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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441755/role-of-rheb-in-regulating-differentiation-fate-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-and-bone-regeneration
#1
Sajjad Ashraf, In-Bo Han, Hansoo Park, Soo-Hong Lee
Advances in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell replacement therapies are promising approaches to treat cartilage and bone defects since substantial differentiation capacities of MSCs match the demands of tissue regeneration. Our understanding of the dynamic process requiring indispensable differentiation of MSCs remains limited. Herein, we describe the role of RHEB (Ras homolog enriched in brain) regulating gene signature for differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439828/interrogation-of-functional-mirna-target-interactions-by-crispr-cas9-genome-engineering
#2
Yale S Michaels, Qianxin Wu, Tudor A Fulga
Post-transcriptional silencing by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a critical constituent of eukaryotic gene regulation. miRNAs are short (~22nt) noncoding RNAs capable of specifically targeting the miRNA-induced-silencing-complex (miRISC) to transcripts bearing a complementary miRNA response element (MRE). Although recent methodological advances have greatly improved our understanding of miRNA biogenesis and the mechanisms by which miRNAs repress their cognate targets, exploring the physiological relevance of direct miRNA-target interactions in vivo has remained an outstanding challenge...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439259/increased-biological-activity-of-aneurinibacillus-migulanus-strains-correlates-with-the-production-of-new-gramicidin-secondary-metabolites
#3
Faizah N Alenezi, Imen Rekik, Ali Chenari Bouket, Lenka Luptakova, Hedda J Weitz, Mostafa E Rateb, Marcel Jaspars, Stephen Woodward, Lassaad Belbahri
The soil-borne gram-positive bacteria Aneurinibacillus migulanus strain Nagano shows considerable potential as a biocontrol agent against plant diseases. In contrast, A. migulanus NCTC 7096 proved less effective for inhibition of plant pathogens. Nagano strain exerts biocontrol activity against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi and oomycetes through the production of gramicidin S (GS). Apart from the antibiotic effects, GS increases the rate of evaporation from the plant surface, reducing periods of surface wetness and thereby indirectly inhibiting spore germination...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438299/can-gene-editing-and-silencing-technologies-play-a-role-in-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Mushfiq H Shaikh, Daniel T W Clarke, Newell W Johnson, Nigel A J McMillan
Conventional treatment strategies have done little to improve the prognosis or disease-free survival in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Recent progress in our understanding of molecular aspects of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has provided insights into the potential use of molecular targeted therapies in combination with current treatment strategies. Here we review the current understanding of treatment modalities for both HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCCs with the potential to use gene editing and silencing technologies therapeutically...
May 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436759/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Zhongju Shi, Hengxing Zhou, Lu Lu, Xueying Li, Zheng Fu, Jun Liu, Yi Kang, Zhijian Wei, Bin Pan, Lu Liu, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves serious damage that can result in abnormal or absent motor and sensory functions and a disruption of autonomic function, and a series of pathological reactions occur after the injury. As a type of small non-coding RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been verified to inhibit gene expression via posttranscriptional regulation. This review mainly focuses on recent advances regarding the roles of miRNAs following SCI. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were adopted...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436458/development-of-a-fluorescent-asfv-strain-that-retains-the-ability-to-cause-disease-in-swine
#6
Manuel V Borca, Vivian O'Donnell, Lauren G Holinka, Brent Sanford, Paul A Azzinaro, Guillermo R Risatti, Douglas P Gladue
African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact for the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment are currently commercially available. We present here the development of a strain of ASFV that has been shown to retain its ability to cause disease in swine, efficiently replicate in swine macrophage and that is fluorescently tagged...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436419/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-gastrostomy-fed-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#7
H Al-Momani, A Perry, R Jones, S Bourke, S Doe, J Perry, A Anderson, T Forrest, I Forrest, M Griffin, M Brodlie, J Pearson, C Ward
Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) is a form of Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) of special, international concern in Cystic Fibrosis (CF). We hypothesised that gastric juice and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding devices might yield MABSC isolates. Gastric juice and sputa from sixteen adult PEG fed CF patients and five replaced PEG tubes were studied. Bacterial and fungal isolates were cultured. Mycobacterium were identified by rpoB, sodA and hsp65 gene sequencing and strain typed using variable number tandem repeat...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435138/proteomic-analysis-of-a-mosquito-host-cell-response-to-persistent-wolbachia-infection
#8
Gerald Baldridge, LeeAnn Higgins, Bruce Witthuhn, Todd Markowski, Abigail Baldridge, Anibal Armien, Ann Fallon
Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with arthropods and filarial worms, is a target for filarial disease treatment and provides a gene drive agent for insect vector population suppression/replacement. We compared proteomes of Aedes albopictus mosquito C/wStr1 cells persistently infected with Wolbachia strain wStr, relative to uninfected C7-10 control cells. Among approximately 2,500 proteins, iTRAQ data identified 815 differentially abundant proteins. As functional classes, energy and central intermediary metabolism proteins were elevated in infected cells, while suppressed proteins with roles in host DNA replication, transcription and translation suggested that Wolbachia suppresses pathways that support host cell growth and proliferation...
