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Jean Golding, Dheeraj Rai, Steven Gregory, Genette Ellis, Alan Emond, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Joseph Hibbeln, Caroline Taylor
Background: Mercury (Hg) has been suspected of causing autism in the past, especially a suspected link with vaccinations containing thiomersal, but a review of the literature shows that has been largely repudiated. Of more significant burden is the total quantity of Hg in the environment. Here, we have used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to test whether prenatal exposure from total maternal blood Hg in the first half of pregnancy is associated with the risk of autism or of extreme levels of autistic traits...
2018: Molecular Autism
Manuel Martín-Alonso, Francisco Pena-Pereira, Isela Lavilla, Carlos Bendicho
This work reports on the implementation of gold nanorods (AuNRs) in headspace solvent microextraction for colorimetric determination of volatile analyte derivatives in a single drop. The exposure of AuNRs to both H2 Se and elemental mercury (Hg0 ) results in a shift of the longitudinal plasmonic band, unlike a number of volatiles. Accordingly, a method is reported for the determination of Hg0 with potential applicability to the determination of thiomersal (sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate). It is based on the photochemical decomposition of thiomersal into Hg(II) and subsequent exposure of AuNRs-containing microdrop to in situ generated Hg0 ...
March 13, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Tyler Safran, Marina Masckauchan, Jakub Maj, Lawrence Green
Vaccinations have been shown repeatedly to be extremely safe with low incidence of complications. Given the rarity, these adverse events, they must be reported and examined cautiously. This case report illustrates the first case of an adult presenting with Wells syndrome that developed soon after vaccination with the thiomersal, a common preservative, containing influenza vaccine. Wells syndrome, also known as eosinophilic cellulitis, is an uncommon dermatologic condition of unknown etiology. Lesions in patients with Wells syndrome (eosinophilic cellulitis) progress over a few days to become large indurated plaques with associated edema and erythema...
December 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
T H Geersing, W J A Hilgersom, Ž Tempels-Pavlica, H C Rümke, L C M J de Koning, S D Borgsteede
- A lot of questions are being asked in the Netherlands about the safety of vaccination. More knowledge among care providers helps with regard to good medical practice and information.- Severe hypersensitivity reactions to vaccines are rare. Chicken-egg protein, gelatine and thiomersal are the most important vaccine components that may provoke severe reactions.- Acute treatment of patients with severe hypersensitivity reactions consists of intramuscular adrenaline.- In case of a severe reaction to a vaccine or a vaccine component, the subsequent course of action is determined by the physician referred to: the allergist or paediatric allergist...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
José María Ortiz-Salvador, Daniela Subiabre-Ferrer, Ana García Rabasco, Altea Esteve-Martínez, Violeta Zaragoza-Ninet, Víctor Alegre de Miquel
INTRODUCTION: Hand eczema is a frequent disease in adults. Diagnosing the cause of hand eczema is difficult due to different classifications. There is lack of evidence on hand eczema and its causes in children. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 389 children between 0 and 16 years were identified between 1996 and 2016, from whom 42 (10.8%) with exclusively hand eczema were selected. In all cases a standard battery of epicutaneous patch tests was performed, as well as additional batteries depending on the clinical suspicion...
August 21, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
J M Ortiz Salvador, A Esteve Martínez, D Subiabre Ferrer, A M Victoria Martínez, J de la Cuadra Oyanguren, V Zaragoza Ninet
BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis in children. Underdiagnosis has been observed in some studies, with many cases in which the condition is not suspected clinically and patch tests are not performed. However, the prevalence of pediatric sensitization to allergens has been reported to be as high as 20%, and the diagnosis should therefore be contemplated as a possibility in this age group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the skin allergy database of the Dermatology Department of Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia...
July 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Hanna Lohren, Julia Bornhorst, Romy Fitkau, Gabriele Pohl, Hans-Joachim Galla, Tanja Schwerdtle
BACKGROUND: Transport of methylmercury (MeHg) across the blood-brain barrier towards the brain side is well discussed in literature, while ethylmercury (EtHg) and inorganic mercury are not adequately characterized regarding their entry into the brain. Studies investigating a possible efflux out of the brain are not described to our knowledge. METHODS: This study compares, for the first time, effects of organic methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl), EtHg-containing thiomersal and inorganic Hg chloride (HgCl2 ) on as well as their transfer across a primary porcine in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier...
December 15, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Marnix Mus, Sanne Kreijkamp-Kaspers, Treasure McGuire, Laura Deckx, Mieke van Driel
OBJECTIVES: Immunisation is crucial to population health. This study aimed to identify the information needs and concerns of health consumers regarding childhood vaccination. METHODS: We analysed 1,342 calls concerning childhood vaccination to an Australian pharmacist-operated medicines call centre (MCC). Data were available from September 2002 until June 2010. We identified key themes and compared these for callers from high and low immunisation coverage areas...
February 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Dora Werling, Dora Reglodi, William A Banks, Therese S Salameh, Krisztina Kovacs, Timea Kvarik, Alexandra Vaczy, Laszlo Kovacs, Flora Mayer, Bese Danyadi, Emese Lokos, Andrea Tamas, Gabor Toth, Zsolt Biro, Tamas Atlasz
Purpose: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is neuroprotective in neuronal injuries. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) causes chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the rat retina, where we proved the retinoprotective effect of intravitreal PACAP. Although this route of administration is a common clinical practice in several diseases, easier routes are clinically important. Our aim was to investigate the potential retinoprotective effects of PACAP eye drops in BCCAO-induced ischemic retinopathy...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kristina S Ibler, Gregor B E Jemec, Lene H Garvey, Tove Agner
BACKGROUND: Occupational contact dermatitis is common in healthcare workers. Although irritant contact dermatitis resulting from wet work is the most frequently reported cause, healthcare workers also constitute high-risk group for the development of allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of delayed-type and immediate-type hypersensitivity in 120 healthcare workers with hand eczema. METHODS: One hundred and twenty healthcare workers from three major hospitals in Denmark with self-reported hand eczema within the last year participated in the study...
