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thiomersal and children

Juan Rodrigues, Vasco Branco, Jun Lu, Arne Holmgren, Cristina Carvalho
Mercury (Hg) is a strong toxicant affecting mainly the central nervous, renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. Thiomersal (TM) is still in use in medical practice as a topical antiseptic and as a preservative in multiple dose vaccines, routinely given to young children in some developing countries, while other forms of mercury such as methylmercury represent an environmental and food hazard. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of thiomersal (TM) and its breakdown product ethylmercury (EtHg) on the thioredoxin system and NADP(+)-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway...
August 1, 2015: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Aleksandra Gołoś, Anna Lutyńska
Thiomersal is an organomercury compound known for its antiseptic and antifungal properties and used as an antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical products, including vaccines and other injectable biological products. In recent years, concerns about the possible link between immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines and autism development have grown. Many case-control and cohort studies have been conducted on a number of populations, and none of them have confirmed the hypothetical relation between thiomersal and increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) development...
2015: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
David A Geier, Paul G King, Brian S Hooker, José G Dórea, Janet K Kern, Lisa K Sykes, Mark R Geier
INTRODUCTION: Thimerosal (or Thiomersal) is a trade name for an organomercurial compound (sodium ethyl-mercury (Hg) thiosalicylate) that is 49.55% Hg by weight, which rapidly decomposes in aqueous saline solutions into ethyl-Hg hydroxide and ethyl-Hg chloride. Developed in 1927, it has been and is still being used as a preservative in some cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals, and biological drug products, including vaccines. Concerns have been voiced about its use because it is toxic to human cells...
April 15, 2015: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990...
October 1, 2005: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Salvacion R Gatchalian, Gunasekaran Ramakrishnan, Hans L Bock, Inge Lefevre, Jeanne M Jacquet
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HBVLT/Hib2.5 vaccine containing low thiomersal and reduced quantities of Hib polysaccharide (PRP). BACKGROUND: Combined DTP vaccines have high global coverage. Thus, the addition of new antigens to existing DTP vaccines is the most effective way to ensure high coverage. METHODS: 192 healthy infants were randomized to receive the investigational DTPw-HBVLT/Hib2...
August 2010: Human Vaccines
Maths Berlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2009: Läkartidningen
Christian Herzog, Katharina Hartmann, Valérie Künzi, Oliver Kürsteiner, Robert Mischler, Hedvika Lazar, Reinhard Glück
Since the introduction to the Swiss market in 1997, Crucell (former Berna Biotech Ltd.), has sold over 41 million doses worldwide of the virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine, Inflexal V. Since 1992, 29 company sponsored clinical studies investigating the efficacy and safety of Inflexal V have been completed in which 3920 subjects participated. During its decade on the market, Inflexal V has shown an excellent tolerability profile due to its biocompatibility and purity. The vaccine contains no thiomersal or formaldehyde and its purity is reflected in the low ovalbumin content...
July 16, 2009: Vaccine
Tatjana Orct, Maja Blanusa, Maja Lazarus, Veda Marija Varnai, Krista Kostial
Thiomersal is used as a preservative in vaccines given to small children. The metabolic product of thiomersal is ethylmercury and its distribution and kinetics are still not known, especially at this early age. The purpose of this study was to compare the body distribution of two forms of mercury: organic (thiomersal) and inorganic (mercury(2+) chloride) in very young, suckling rats. Mercury was applied subcutaneously three times during the suckling period on days 7, 9 and 11 of pups age, imitating the vaccination of infants...
November 2006: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
W Zingg
Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990...
October 2005: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Mark Bigham, Ray Copes
A number of affluent countries are moving to eliminate thiomersal (thimerosal), an ethylmercury preservative, from vaccines as a precautionary measure because of concerns about the potential adverse effects of mercury in infants. The WHO advocates continued use of thiomersal-containing vaccines in developing countries because of their effectiveness, safety, low cost, wide availability and logistical suitability in this setting. The guidelines for long-term mercury exposure should not be used for evaluating risk from intermittent single day exposures, such as immunisation using thiomersal-containing vaccines...
2005: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
J M Fernández Vozmediano, J C Armario Hita
INTRODUCTION: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is equally as likely in infancy as in adulthood, and represents 20% of all cases of dermatitis in children. Its true prevalence and incidence are, however, unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have conducted a retrospective study over 10 years of a group of patients aged 15 years or less, with clinical suspicion of ACD. Patch tests were performed in accordance with the standards of the GEIDC. RESULTS: The study covered 96 patients with a mean age of 10...
