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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101368/polymorphisms-in-the-canine-monoamine-oxidase-a-maoa-gene-identification-and-variation-among-five-broad-dog-breed-groups
#1
James Sacco, Andrew Ruplin, Paul Skonieczny, Michael Ohman
BACKGROUND: In humans, reduced activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) due to genetic polymorphisms within the MAOA gene leads to increased brain neurotransmitter levels associated with aggression. In order to study MAOA genetic diversity in dogs, we designed a preliminary study whose objectives were to identify novel alleles in functionally important regions of the canine MAOA gene, and to investigate whether the frequencies of these polymorphisms varied between five broad breed groups (ancient, herding, mastiff, modern European, and mountain)...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100871/in-vivo-direct-reprogramming-of-liver-cells-to-insulin-producing-cells-by-virus-free-overexpression-of-defined-factors
#2
Xiao-Fei Yang, Li-Wei Ren, Lu Yang, Chun-Yan Deng, Fu-Rong Li
Direct reprogramming of autologous cells from diabetes patients to insulin producing cells is a new method for pancreatic cell replacement therapy. At present, transdifferentiation among mature cells is achieved mainly by introducing foreign genes into the starting tissue with viral vector, but there are potentical safety problems. In the present study, we delivered plasmids carrying Pdx1, Neurog3 and MafA genes (PNM) into mouse hepatocytes by hydrodynamics tail vein injection, investigated islet β cells markers in transfected cells from protein and mRNA level, and then observed the long-term control of blood glucose in diabetic mice...
January 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100313/rectinema-cohabitans-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-rod-shaped-spirochete-isolated-from-an-anaerobic-naphthalene-degrading-enrichment-culture
#3
Janina S Koelschbach, Housna Mouttaki, Carolin Pickl, Hermann J Heipieper, Reinhard Rachel, Paul A Lawson, Rainer U Meckenstock
The anaerobic, non-motile strain HMT was isolated from the naphthalene-degrading, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture N47. Since 20 years, strain HMT has been a stable member of culture N47 although it is neither able to degrade naphthalene nor to reduce sulfate in pure culture. The highest similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain HMT (89%) is with a cultivated member of the family Spirochaetaceae, Treponema caldarium sp. strain H1T (DSM 7334T), an obligately anaerobic, thermophilic spirochete isolated from cyanobacterial mat samples collected at a freshwater hot spring in Oregon, USA...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099853/a-tissue-mapped-axolotl-de-novo-transcriptome-enables-identification-of-limb-regeneration-factors
#4
Donald M Bryant, Kimberly Johnson, Tia DiTommaso, Timothy Tickle, Matthew Brian Couger, Duygu Payzin-Dogru, Tae J Lee, Nicholas D Leigh, Tzu-Hsing Kuo, Francis G Davis, Joel Bateman, Sevara Bryant, Anna R Guzikowski, Stephanie L Tsai, Steven Coyne, William W Ye, Robert M Freeman, Leonid Peshkin, Clifford J Tabin, Aviv Regev, Brian J Haas, Jessica L Whited
Mammals have extremely limited regenerative capabilities; however, axolotls are profoundly regenerative and can replace entire limbs. The mechanisms underlying limb regeneration remain poorly understood, partly because the enormous and incompletely sequenced genomes of axolotls have hindered the study of genes facilitating regeneration. We assembled and annotated a de novo transcriptome using RNA-sequencing profiles for a broad spectrum of tissues that is estimated to have near-complete sequence information for 88% of axolotl genes...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099840/testis-specific-histone-variant-h3t-gene-is-essential-for-entry-into-spermatogenesis
#5
Jun Ueda, Akihito Harada, Takashi Urahama, Shinichi Machida, Kazumitsu Maehara, Masashi Hada, Yoshinori Makino, Jumpei Nogami, Naoki Horikoshi, Akihisa Osakabe, Hiroyuki Taguchi, Hiroki Tanaka, Hiroaki Tachiwana, Tatsuma Yao, Minami Yamada, Takashi Iwamoto, Ayako Isotani, Masahito Ikawa, Taro Tachibana, Yuki Okada, Hiroshi Kimura, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Kazuo Yamagata