October 2016: Contact Dermatitis
J E Oh, H J Lee, Y W Choi, H Y Choi, J Y Byun
BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis in eyelid dermatitis. Sensitization to metals is prevalent in eyelid dermatitis and colour cosmetic products are frequently suspected as the source of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contact allergens for eyelid dermatitis and to assess metal contents in eye shadow products. METHODS: Data were collected in the department of dermatology of Ewha Womans University hospital from December 1998 to February 2014...
September 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Hanna Lohren, Lara Blagojevic, Romy Fitkau, Franziska Ebert, Stefan Schildknecht, Marcel Leist, Tanja Schwerdtle
Organic mercury (Hg) species exert their toxicity primarily in the central nervous system. The food relevant Hg species methylmercury (MeHg) has been frequently studied regarding its neurotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. Neurotoxicity of thiomersal, which is used as a preservative in medical preparations, is to date less characterised. Due to dealkylation of organic Hg or oxidation of elemental Hg, inorganic Hg is present in the brain albeit these species are not able to readily cross the blood brain barrier...
October 2015: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Hanna Lohren, Julia Bornhorst, Hans-Joachim Galla, Tanja Schwerdtle
Exposure to organic mercury compounds promotes primarily neurological effects. Although methylmercury is recognized as a potent neurotoxicant, its transfer into the central nervous system (CNS) is not fully evaluated. While methylmercury and thiomersal pass the blood-brain barrier, limited data are available regarding the second brain regulating interface, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. This novel study was designed to investigate the effects of organic as well as inorganic mercury compounds on, and their transfer across, a porcine in vitro model of the blood-CSF barrier for the first time...
October 2015: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Bruce G Gellin, David M Salisbury
Despite the inclusion of adjuvants in many routinely used vaccines to improve the immune response, their presence and role are neither clear in product details such as the packaging or in the Summaries of Product Characteristics, nor understood by health professionals or the public. For many vaccines the adjuvant may simply be described as 'Adsorbed' without clarification that the adsorbing onto a material such as aluminium hydroxide adjuvants the antigens. As many future vaccines are likely to be adjuvanted, the presence of adjuvants, either those used in existing vaccines or novel formulations, may raise public and professional concerns unless communication materials are prepared in advance to allay anxieties such as those that have arisen over some present vaccine ingredients such as thiomersal...
June 8, 2015: Vaccine
Juan Rodrigues, Vasco Branco, Jun Lu, Arne Holmgren, Cristina Carvalho
Mercury (Hg) is a strong toxicant affecting mainly the central nervous, renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. Thiomersal (TM) is still in use in medical practice as a topical antiseptic and as a preservative in multiple dose vaccines, routinely given to young children in some developing countries, while other forms of mercury such as methylmercury represent an environmental and food hazard. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of thiomersal (TM) and its breakdown product ethylmercury (EtHg) on the thioredoxin system and NADP(+)-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway...
August 1, 2015: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Aleksandra Gołoś, Anna Lutyńska
Thiomersal is an organomercury compound known for its antiseptic and antifungal properties and used as an antibacterial agent in pharmaceutical products, including vaccines and other injectable biological products. In recent years, concerns about the possible link between immunization with thiomersal-containing vaccines and autism development have grown. Many case-control and cohort studies have been conducted on a number of populations, and none of them have confirmed the hypothetical relation between thiomersal and increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) development...
2015: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
N van der Maas, J Dijs-Elsinga, J Kemmeren, A van Lier, M Knol, H de Melker
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the safety of Influenza A(H1N1), vaccination administered during the second and third trimester and containing MF59 and thiomersal (Focetria(®) ), measured by pregnancy outcomes and infant's health. DESIGN: Cross-sectional linkage study. SETTING AND SAMPLE: A sample of pregnant women, eligible for prenatal screening, were invited to participate. METHODS: Questionnaire data were linked with the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (n = 1920)...
April 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
David A Geier, Paul G King, Brian S Hooker, José G Dórea, Janet K Kern, Lisa K Sykes, Mark R Geier
INTRODUCTION: Thimerosal (or Thiomersal) is a trade name for an organomercurial compound (sodium ethyl-mercury (Hg) thiosalicylate) that is 49.55% Hg by weight, which rapidly decomposes in aqueous saline solutions into ethyl-Hg hydroxide and ethyl-Hg chloride. Developed in 1927, it has been and is still being used as a preservative in some cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals, and biological drug products, including vaccines. Concerns have been voiced about its use because it is toxic to human cells...
April 15, 2015: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Pramod Kumar, Rekha Paulose
Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1-5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis...
2014: Dermatology Research and Practice
Gabriel Rada
This article analyzes the recent controversy regarding the introduction of a bill to Chilean Congress that aims to ban thiomersal and/or any trace of organomercurial compounds from vaccines in the country. Rather than providing a formal overview of all available evidence, this analysis focuses on the reasons behind the controversy, the scientific evidence invoked by both sides in the debate, and the anomalies in the healthcare decision-making process.
2014: Medwave
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