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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784823/continuous-intrathecal-orexin-delivery-inhibits-cataplexy-in-a-murine-model-of-narcolepsy
#1
Mahesh K Kaushik, Kosuke Aritake, Aya Imanishi, Takashi Kanbayashi, Tadashi Ichikawa, Tetsuo Shimizu, Yoshihiro Urade, Masashi Yanagisawa
Narcolepsy-cataplexy is a chronic neurological disorder caused by loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons, associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and fragmentation of nighttime sleep. Currently, human narcolepsy is treated by providing symptomatic therapies, which can be associated with an array of side effects. Although peripherally administered orexin does not efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier, centrally delivered orexin can effectively alleviate narcoleptic symptoms in animal models...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771387/functional-brown-adipose-tissue-and-sympathetic-activity-after-cold-exposure-in-humans-with-type-1-narcolepsy
#2
Lotte Hahn Enevoldsen, Marie Tindborg, Nichlas Lindegaard Hovmand, Christina Christoffersen, Helga Ellingsgaard, Charlotte Suetta, Bente Merete Stallknecht, Poul Joergen Jennum, Andreas Kjær, Steen Gammeltoft
Study objectives: To investigate the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in type 1 narcolepsy patients during cold exposure using two separate scans of sympathetic and metabolic activity of BAT in order to evaluate whether orexin deficiency leads to altered non-shivering thermoregulation in narcolepsy. Methods: Seven patients with type 1 narcolepsy and seven healthy controls underwent two consecutive scans after 2 h cold exposure: 123I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (123I-MIBG) single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-2-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography to visualize sympathetic innervation and metabolic activity of BAT, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759275/sleep-related-drug-therapy-in-special-conditions-children
#3
REVIEW
Nicholas-Tiberio Economou, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Paschalis Steiropoulos
Sleep disorders in children may lead to neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive deficits; it is important to diagnose and treat them properly. Apart from the existing challenges in diagnosis, another drawback is that few therapies are currently approved. In this article, a comprehensive summary of the most common pediatric sleep disorders, along with the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches for their management, is presented. Special attention has been paid to the currently available treatment options for pediatric insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, parasomnias, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome, and comparisons are made with the corresponding treatment options for sleep disorders in adults...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759269/drugs-used-in-narcolepsy-and-other-hypersomnias
#4
REVIEW
Gert Jan Lammers
Narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia cannot be cured; all available treatments are symptomatic. It is of paramount importance for patients, and their relatives, to be informed about the consequences of these chronic diseases and to become ready to accept the consequences of the diagnosis before starting any treatment. This facilitates the implementation of behavioral modifications and the proper use of medication to decrease the disease burden. A supportive social environment (eg, family members, friends, employer, colleagues, and patient support groups) is instrumental...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749043/foot-cooling-does-not-improve-vigilance-but-may-transiently-reduce-sleepiness
#5
Ryan P Sixtus, Barbara C Galland, James D Cotter
Temperature of the skin (TSk ) and core (TC ) play key roles in sleep-wake regulation. The diurnal combination of low TSk and high TC facilitates alertness, whereas the transition to high TSk and low TC correlates with sleepiness. Sleepiness and deteriorating vigilance are induced with peripheral warming, whereas peripheral cooling appears to transiently improve vigilance in narcolepsy. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that foot cooling would maintain vigilance during extended wakefulness in healthy adults...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740055/cardiac-sympathetic-activity-differentiates-idiopathic-and-symptomatic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder
#6
Lucie Barateau, Isabelle Jaussent, Régis Lopez, Elisa Evangelista, Sofiene Chenini, Meriem Benkiran, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Yves Dauvilliers
The pathophysiology of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) associated with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is still poorly understood, potentially distinct from idiopathic RBD (iRBD), but may share affected common pathways. We investigated whether MIBG cardiac uptake differs between iRBD and NT1 comorbid with RBD. Thirty-four patients with NT1-RBD and 15 patients with iRBD underwent MIBG cardiac scintigraphy. MIBG uptake was measured by calculating the early and delayed heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratios...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736425/cyclic-hypersomnolence-with-symptoms-of-narcolepsy-with-cataplexy-an-unusual-presentation-of-probable-immune-mediated-encephalitis
#7
Rafer Willenberg, Jonathan D Bui
We report a case of probable encephalitis presenting as narcolepsy with cataplexy, but with cyclical exacerbation and cognitive difficulties. Our patient continued to worsen despite treatment for narcolepsy and later was thought to have an immune-mediated encephalopathy. Treatment with intravenous gamma immunoglobulin (IVIG) led to complete recovery. Cyclic symptoms of narcolepsy with cataplexy are thus one presentation of probable immune-mediated encephalitis.