January 2005: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
K Weisser, K Bauer, P Volkers, B Keller-Stanislawski
Thiomersal was used in the 1930s for the first time for the preservation of vaccines to prevent bacterial and fungal contamination. Thiomersal is an organic compound containing 49% mercury (Hg) by weight. It is generally well known that mercury and its compounds, including thiomersal, ethylmercury, and methylmercury, act as nephro- and neurotoxicants, however, at much higher doses than used in vaccines. In the 1990s the question of toxicity of thiomersal in vaccines was reassessed since the numbers of vaccines recommended for routine administration to infants and children, and therefore the cumulative thiomersal dose in children, increased in some countries...
December 2004: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Jon Heron, Jean Golding et al.
OBJECTIVE: There is an established link between exposure to mercury and impaired childhood cognitive development and early motor skills. Thimerosal (also known as thiomersal), a preservative used in a number of children's vaccines, contains ethylmercury (an organic compound of mercury), and there has been concern that this exposure to mercury may be of some detriment to young children. The aim of this research was to test in a large United Kingdom population-based cohort whether there is any evidence to justify such concerns...
September 2004: Pediatrics
Luc Hessel
Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable...
2003: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
G Eder, H Kollaritsch
Two randomized, double blind dose comparison studies were conducted in 595 children in Austria and Germany with an albumin-free and thiomersal-free tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine. Vaccinated subjects of an age between 6 months and 12 years randomly assigned received either the full adult dose or half the adult dose. Results from vaccinated children under 1 year of age at the time of the first vaccination (159 subjects) showed an age dependent immune response. There were significantly fewer adverse systemic events (e...
September 8, 2003: Vaccine
J L Eseverri, S Ranea, A Marin
Adverse reactions to vaccines are highly varied, ranging from mild local reactions to fatal outcomes. In the last few years many adverse reactions have been attributed to vaccines, often without justification. In agreement with the World Health Organization, these reactions can be classified as follows, depending on the cause: vaccination-induced reactions (due to an effect of the vaccine itself or to an idiosyncrasy); reactions due to errors in storage, manipulation and/or administration; and coincidental reactions (no causal relationship with the vaccine)...
May 2003: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Michael E Pichichero, Elsa Cernichiari, Joseph Lopreiato, John Treanor
BACKGROUND: Thiomersal is a preservative containing small amounts of ethylmercury that is used in routine vaccines for infants and children. The effect of vaccines containing thiomersal on concentrations of mercury in infants' blood has not been extensively assessed, and the metabolism of ethylmercury in infants is unknown. We aimed to measure concentrations of mercury in blood, urine, and stools of infants who received such vaccines. METHODS: 40 full-term infants aged 6 months and younger were given vaccines that contained thiomersal (diptheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, and in some children Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine)...
November 30, 2002: Lancet
E Marth, B Kleinhappl
A thiomersal-free and also an albumin-free tick-borne encephalitis-vaccine (TBE-vaccine) was developed. This vaccine was approved by the Austrian health authorities in the year 2000. Contrary to previous experience, 779 cases of fever attacks occurred following the first vaccination of children under 15 years of age. The induction of the immune system by different TBE virus (TBEV) vaccines (FSME-Immun [1999], Ticovac [2000] and FSME-Immun [2001] all from Baxter Hyland Immuno, Vienna) was compared in an in vitro immune stimulation test in order to find an explanation for the unexpected fever attacks...
November 12, 2001: Vaccine
A J van't Veen
The inorganic mercurial thiomersal (merthiolate) has been used as an effective preservative in numerous medical and non-medical products since the early 1930s. Both the potential toxicity of thiomersal and sensitisation to thiomersal in relation to the application of thiomersal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulins, especially in children, have been debated in the literature. The very low thiomersal concentrations in pharmacological and biological products are relatively non-toxic, but probably not in utero and during the first 6 months of life...
2001: Drugs
R Ellwood, H V Worthington, M P Cullinan, S Hamlet, V Clerehugh, R Davies
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in a group of adolescents and investigate the association of these organisms with various clinical parameters. A total of 527, 11-13-year-old children, of whom 333 (63%) were white Caucasian, 187 (35%) Indo-Pakistani and 7 (1%) Afro-Caribbean, participated in the study. Subgingival plaque samples, collected from the mesio-buccal of both upper first permanent molars using sterile paper points, were stored in phosphate buffered saline with 0...
March 1997: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
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