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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719947/efficient-liquid-media-for-encystation-of-pathogenic-free-living-amoebae
#1
Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Suk-Yul Jung, Ho-Joon Shin
Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, are distributed worldwide. They are causative agents of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis or acanthamoebic keratitis in humans, respectively. Trophozoites encyst in unfavorable environments, such as exhausted food supply and desiccation. Until recently, the method of N. fowleri encystation used solid non-nutrient agar medium supplemented with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli; however, for the amoebic encystment of Acanthamoeba spp...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719630/oligo-and-dsdna-mediated-genome-editing-using-a-teta-dual-selection-system-in-escherichia-coli
#2
Young Shin Ryu, Sathesh-Prabu Chandran, Kyungchul Kim, Sung Kuk Lee
The ability to precisely and seamlessly modify a target genome is needed for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques aimed at creating potent biosystems. Herein, we report on a promising method in Escherichia coli that relies on the insertion of an optimized tetA dual selection cassette followed by replacement of the same cassette with short, single-stranded DNA (oligos) or long, double-stranded DNA and the isolation of recombinant strains by negative selection using NiCl2. This method could be rapidly and successfully used for genome engineering, including deletions, insertions, replacements, and point mutations, without inactivation of the methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) system and plasmid cloning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719574/ancient-european-dog-genomes-reveal-continuity-since-the-early-neolithic
#3
Laura R Botigué, Shiya Song, Amelie Scheu, Shyamalika Gopalan, Amanda L Pendleton, Matthew Oetjens, Angela M Taravella, Timo Seregély, Andrea Zeeb-Lanz, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Dean Bobo, Kevin Daly, Martina Unterländer, Joachim Burger, Jeffrey M Kidd, Krishna R Veeramah
Europe has played a major role in dog evolution, harbouring the oldest uncontested Palaeolithic remains and having been the centre of modern dog breed creation. Here we sequence the genomes of an Early and End Neolithic dog from Germany, including a sample associated with an early European farming community. Both dogs demonstrate continuity with each other and predominantly share ancestry with modern European dogs, contradicting a previously suggested Late Neolithic population replacement. We find no genetic evidence to support the recent hypothesis proposing dual origins of dog domestication...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719354/thymol-and-carvacrol-strongly-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-growth-of-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli
#4
P Raei, T Pourlak, M Y Memar, N Alizadeh, M Aghamali, E Zeinalzadeh, M Asgharzadeh, H S Kafil
Discovery of novel drugs with new mechanisms of action and without cross-reaction with current therapeutic agents is crucial in the management of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of carvacrol and thymol on biofilm formation and antimicrobial activity against different carbapenemase-producing Gram negative bacilli. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of thymol and carvacrol was investigated against strains harboring different genes related to carbapenemase resistance...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#5
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718415/aging-fewer-obstacles-to-dna-replication
#6
Andreas S Ivessa
Many cancers are initiated by loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) events that lead to the replacement of single, functional tumor suppressor genes by the mutant alleles. The underlying mechanisms, of why LOH rates increase with age, are not well understood. We discuss the possible involvement of difficult-to-replicate (fragile) chromosomal sites in this process.
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717392/the-power-of-evolutionary-rescue-is-constrained-by-genetic-load
#7
Gavin S Stewart, Madeline R Morris, Allison B Genis, Marianna Szűcs, Brett A Melbourne, Simon J Tavener, Ruth A Hufbauer
The risk of extinction faced by small isolated populations in changing environments can be reduced by rapid adaptation and subsequent growth to larger, less vulnerable sizes. Whether this process, called evolutionary rescue, is able to reduce extinction risk and sustain population growth over multiple generations is largely unknown. To understand the consequences of adaptive evolution as well as maladaptive processes in small isolated populations, we subjected experimental Tribolium castaneum populations founded with 10 or 40 individuals to novel environments, one more favorable, and one resource poor, and either allowed evolution, or constrained it by replacing individuals one-for-one each generation with those from a large population maintained in the natal environment...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717209/non-target-effects-on-soil-microbial-parameters-of-the-synthetic-pesticide-carbendazim-with-the-biopesticides-cantharidin-and-norcantharidin
#8
Hainan Shao, Yalin Zhang