Cellular differentiation is associated with dynamic chromatin remodeling in establishing a cell-type-specific epigenomic landscape. Here, we find that mouse testis-specific and replication-dependent histone H3 variant H3t is essential for very early stages of spermatogenesis. H3t gene deficiency leads to azoospermia because of the loss of haploid germ cells. When differentiating spermatogonia emerge in normal spermatogenesis, H3t appears and replaces the canonical H3 proteins. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that H3t-containing nucleosomes are more flexible than the canonical nucleosomes...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099503/3d-functional-corneal-stromal-tissue-equivalent-based-on-corneal-stromal-stem-cells-and-multi-layered-silk-film-architecture
#6
Chiara E Ghezzi, Benedetto Marelli, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, James L Funderburgh, David L Kaplan
The worldwide need for human cornea equivalents continues to grow. Few clinical options are limited to allogenic and synthetic material replacements. We hypothesized that tissue engineered human cornea systems based on mechanically robust, patterned, porous, thin, optically clear silk protein films, in combination with human corneal stromal stem cells (hCSSCs), would generate 3D functional corneal stroma tissue equivalents, in comparison to previously developed 2D approaches. Silk film contact guidance was used to control the alignment and distribution of hCSSCs on RGD-treated single porous silk films, which were then stacked in an orthogonally, multi-layered architecture and cultured for 9 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098528/spread-and-evolution-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-genotype-on1-coastal-kenya-2010-2015
#7
James R Otieno, Everlyn M Kamau, Charles N Agoti, Clement Lewa, Grieven Otieno, Ann Bett, Mwanajuma Ngama, Patricia A Cane, D James Nokes
In February 2012, the novel respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) group A, genotype ON1, was detected in Kilifi County, coastal Kenya. ON1 is characterized by a 72-nt duplication within the highly variable G gene (encoding the immunogenic attachment surface protein). Cases were diagnosed through surveillance of pneumonia in children at the county hospital. Analysis of epidemiologic, clinical, and sequence data of RSV-A viruses detected over 5 RSV seasons (2010/2011 to 2014/2015) indicated the following: 1) replacement of previously circulating genotype GA2 ON1, 2) an abrupt expansion in the number of ON1 variants detected in the 2014/2015 epidemic, 3) recently accumulation of amino acid substitutions within the ON1 duplicated sequence, and 4) no clear evidence of altered pathogenicity relative to GA2...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097289/binding-of-cll-subset-4-b-cell-receptor-immunoglobulins-to-viable-human-memory-b-lymphocytes-requires-a-distinctive-igkv-somatic-mutation
#8
Rosa Catera, Yun Liu, Chao Gao, Xiao-Jie Yan, Amanda Magli, Steven L Allen, Jonathan E Kolitz, Kanti R Rai, Charles C Chu, Ten Feizi, Kostas Stamatopoulos, Nicholas Chiorazzi
Amino acid replacement mutations in certain CLL stereotyped B-cell receptor (BCR) immunoglobulins (IGs) at defined positions within antigen-binding sites strongly imply antigen selection. Prime examples of this are CLL subset 4 BCR IGs using IGHV4-34/IGHD5-18/IGHJ6 and IGKV2-30/IGKJ2 rearrangements. Conspicuously and unlike most CLL IGs, subset 4 IGs do not bind apoptotic cells. By testing the (auto)antigenic reactivities of subset 4 IGs toward viable lymphoid-lineage cells and specific autoantigens typically bound by IGHV4-34(+) IGs, we found IGs from both subset 4 and non-subset 4 IGHV4-34-expressing CLL cases bind naïve B cells...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096531/the-first-imported-case-of-rift-valley-fever-in-china-reveals-a-genetic-reassortment-of-different-viral-lineages
#9
Jingyuan Liu, Yulan Sun, Weifeng Shi, Shuguang Tan, Yang Pan, Shujuan Cui, Qingchao Zhang, Xiangfeng Dou, Yanning Lv, Xinyu Li, Xitai Li, Lijuan Chen, Chuansong Quan, Qianli Wang, Yingze Zhao, Qiang Lv, Wenhao Hua, Hui Zeng, Zhihai Chen, Haofeng Xiong, Chengyu Jiang, Xinghuo Pang, Fujie Zhang, Mifang Liang, Guizhen Wu, George F Gao, William J Liu, Ang Li, Quanyi Wang
We report the first imported case of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in China. The patient returned from Angola, a non-epidemic country, with an infection of a new reassortant from different lineages of Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFVs). The patient developed multiorgan dysfunction and gradually recovered with continuous renal replacement therapy and a short regimen of methylprednisolone treatment. The disordered cytokines and chemokines in the plasma of the patient revealed hypercytokinemia, but the levels of protective cytokines were low upon admission and fluctuated as the disease improved...