April 20, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435007/stem-cells-and-their-potential-clinical-applications-in-psychiatric-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Andrzej K Ciechanowicz, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
The robustness of stem cells is one of the major factors that directly impacts life quality and life span. Evidence has accumulated that changes in the stem cell compartment affect human mental health and serve as an indicator of psychiatric problems. It is well known that stem cells continuously replace differentiated cells and tissues that are used up during life, although this replacement occurs at a different pace in the various organs. However, the participation of local neural stem cells in regeneration of the central nervous system is controversial...
April 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434205/molecular-systematics-reveals-increased-diversity-within-the-south-african-laurencia-complex-rhodomelaceae-rhodophyta
#10
Caitlynne Francis, John J Bolton, Lydiane Mattio, Tshifhiwa G Mandiwana-Neudani, Robert J Anderson
Previous publications list ten species in the Laurencia complex from South Africa with all ascribed to the genus Laurencia sensu stricto. However, the diversity of the complex in South Africa has not yet been reassessed following the numerous recent taxonomic changes. The present study investigated the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of this group in South Africa using recent collections. Methods included a molecular phylogenetic analysis of plastid rbcL gene sequences (a total of 146; including eleven outgroup taxa) using Bayesian Inference, and the examination of morphological and anatomical characters, including the number of corps en cerise when present...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434161/can-valproic-acid-regulate-neurogenesis-from-nestin-cells-in-the-adult-midbrain
#11
Parisa Farzanehfar, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) causes the motor symptoms (e.g. tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability) of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is generally agreed that replacing these neurons will provide better motor symptom relief and fewer side effects than current pharmacotherapies. One potential approach to this is up-regulating endogenous DA neurogenesis in SNc. In the present study, we conducted bioinformatics analyses to identify signalling pathways that control expression of Pax6 and Msx1 genes, which have been identified as potentially important neurogenic regulators in the adult midbrain...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433721/optimizing-the-restored-chemotactic-behavior-of-anticancer-agent-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vnp20009
#12
Katherine M Broadway, Seungbeum Suh, Bahareh Behkam, Birgit E Scharf
Bacteria, including strains of Salmonella, have been researched and applied as therapeutic cancer agents for centuries. Salmonella are particularly of interest due to their facultative anaerobic nature, facilitating colonization of differentially oxygenated tumor regions. Additionally, Salmonella can be manipulated with relative ease, resulting in the ability to attenuate the pathogen or engineer vectors for drug delivery. It was recently discovered that the anti-cancer Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain VNP20009 is lacking in chemotactic ability, due to a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in cheY...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432725/synthesis-and-biological-potency-of-anilino-triazine-insecticides
#13
Timothy C Johnson, Annette V Brown, Kristy K Bryan, Katherine K Guenthenspberger, Ricky Hunter, Timothy P Martin, Noormohamed Niyaz, Gene F Tisdell, Tony Trullinger
BACKGROUND: An insecticide screening effort identified N-(4-bromophenyl)-4,6-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-1,3,5-triazine-2-amine as having weak potency against two Lepidopteran species, Helicoverpa zea and Spodoptera exigua. A structure activity relationship study about the trifluoroethoxy substituents and the aniline of this compound was carried out in an effort to improve insecticidal potency. RESULTS: Initially, a series of analogs bearing various substituents on the aniline were prepared and the insecticidal potency was evaluated against Helicoverpa zea and Spodoptera exigua in greenhouse diet feeding assays...