Considering the fact that biopesticides are increasingly used to replace synthetic pesticides in pest control, it is necessary to assess their ecotoxicity and especially their non-target effects on soil microorganisms, which is largely unknown. In this study, the effects of the synthetic pesticide carbendazim and the biopesticides (cantharidin and norcantharidin) on soil microbial parameters in a silt loam soil were evaluated. By using commercial formulations at the recommended and higher rates, both cantharidin and norcantharidin induced adverse effects on soil invertase, phosphatase activities and fungal gene structure, but these changes were transient...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716628/transduction-of-a-neospora-caninum-antigen-gene-into-mammalian-cells-using-a-modified-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-for-antibody-production
#9
Tatsuya Kato, Kohei Itagaki, Mai Yoshimoto, Rikito Hiramatsu, Hamizah Suhaimi, Tetsuya Kohsaka, Enoch Y Park
Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) can easily enter and transduce foreign genes into mammalian cells, but these functions are difficult for Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). In this study, we investigated the induction of antibody production in mice immunized with an engineered BmNPV. The GP64 of BmNPV (BmGP64) was replaced with the GP64 of AcMNPV (AcGP64); this construct, designated BmNPVΔbgp/AcGP64, displays AcGP64 on the surface of BmNPV. The Neospora caninum antigen (NcSRS2) expression cassette, consisting of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter and NcSRS2 from N...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716051/mir-380-5p-mediated-repression-of-tep1-and-tspyl5-interferes-with-telomerase-activity-and-favours-the-emergence-of-an-alt-like-phenotype-in-diffuse-malignant-peritoneal-mesothelioma-cells
#10
Graziella Cimino-Reale, Paolo Gandellini, Francesca Santambrogio, Marta Recagni, Nadia Zaffaroni, Marco Folini
BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular/cellular underpinnings of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM), a fatal malignancy with limited therapeutic options, is of utmost importance for the fruitful management of the disease. In this context, we previously found that telomerase activity (TA), which accounts for the limitless proliferative potential of cancer cells, is prognostic for disease relapse and cancer-related death in DMPM patients. Consequently, the identification of factors involved in telomerase activation/regulation may pave the way towards the development of novel therapeutic interventions for the disease...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713416/the-detection-and-characterization-of-qoi-resistant-didymella-rabiei-causing-ascochyta-blight-of-chickpea-in-montana
#11
Ayodeji S Owati, Bright Agindotan, Julie S Pasche, Mary Burrows
Ascochyta blight (AB) of pulse crops (chickpea, field pea, and lentils) causes yield loss in Montana, where 1.2 million acres was planted to pulses in 2016. Pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin, quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides, have been the choice of farmers for the management of AB in pulses. However, a G143A mutation in the cytochrome b gene has been reported to confer resistance to QoI fungicides. A total of 990 isolates of AB-causing fungi were isolated and screened for QoI resistance. Out of these, 10% were isolated from chickpea, 81% were isolated from field peas, and 9% isolated from lentil...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713344/outer-membrane-proteome-of-veillonella-parvula-a-diderm-firmicute-of-the-human-microbiome
#12
Daniel I Poppleton, Magalie Duchateau, Véronique Hourdel, Mariette Matondo, Jennifer Flechsler, Andreas Klingl, Christophe Beloin, Simonetta Gribaldo
Veillonella parvula is a biofilm-forming commensal found in the lungs, vagina, mouth, and gastro-intestinal tract of humans, yet it may develop into an opportunistic pathogen. Furthermore, the presence of Veillonella has been associated with the development of a healthy immune system in infants. Veillonella belongs to the Negativicutes, a diverse clade of bacteria that represent an evolutionary enigma: they phylogenetically belong to Gram-positive (monoderm) Firmicutes yet maintain an outer membrane (OM) with lipopolysaccharide similar to classic Gram-negative (diderm) bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712537/efficacy-and-safety-of-voretigene-neparvovec-aav2-hrpe65v2-in-patients-with-rpe65-mediated-inherited-retinal-dystrophy-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-phase-3-trial
#13
Stephen Russell, Jean Bennett, Jennifer A Wellman, Daniel C Chung, Zi-Fan Yu, Amy Tillman, Janet Wittes, Julie Pappas, Okan Elci, Sarah McCague, Dominique Cross, Kathleen A Marshall, Jean Walshire, Taylor L Kehoe, Hannah Reichert, Maria Davis, Leslie Raffini, Lindsey A George, F Parker Hudson, Laura Dingfield, Xiaosong Zhu, Julia A Haller, Elliott H Sohn, Vinit B Mahajan, Wanda Pfeifer, Michelle Weckmann, Chris Johnson, Dina Gewaily, Arlene Drack, Edwin Stone, Katie Wachtel, Francesca Simonelli, Bart P Leroy, J Fraser Wright, Katherine A High, Albert M Maguire
BACKGROUND: Phase 1 studies have shown potential benefit of gene replacement in RPE65-mediated inherited retinal dystrophy. This phase 3 study assessed the efficacy and safety of voretigene neparvovec in participants whose inherited retinal dystrophy would otherwise progress to complete blindness. METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 trial done at two sites in the USA, individuals aged 3 years or older with, in each eye, best corrected visual acuity of 20/60 or worse, or visual field less than 20 degrees in any meridian, or both, with confirmed genetic diagnosis of biallelic RPE65 mutations, sufficient viable retina, and ability to perform standardised multi-luminance mobility testing (MLMT) within the luminance range evaluated, were eligible...