March 2018: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707422/modafinil-for-the-improvement-of-patient-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Amne Borghol, Michael Aucoin, Ifeanyichukwu Onor, Dana Jamero, Fadi Hawawini
Objective : The authors sought to assess the literature evidence on the efficacy of modafinil use in patients with fatigue or excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method of Research : A literature search of Medline and PubMed was performed using the EBSCOhost database. Primary literature, observational studies, meta-analyses, case reports, and systematic reviews were assessed for content regarding modafinil and psychostimulant use in patients with TBI. Of the 23 articles collected, three randomized, controlled studies, three observational studies, one case report, and two systematic reviews gave a description of modafinil use in TBI patients...
April 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701013/visualization-of-the-activation-of-the-histamine-h3-receptor-h3r-using-novel-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-biosensors-and-their-potential-application-to-the-study-of-h3r-pharmacology
#9
Ying Liu, Hong Zeng, John D Pediani, Richard J Ward, Lu-Yao Chen, Nan Wu, Li Ma, Mei Tang, Yang Yang, Su An, Xiao-Xi Guo, Qian Hao, Tian-Rui Xu
Activation of the Histamine-3 receptor (H3R) is involved in memory processes and cognitive action, whilst blocking H3R activation can slow the progression of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and narcolepsy. To date however no direct way to examine the activation of H3R has been utilised. Here, we describe a novel biosensor which can visualise the activation of H3R through an intramolecular Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) signal. To achieve this, we constructed an intramolecular H3R FRET sensor with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) attached at the C-terminus and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) inserted into the third intracellular loop...
April 26, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686129/narcolepsy-brain-imaging-and-cognition-understanding-the-connections
#10
Steven Karceski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680434/persistence-of-deep-tendon-reflexes-during-partial-cataplexy
#11
Lucie Barateau, Fabio Pizza, Régis Lopez, Elena Antelmi, Giuseppe Plazzi, Yves Dauvilliers
OBJECTIVE: Deep-tendon reflexes are abolished during generalized cataplexy, but whether this is the case in partial cataplexy currently remains unknown. Partial cataplexy may mimic other neurologic/psychiatric phenomena, and knowledge of the reflexes status may provide information for differential diagnosis. We assessed whether deep-tendon reflexes are persistent during partial cataplexy. METHODS: Five drug-free patients with typical diagnoses of narcolepsy and clear-cut partial cataplexy were diagnosed in Reference Narcolepsy Centers in France and Italy...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668817/adverse-events-of-vaccines-and-the-consequences-of-non-vaccination-a-critical-review
#12
Luana Raposo de Melo Moraes Aps, Marco Aurélio Floriano Piantola, Sara Araujo Pereira, Julia Tavares de Castro, Fernanda Ayane de Oliveira Santos, Luís Carlos de Souza Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risks related to vaccines and the impacts of non-vaccination on the world population. METHODS: This is a narrative review that has considered information present in the bibliographic databases NCBI-PubMed, Medline, Lilacs, and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), between November 2015 and November 2016. For the analysis of outbreaks caused by non-vaccination, we considered the work published between 2010 and 2016. RESULTS: We have described the main components of the vaccines offered by the Brazilian public health system and the adverse events associated with these elements...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659394/a-bizarre-bone-scan-of-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva
#13
Tzyy-Ling Chuang, Kuo-Wei Ho, Yuh-Feng Wang
A 27-year-old woman had progressive bony ankylosis over both hands since she was 5 years old. Bony ankylosing over the peripheral joints and spine slowly progressed, and scoliosis surgery was performed at age 14. Recently, she developed difficulty walking, changing position, and opening her mouth. A neurologist was consulted and ruled out the suspicion of narcolepsy. Chest CT showed ankylosing spondylitis. A bone scan showed a bizarre pattern with radiouptake to the left maxilla, bilateral sacroiliac joints, left middle third femur, and soft tissue uptake over bilateral arms, legs, and pelvis...