April 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432324/optimization-of-amino-acid-replacement-costs-by-mutational-pressure-in-bacterial-genomes
#14
Paweł Błażej, Dorota Mackiewicz, Małgorzata Grabińska, Małgorzata Wnętrzak, Paweł Mackiewicz
Mutations are considered a spontaneous and random process, which is important component of evolution because it generates genetic variation. On the other hand, mutations are deleterious leading to non-functional genes and energetically costly repairs. Therefore, one can expect that the mutational pressure is optimized to simultaneously generate genetic diversity and preserve genetic information. To check if empirical mutational pressures are optimized in these ways, we compared matrices of nucleotide mutation rates derived from bacterial genomes with their best possible alternatives that minimized or maximized costs of amino acid replacements associated with differences in their physicochemical properties (e...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431015/large-scale-collection-of-full-length-cdna-and-transcriptome-analysis-in-hevea-brasiliensis
#15
Yuko Makita, Kiaw Kiaw Ng, G Veera Singham, Mika Kawashima, Hideki Hirakawa, Shusei Sato, Ahmad Sofiman Othman, Minami Matsui
Natural rubber has unique physical properties that cannot be replaced by products from other latex-producing plants or petrochemically produced synthetic rubbers. Rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is the main commercial source for this natural rubber that has a cis-polyisoprene configuration. For sustainable production of enough rubber to meet demand elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the production of latex is vital. To this end, we firstly constructed rubber full-length cDNA libraries of RRIM 600 cultivar and sequenced around 20,000 clones by the Sanger method and over 15,000 contigs by Illumina sequencer...
April 1, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430084/the-spo0a-sini-sinr-regulatory-circuit-plays-an-essential-role-in-biofilm-formation-nematicidal-activities-and-plant-protection-in-bacillus-cereus-ar156
#16
Sunde Xu, Nan Yang, Shiyu Zheng, Fang Yan, Chunhao Jiang, Yiyang Yu, Jianhua Guo, Yunrong Chai, Yun Chen
The rhizosphere bacterium Bacillus cereus AR156 is capable of forming biofilms, killing nematodes, and protecting plants. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of these processes are not well understood. In this study, we found that the isogenic mutants ΔBcspo0A and ΔBcsinI have significantly reduced colonization and nematicidal activity in vitro and biological control efficacy on the tomato plant under greenhouse conditions. We further investigated the role of the spo0A-sinI-sinR regulatory circuit in biofilm formation, killing against nematodes, and biological control in AR156...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429387/the-association-between-ggcx-mir-133-genetic-polymorphisms-and-warfarin-stable-dosage-in-han-chinese-patients-with-mechanical-heart-valve-replacement
#17
X-Y Tang, J Zhang, J Peng, S-L Tan, W Zhang, G-B Song, L-M Liu, C-L Li, H Ren, L Zeng, Z-Q Liu, X-P Chen, X-M Zhou, H-H Zhou, J-X Hu, Z Li
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index. Polymorphisms in the VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 genes have been verified to correlate with warfarin stable dosage (WSD). Whether any other genes or variants affect the dosage is unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between GGCX, miR-133 variants and the WSD in Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement (MHVR). METHODS: A total of 231 patients were enrolled in the study...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428619/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-a-previously-unknown-role-for-cd8-t-cells-in-rvsv-ebov-mediated-protection
#18
Andrea R Menicucci, Suhas Sureshchandra, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann, Ilhem Messaoudi
Ebola virus (EBOV) poses a significant threat to human health as highlighted by the recent epidemic in West Africa. Data from animal studies and a ring vaccination clinical trial conducted in Guinea during the recent epidemic demonstrated that a recombinant VSV where G protein is replaced with EBOV GP (rVSV-EBOV) is safe and highly efficacious. We previously established that antibodies are essential for rVSV-EBOV mediated protection against EBOV; however, the mechanisms by which this vaccine induces a humoral response and the role of T-cells in rVSV-EBOV mediated protection remain poorly understood...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427991/impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-serotype-distribution-of-adult-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-tokai-region-japan-2008-2016
#19
Yuri Furuya, Yuka Yamagishi, Hayato Okade, Takumi Kadota, Tori Funatsu, Maki Eto, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroshige Mikamo
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in February 2010 markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and changed serotype distribution in Japan. In November 2013, PCV7 was replaced by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). We investigated the serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from adult patients. A total of 504 pneumococcal isolates were collected during 4 periods between 2008 and 2016 (Period 1; between June 2008 and April 2009, Period 2; between September 2010 and March 2011, Period 3; between October 2011 and March 2012, Period 4; between August 2015 and January 2016)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425073/molecular-therapy-of-primary-hyperoxaluria
#20
Cristina Martin-Higueras, Armando Torres, Eduardo Salido
During the last few decades, the molecular understanding of the mechanisms involved in primary hyperoxalurias (PHs) has set the stage for novel therapeutic approaches. The availability of PH mouse models has facilitated preclinical studies testing innovative treatments. PHs are autosomal recessive diseases where the enzymatic deficit plays a central pathogenic role. Thus, molecular therapies aimed at restoring such deficit or limiting the consequences of the metabolic derangement could be envisioned, keeping in mind the specific challenges posed by the cell-autonomous nature of the deficiency...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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