January 18, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096308/-re-building-a-kidney
#10
Leif Oxburgh, Thomas J Carroll, Ondine Cleaver, Daniel R Gossett, Deborah K Hoshizaki, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Benjamin D Humphreys, Sanjay Jain, Jan Jensen, David L Kaplan, Carl Kesselman, Christian J Ketchum, Melissa H Little, Andrew P McMahon, Stuart J Shankland, Jason R Spence, M Todd Valerius, Jason A Wertheim, Oliver Wessely, Ying Zheng, Iain A Drummond
(Re)Building a Kidney is a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-led consortium to optimize approaches for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of appropriate kidney cell types and the integration of these cells into complex structures that replicate human kidney function. The ultimate goals of the consortium are two-fold: to develop and implement strategies for in vitro engineering of replacement kidney tissue, and to devise strategies to stimulate regeneration of nephrons in situ to restore failing kidney function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095743/adult-murine-pancreatic-progenitors-require-egf-and-nicotinamide-for-self-renewal-and-differentiation-in-a-serum-and-conditioned-medium-free-culture
#11
Lena Wedeken, Angela Luo, Jacob R Tremblay, Jeffrey Rawson, Liang Jin, Dan Gao, Janine Quijano, Hsun Teresa Ku
Adult pancreatic stem and progenitor cells may serve as an alternative source of insulin-secreting endocrine cells in cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes, but much remained unknown about these cells. We previously identified adult murine pancreatic progenitor-like cells that displayed in vitro self-renewal and tri-lineage differentiation activities in a 3-dimensional colony/organoid assay containing 1% methylcellulose and 5% Matrigel. However, the presence of other undefined culture components, such as serum and conditioned medium, has prevented a complete understanding of the signals required for progenitor cell growth...
January 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095465/leishmania-hasp-and-sherp-genes-are-required-for-in-vivo-differentiation-parasite-transmission-and-virulence-attenuation-in-the-host
#12
Johannes S P Doehl, Jovana Sádlová, Hamide Aslan, Kateřina Pružinová, Sonia Metangmo, Jan Votýpka, Shaden Kamhawi, Petr Volf, Deborah F Smith
Differentiation of extracellular Leishmania promastigotes within their sand fly vector, termed metacyclogenesis, is considered to be essential for parasites to regain mammalian host infectivity. Metacyclogenesis is accompanied by changes in the local parasite environment, including secretion of complex glycoconjugates within the promastigote secretory gel and colonization and degradation of the sand fly stomodeal valve. Deletion of the stage-regulated HASP and SHERP genes on chromosome 23 of Leishmania major is known to stall metacyclogenesis in the sand fly but not in in vitro culture...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094982/bacterial-genome-editing-via-a-designed-toxin-antitoxin-cassette
#13
Jie Wu, Aihua Deng, Qinyun Sun, Hua Bai, Zhaopeng Sun, Xiuling Shang, Yun Zhang, Qian Liu, Yong Liang, Shuwen Liu, Yongsheng Che, Tingyi Wen
Manipulating the bacterial genomes in an efficient manner is essential to biological and biotechnological research. Despite usage of various modules for genomic editing with counter-selectable markers including the toxin genes, an easy-to-use and highly designable toxin-antitoxin (TA) cassette without causing any leakages is urgently needed for efficient genome editing of the Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we reprogramed the bacterial TA systems as a toxin counter-selectable cassette regulated by an antitoxin switch (TCCRAS) for genetic modifications in the extensively studied and utilized Gram-positive bacteria, B...
January 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094221/synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-molecular-docking-analysis-of-2-phenyl-benzofuran-3-carboxamide-derivatives-as-potential-inhibitors-of-staphylococcus-aureus-sortase-a
#14
Wan He, Yong Zhang, Jian Bao, Xinxian Deng, Jennifer Batara, Shawn Casey, Qiuyuan Guo, Faqin Jiang, Lei Fu
In Gram-positive bacteria, Sortase A (Srt A) is a critical cysteine transpeptidase that is responsible for recognizing and assembling surface virulence proteins through the recognition of a LPXTG (leucine, proline, X, threonine, and glycine, where X is any amino acid) signal. Mutants lacking genes for Srt A attenuate infections without affecting microbial viability. Here a series of 2-phenyl-benzofuran-3-carboxamide derivatives were synthesized and identified as potent Srt A inhibitors. Activity assays revealed that multiple compounds exhibited excellent inhibitory activity against Srt A compared with known Sortase A inhibitor pHMB (IC50=130μM)...