June 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649498/the-wakefulness-promoting-drug-modafinil-causes-adenosine-receptor-mediated-upregulation-of-receptor-activator-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-in-osteoblasts-negative-impact-of-the-drug-on-peak-bone-accrual-in-rats
#14
Shyamsundar Pal China, Subhashis Pal, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Konica Porwal, Monika Mittal, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Naibedya Chattopadhyay
Modafinil is primarily prescribed for treatment of narcolepsy and other sleep-associated disorders. However, its off-prescription use as a cognition enhancer increased considerably, specially among youths. Given its increasing use in young adults the effect of modafinil on peak bone accrual is an important issue but has never been investigated. Modafinil treatment to young male rats caused trabecular and cortical bone loss in tibia and femur, and reduction in biomechanical strength. Co-treatment of modafinil with alendronate (a drug that suppresses bone resorption) reversed the trabecular bone loss but failed to prevent cortical loss...
April 9, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624767/systemic-exertion-intolerance-disease-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-is-common-in-sleep-centre-patients-with-hypersomnolence-a-retrospective-pilot-study
#15
Caroline Maness, Prabhjyot Saini, Donald L Bliwise, Victoria Olvera, David B Rye, Lynn M Trotti
Symptoms of the central disorders of hypersomnolence extend beyond excessive daytime sleepiness to include non-restorative sleep, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. They share much in common with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, recently renamed systemic exertion intolerance disease, whose additional features include post-exertional malaise and orthostatic intolerance. We sought to determine the frequency and correlates of systemic exertion intolerance disease in a hypersomnolent population...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623725/an-overview-of-hypocretin-based-therapy-in-narcolepsy
#16
Shinichi Takenoshita, Noriaki Sakai, Yuhei Chiba, Mari Matsumura, Mai Yamaguchi, Seiji Nishino
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is most commonly caused by a loss of hypocretin/orexin peptide-producing neurons in the hypothalamus (i.e., Narcolepsy Type 1). Since hypocretin deficiency is assumed to be the main cause of narcoleptic symptoms, hypocretin replacement will be the most essential treatment for narcolepsy. Unfortunately, this option is still not available clinically. There are many potential approaches to replace hypocretin in the brain for narcolepsy such as intranasal administration of hypocretin peptides, developing small molecule hypocretin receptor agonists, hypocretin neuronal transplantation, transforming hypocretin stem cells into hypothalamic neurons, and hypocretin gene therapy...
April 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622485/the-association-of-schizophrenia-and-narcolepsy-in-adolescents
#17
Yefim Cavalier, Sanjeev V Kothare
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616151/narcolepsy-in-adolescence-a-missed-diagnosis-a-case-report
#18
Anoop K Gupta, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Sandeep Grover
<b/> Narcolepsy is an uncommon sleep cycle disorder with a usual onset in adolescence, but it is often misdiagnosed and underdiagnosed. Rarely is the tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis seen in patients. The clinical characteristics of narcolepsy are often confused with many psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Lack of clinical awareness about narcolepsy leads to frequent prescriptions of antiepileptics and psychotropics, which can adversely affect the quality of life of children and adolescents...
July 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615884/central-disorders-of-hypersomnolence-restless-legs-syndrome-and-surgery-with-general-anesthesia-patient-perceptions
#19
Vincent LaBarbera, Paul S García, Donald L Bliwise, Lynn M Trotti
Introduction: The importance of obstructive sleep apnea in patients undergoing surgery with general anesthesia is well-defined, but the surgical and anesthetic implications of other sleep disorders are less clear. We sought to evaluate response to surgery with general anesthesia in patients with central disorders of hypersomnolence or restless legs syndrome. Methods: We surveyed patients on their most recent surgical procedure with general anesthesia, querying about procedure, recovery, and any changes in sleep disorder symptomatology following the procedure...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609710/associations-between-neuropsychological-neurobehavioral-and-emotional-functioning-and-either-narcolepsy-or-idiopathic-hypersomnia-in-children-and-adolescents
#20
Beris Ludwig, Simon Smith, Helen Heussler
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia are chronic neurological sleep disorders characterized by hypersomnolence or excessive daytime sleepiness. This review aims to systematically examine the scientific literature on the associations between narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia and their effect on intellectual functioning, academic achievement, behavior, and emotion. METHODS: Published studies that examined those associations in children and adolescents were included...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
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