kranke, Sergio D Bergese, Harold S Minkowitz, Timothy I Melson, David G Leiman, Keith A Candiotti, Ngai Liu, Leopold Eberhart, Ashraf S Habib, Jan Wallenborn, Anthony L Kovac, Pierre Diemunsch, Gabriel Fox, Tong J Gan
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting causes distress for patients and can prolong care requirements. Consensus guidelines recommend use of multiple antiemetics from different mechanistic classes as prophylaxis in patients at high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The prophylactic efficacy of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist amisulpride in combination with other antiemetics was investigated. METHODS: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, international, multicenter trial was conducted in 1,147 adult surgical patients having three or four postoperative nausea and vomiting risk factors...
March 15, 2018: Anesthesiology
Yong-Jun Xu, Hui Sheng, Tian-Wen Wu, Qing-Yue Bao, You Zheng, Yan-Min Zhang, Yu-Xiang Gong, Jian-Qiang Lu, Zhen-Dong You, Yang Xia, Xin Ni
Pregnant women at risk of preterm labor usually receive synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) to promote fetal lung development. Emerging evidence indicates that antenatal sGC increases the risk of affective disorders in offspring. Data from animal studies show that such disorders can be transmitted to the second generation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the intergenerational effects of prenatal sGC remain largely unknown. Here we show that prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) administration in late pregnancy induced depression-like behavior in first-generation (F1) offspring, which could be transmitted to second-generation (F2) offspring with maternal dependence...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jee Hee Son, Sook Young Park, Yong Se Cho, Bo Young Chung, Hye One Kim, Chun Wook Park
Corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic agents used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including allergic disease. They are frequently considered the therapy-of-choice for many skin diseases. However, allergic reactions caused by corticosteroids have been reported. Among these, delayed reactions to topical steroids are more common, whereas immediate reactions to systemic steroids are rare. Herein, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman with triamcinolone-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction, in which the patient had a positive prick test result with triamcinolone...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Wei Du, Bilin Zhang, Pengqi Guo, Guoning Chen, Chun Chang, Qiang Fu
Dexamethasone-imprinted polymers were fabricated by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles under mild polymerization conditions, which exhibited a narrow polydispersity and high selectivity for dexamethasone extraction. The dexamethasone-imprinted polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry and vibrating sample magnetometry...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Giuseppe Troiano, Luigi Laino, Marco Cicciù, Gabriele Cervino, Luca Fiorillo, Cesare D'amico, Khrystyna Zhurakivska, Lorenzo Lo Muzio
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the clinical efficacy of two routes of dexamethasone administration in reducing the postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. Electronic databases (PUBMED, SCOPUS and EBSCO library) were screened in order to find both randomized and non-randomized clinical trials that directly compare the submucosal intraoral or the intramuscular extraoral administration of dexamethasone. No restriction about year of publication was imposed. About 340 titles and abstracts were screened independently by two authors...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, I-Chun Lin, Shih-Wen Li, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Li-Tung Huang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue. METHODS: RAS and BP of 6-month old rats exposed to prenatal DEX and/or postnatal HF diet were examined...
March 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Jeffery M Vahrenkamp, Chieh-Hsiang Yang, Adriana C Rodriguez, Aliyah Almomen, Kristofer C Berrett, Alexis N Trujillo, Katrin P Guillen, Bryan E Welm, Elke A Jarboe, Margit M Janat-Amsbury, Jason Gertz
Steroid hormone receptors are simultaneously active in many tissues and are capable of altering each other's function. Estrogen receptor α (ER) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are expressed in the uterus, and their ligands have opposing effects on uterine growth. In endometrial tumors with high ER expression, we surprisingly found that expression of GR is associated with poor prognosis. Dexamethasone reduced normal uterine growth in vivo; however, this growth inhibition was abolished in estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Z I Krutetskaya, L S Milenina, A A Naumova, S N Butov, V G Antonov, A D Nozdrachev
Using Fura-2AM microfluorimetry, it was shown for the first time that phospholipase A2 inhibitors 4-bromophenacyl bromide and glucocorticosteroids prednisolone and dexamethasone attenuate Ca2+ responses induced by neuroleptic trifluoperazine in macrophages. The results suggest the involvement of phospholipase A2 and arachidonic acid metabolism cascade in the effect of trifluoperazine on intracellular Ca2+ concentration in macrophages.
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Carllini Barroso Vicentini, Juliana Cama Ramacciato, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Rubens Gonçalves Teixeira, Rogério Heládio Lopes Motta
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare two therapeutic protocols of dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative swelling, pain, and other complications after the extraction of impacted third molars, in a prospective, randomized, crossover, double-blinded clinical trial. METHODS: Fifty patients with symmetrical impaction of third molars were randomly assigned to two different protocols of dexamethasone for each side. Patients underwent two sessions performed at a 21-day interval...
March 13, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Carine Ghassan Richa, Khadija Jamal Saad, Georges Habib Halabi, Elie Mekhael Gharios, Fadi Louis Nasr, Marie Tanios Merheb
The objective of this study is to report three cases of paraneoplastic or ectopic Cushing syndrome, which is a rare phenomenon of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syndrome. Three cases are reported in respect of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment in addition to relevant literature review. The results showed that ectopic ACTH secretion can be associated with different types of neoplasm most common of which are bronchial carcinoid tumors, which are slow-growing, well-differentiated neoplasms with a favorable prognosis and small-cell lung cancer, which are poorly differentiated tumors with a poor outcome...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Zona Batacchi, Nicole K Andeen, Subbulaxmi Trikudanathan
A 62-year-old woman presented with an 11-month history of worsening nasal symptoms of rhinorrhoea, anosmia, nasal congestion and intermittent epistaxis. MRI revealed a large mass in the upper nasal vault. Biopsy of the mass revealed an olfactory neuroblastoma. While waiting resection, she acutely developed severe proximal muscle weakness, lethargy and lower extremity oedema. Blood glucose was elevated, and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis was noted. Elevated serum cortisol level of 95.7 µg/dL (8.7-22.4 µg/dL) and markedly elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol level of 6962...
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
James M Hawley, Laura J Owen, Miguel De Bono, John Newell-Price, Brian G Keevil
BACKGROUND: Measurement of serum dexamethasone during the overnight dexamethasone-suppression test (ONDST) has been recommended to reduce false positive results when investigating Cushing's syndrome or increasingly commonly found adrenal incidentalomas. Despite this, there remains a paucity of well-validated dexamethasone methods currently available. Here, we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS serum dexamethasone assay and validate its utility in a cohort of postmenopausal females...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
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