July 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712502/gene-editing-with-talen-and-crispr-cas-in-rice
#14
Honghao Bi, Bing Yang
Engineered, site-specific nucleases induce genomic double-strand DNA breaks and break repair processes enable genome editing in a plethora of eukaryotic genomes. TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases) and CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins) are potent biotechnological tools used for genome editing. In rice, species-tailored editing tools have proven to be efficient and easy to use. Both tools are capable of generating DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in vivo and such breaks can be repaired either by error-prone NHEJ (nonhomologous end joining) that leads to nucleotide insertions or deletions or by HDR (homology-directed repair) if an appropriate exogenous DNA template is provided...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712496/engineering-molecular-immunity-against-plant-viruses
#15
Syed Shan-E-Ali Zaidi, Manal Tashkandi, Magdy M Mahfouz
Genomic engineering has been used to precisely alter eukaryotic genomes at the single-base level for targeted gene editing, replacement, fusion, and mutagenesis, and plant viruses such as Tobacco rattle virus have been developed into efficient vectors for delivering genome-engineering reagents. In addition to altering the host genome, these methods can target pathogens to engineer molecular immunity. Indeed, recent studies have shown that clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) systems that target the genomes of DNA viruses can interfere with viral activity and limit viral symptoms in planta, demonstrating the utility of this system for engineering molecular immunity in plants...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712383/retrospective-genomic-analysis-of-vibrio-cholerae-o1-el-tor-strains-from-different-places-in-india-reveals-the-presence-of-ctxb-7-allele-found-in-haitian-isolates
#16
R DE, T Ramamurthy, B L Sarkar, A K Mukhopadhyay, G P Pazhani, S Sarkar, S Dutta, G B Nair
A total of 45 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from 10 different places in India where they were associated with cases of cholera between the years 2007 and 2008 were examined by molecular methods. With the help of phenotypic and genotypic tests the strains were confirmed to be O1 El Tor biotype strains with classical ctxB gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis by double - mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR showed 16 of these strains carried the ctxB-7 allele reported in Haitian strains...
August 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710637/stabilization-of-enzymes-by-using-thermophiles
#17
Ana Luisa Ribeiro, Mercedes Sánchez, Aurelio Hidalgo, José Berenguer
Manufactured steroid compounds have many applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Due to the chemical complexity and chirality of steroids, there is an increasing demand for enzyme-based bioconversion processes to replace those based on chemical synthesis. In this context, thermostability of the involved enzymes is a highly desirable property as both the increased half-life of the enzyme and the enhanced solubility of substrates and products will improve the yield of the reactions. Metagenomic libraries from thermal environments are potential sources of thermostable enzymes of prokaryotic origin, but the number of expected hits could be quite low for enzymes handling substrates such as steroids, rarely found in prokaryotes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710008/identifying-synthetic-lethal-targets-using-crispr-cas9-system
#18
Jaspreet Kaur Dhanjal, Navaneethan Radhakrishnan, Durai Sundar
Synthetic lethality occurs when co-occurrence of two genetic events is unfavorable for the survival of the cell or organism. The conventional approach of high throughput screening of synthetic lethal targets using chemical compounds has been replaced by RNAi technology. CRISPR/Cas9, an RNA guided endonuclease system is the most recent technology for this work. Here, we have discussed the major considerations involved in designing a CRISPR/Cas9 based screening experiment for identification of synthetic lethal targets...
July 11, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707952/systemic-delivery-of-dysferlin-overlap-vectors-provides-long-term-functional-improvement-for-dysferlinopathy
#19
Rachael A Potter, Danielle A Griffin, Patricia C Sondergaard, Ryan W Johnson, Eric R Pozsgai, Kristin N Heller, Ellyn L Peterson, Kimmo K Lehtimaki, Hillarie P Windish, Plavi J Mittal, Doug E Albrecht, Jerry R Mendell, Louise R Rodino-Klapac
Dysferlinopathies comprise a family of disorders caused by mutations in the dysferlin (DYSF) gene leading to a progressive dystrophy characterized by chronic muscle fiber loss, fat replacement and fibrosis. To correct the underlying histopathology and function, expression of full-length DYSF is required. We have developed dual adeno-associated virus vectors defined by a region of homology to serve as a substrate for reconstitution of the full 6.5 kb dysferlin cDNA. Our previous work studied the efficacy of this treatment through intramuscular and regional delivery routes...
July 14, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706419/intestinal-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ground-cherry-physalis-angulata-l-standardized-co2-phytopharmaceutical-preparation
#20
Luiz Domingues Almeida Junior, Ana Elisa Valencise Quaglio, Celso Acácio Rodrigues de Almeida Costa, Luiz Claudio Di Stasi
AIM: To investigate the effects of Ground Cherry (Physalis angulata L.) standardized supercritical CO2 extract in trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat intestinal inflammation. METHODS: The animals were divided into groups that received vehicle or P. angulata extract (PACO2) orally at the doses 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg daily by 5 d before TNBS damage. Protective effects of PACO2 were assessed by macroscopic analysis, biochemical determinations of the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione and cytokines (such as INF-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α), gene expression evaluation (including Hsp70, heparanase, NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (Mapk) 1, 3, 6 and 9, and the mucins genes Muc 1, 2, 3 and 4) and histopathological studies using optical, and electronic (transmission and scanning) microscopy...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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