December 25, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090703/differentiation-of-islet-progenitors-regulated-by-nicotinamide-into-transcriptome-verified-%C3%AE-cells-that-ameliorate-diabetes
#15
Fang-Xu Jiang, Kevin Li, Michael Archer, Munish Mehta, Emma Jamieson, Adrian Charles, Jan E Dickinson, Masahito Matsumoto, Grant Morahan
Developmental stage-specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells into safe and functional cells is of fundamental importance in regenerative medicine, including β-cell replacement. However, the differentiation of islet progenitor cells (IPCs) into insulin-secreting β cells remains elusive. Here, we report that the multi-functional molecule nicotinamide (NIC) is a specific differentiation regulator of mouse IPCs. The differentiated cells regulated by NIC exhibited many characteristics of adult β cells, including ameliorating preclinical diabetes and a highly comparable transcriptome profile...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090567/the-rna-polymerase-iii-subunit-polr3b-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-small-intestinal-crypts-in-mice
#16
Julia Kieckhaefer, Sabina Lukovac, Diana Z Ye, Dolim Lee, Danielle J Beetler, Michael Pack, Klaus H Kaestner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The continuously self-renewing mammalian intestinal epithelium, with high cellular turnover, depends on adequate protein synthesis for its proliferative capacity. RNA polymerase III activity is closely related to cellular growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the role of Polr3b, a large RNA polymerase III subunit, in the mammalian intestinal epithelium. METHODS: We derived mice with an intestinal epithelium-specific hypomorphic mutation of the Polr3b gene, using VillinCre-mediated gene ablation...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089880/a-combined-approach-for-enhancing-the-stability-of-recombinant-cis-dihydrodiol-naphthalene-dehydrogenase-from-pseudomonas-putida-g7-allowed-for-the-structural-and-kinetic-characterization-of-the-enzyme
#17
Débora Maria Abrantes Costa, Mariana Amalia Figueiredo Costa, Samuel Leite Guimarães, Juliana Barbosa Coitinho, Stefanya Velásquez Gómez, Tiago Antônio da Silva Brandão, Ronaldo Alves Pinto Nagem
The second enzyme of the naphthalene degradation pathway in Pseudomonas putida G7 is NahB, a dehydrogenase that converts cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene to 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene. We report the cloning, optimization of expression, purification, kinetic studies and preliminary structural characterization of the recombinant NahB. The nahB gene was cloned into a T7 expression vector and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) as an N-terminal hexa-histidine-tagged protein (6xHis-NahB)...
January 9, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089851/neuregulin-1-mutant-mice-indicate-motor-and-sensory-deficits-indeed-few-references-for-schizophrenia-endophenotype-model
#18
Silvia Schneider, Katja Götz, Carmen Birchmeier, Herbert Schwegler, Thomas Roskoden
Neuregulins (Nrg) are a gene family that binds to tyrosine kinase receptors of the ErbB family. The protein of Nrg1 is to be involved in heart formation, migration of neurons, axonal pathfinding and synaptic function. A relation between Nrg1 and schizophrenia is assumed. Chronic impairment in schizophrenia is characterized by different positive and negative symptoms. Detectable markers of this disease in human and in animal models are activity, social behavior and sensory processing. In this study we compared heterozygous Nrg1 mutant mice in behavior and quantification of dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurons with wild type-like littermates...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089380/biotic-host-pathogen-interactions-as-major-drivers-of-plastid-endosymbiosis
#19
REVIEW
Ugo Cenci, Debashish Bhattacharya, Andreas P M Weber, Christophe Colleoni, Agathe Subtil, Steven G Ball
The plastid originated 1.5 billion years ago through a primary endosymbiosis involving a heterotrophic eukaryote and an ancient cyanobacterium. Phylogenetic and biochemical evidence suggests that the incipient endosymbiont interacted with an obligate intracellular chlamydial pathogen that housed it in an inclusion. This aspect of the ménage-à-trois hypothesis (MATH) posits that Chlamydiales provided critical novel transporters and enzymes secreted by the pathogens in the host cytosol. This initiated the efflux of photosynthate to both the inclusion lumen and host cytosol...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088659/altered-cerebral-insulin-response-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-the-epsilon-4-allele-of-the-human-apolipoprotein-e-gene
#20
Marie-Thérèse Traversy, Milène Vandal, Cyntia Tremblay, Marine Tournissac, Ariane Giguère-Rancourt, A David Bennett, Frédéric Calon
Apolipoprotein E epsilon-4 (APOEε4 or APOE4), an allelic variation of the APOE gene, not only increases the risk of developing the late-onset form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also influences the outcome of treatment. Indeed, data from clinical studies show that the beneficial effect of insulin on cognition is blunted in APOE4 carriers. To investigate how APOE impacts insulin response, we assessed the effects of an acute insulin injection in APOE3- and APOE4-targeted replacement mice that respectively express the human APOE3 or APOE4 isoform instead of the endogenous murine ApoE protein...
November 30, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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