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Neuro-endocrine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916515/reversing-thyroid-hormone-mediated-repression-of-a-hsv-1-promoter-via-computationally-guided-mutagenesis
#1
Robert W Figliozzi, Feng Chen, Shaochung V Hsia
Thyroid hormones (TH or T3) and their DNA binding nuclear receptors (TRs), direct transcriptional regulation in diverse ways depending on the host cell environment and specific promoter characteristics of TH sensitive genes. This study sought to elucidate the impact on transcriptional repression of nucleotide sequence/orientation within TR binding sites, TR elements, (TREs) of TH sensitive promoters, to better understand ligand dependent transcriptional repression of wild-type promoters. Computational analysis of the HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) gene TRE bound by TR and RXR revealed a single TRE point mutation sufficient to reverse the TRE orientation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910547/diurnal-opposite-variation-between-angiotensinase-activities-in-photo-neuro-endocrine-tissues-of-rats
#2
Germán Domínguez-Vías, Garbiñe Aretxaga-Maza, Isabel Prieto, Juan de Dios Luna, Marc De Gasparo, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
Central and peripheral renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) act in a coordinated manner for the physiologic functions regulated by neuroendocrine events. However, whereas the diurnal rhythm of peripheral circulatory and tissue RASs is well known, the circadian behaviour of their components in central photo-neuro-endocrine structures, key elements for the control of circadian rhythms, has been barely studied. In the present study, we analysed the aspartyl- (AspAP) and glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GluAP) (aminopeptidase A) activities, the angiotensinases responsible for the metabolism of Ang I to Ang 2-10 and Ang II to Ang III, respectively, in the retina, anterior hypothalamus and pituitary at different light and dark time-points of a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (7-19 h light), using arylamide derivatives as substrates...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855243/update-on-angiotensin-ii-new-endocrine-connections-between-the-brain-adrenal-glands-and-the-cardiovascular-system
#3
REVIEW
Frans H H Leenen, Mordecai P Blaustein, John M Hamlyn
In the brain, angiotensinergic pathways play a major role in chronic regulation of cardiovascular and electrolyte homeostasis. Increases in plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone, [Na(+)] and cytokines can directly activate these pathways. Chronically, these stimuli also activate a slow neuromodulatory pathway involving local aldosterone, mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), epithelial sodium channels and endogenous ouabain (EO). This pathway increases AT1R and NADPH oxidase subunits and maintains/further increases the activity of angiotensinergic pathways...
October 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811081/prognostic-value-of-who-grade-in-pancreatic-neuro-endocrine-tumors-in-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1-results-from-the-dutchmen1-study-group
#4
Elfi B Conemans, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Gabriela M Raicu-Ionita, Carolina R C Pieterman, Wouter W de Herder, Olaf M Dekkers, Ad R Hermus, Anouk N van der Horst-Schrivers, Peter H Bisschop, Bas Havekes, Madeleine L Drent, H Th Marc Timmers, G Johan Offerhaus, Gerlof D Valk, Menno R Vriens
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of WHO grade in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is unknown. METHODS: We performed a cohort study using the Dutch National MEN1 database, which includes >90% of the Dutch MEN1 population with data collected between 1990 and 2014. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from the largest resected PanNET per patient were collected. MIB1 staining was performed and KI67 labeling index (LI) was determined by manual eye-counting under a microscope and by digital image analysis...
July 31, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808504/goblet-cell-carcinoid-of-the-appendix-and-mixed-adenoneuroendocrine-carcinoma-report-of-three-cases
#5
Hatice Karaman, Fatma Şenel, Mustafa Güreli, Turan Ekinci, Ömer Topuz
Neuroendocrine neoplasms are the most common epithelial tumors among appendix tumors. Appendix tumors that are completely or partially composed of neuroendocrine cells are divided into two categories: Classic carcinoid tumors and goblet cell carcinoid tumors (GCCT). They are known to progress more aggressively than classic (neuro) endocrine tumors. In this study, three cases with acute appendicitis symptoms are presented, including their clinical and histopathological findings. Microscopic examination detected GCCT in two cases and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma in one case, in addition to acute appendicitis...
July 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768698/the-future-advances-in-therapeutic-approach-and-management-strategies-for-men1
#6
Rachel S van Leeuwaarde, Joanne M de Laat, Carolina R C Pieterman, Koen M A Dreijerink, Menno Vriens, Gerlof D Valk
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is a rare autosomal inherited disorder associated with a high risk for patients to simultaneously develop tumours of the parathyroid glands, duodeno-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and tumors of the anterior pituitary gland. Early identification of MEN1 in patients enables presymptomatic screening of manifestations which makes timely interventions possible with the intention to prevent morbidity and mortality. Causes of death nowadays have shifted towards local or metastatic progression of malignant neuro endocrine tumors...
August 2, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767672/bi-stability-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-multi-organ-signalling-network
#7
Shubhankar Kulkarni, Sakshi Sharda, Milind Watve
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be irreversible although no component of the pathophysiology is irreversible. We show here with a network model that the apparent irreversibility is contributed by the structure of the network of inter-organ signalling. A network model comprising all known inter-organ signals in T2DM showed bi-stability with one insulin sensitive and one insulin resistant attractor. The bi-stability was made robust by multiple positive feedback loops suggesting an evolved allostatic system rather than a homeostatic system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736243/from-insulin-synthesis-to-secretion-alternative-splicing-of-type-2-ryanodine-receptor-gene-is-essential-for-insulin-secretion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#8
REVIEW
Hiroshi Okamoto, Shin Takasawa, Yasuhiko Yamamoto
Increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in pancreatic islets, resulting from the Ca(2+) mobilization from the intracellular source through the ryanodine receptor, are essential for insulin secretion by glucose. Cyclic ADP-ribose, a potent Ca(2+) mobilizing second messenger synthesized from NAD(+) by CD38, regulates the opening of ryanodine receptor. A novel ryanodine receptor mRNA (the islet-type ryanodine receptor) was found to be generated from the type 2 ryanodine receptor gene by the alternative splicing of exons 4 and 75...
October 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704625/neuroendocrine-response-following-a-thoracic-spinal-manipulation-in-healthy-men
#9
Kesava Kovanur Sampath, Erik Botnmark, Ramakrishnan Mani, James David Cotter, Rajesh Katare, Pujika Emani Munasinghe, Steve Tumilty
Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Spinal manipulation (SM) can trigger a cascade of responses involving multiple systems, including the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system, specifically, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. However, no manual therapy study has investigated the neuroendocrine response to SM (ie, sympathetic nervous system-hypothalamic-pituitary axis) in the same trial. Objective To determine short-term changes in sympathetic nervous system activity, heart rate variability, and endocrine activity (cortisol, testosterone, and testosterone-cortisol [T/C] ratio) following a thoracic SM...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664309/management-of-gastric-neuro-endocrine-tumours-in-a-large-french-national-cohort-gte
#10
Sylvain Manfredi, Thomas Walter, Eric Baudin, Romain Coriat, Philippe Ruszniewski, Thierry Lecomte, Anne-Pascale Laurenty, Bernard Goichot, Vincent Rohmer, Guillaume Roquin, Oana-Zvetlana Cojocarasu, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, Côme Lepage, Jeff Morcet, Guillaume Cadiot
INTRODUCTION: Gastric neuro-endocrine tumours are rare. European guidelines for the management of neuro-endocrine tumours have been published in 2012. The aim of our survey was to study the management of gastric neuro-endocrine tumours registered in the national cohort. A prospective national cohort registers the Neuro-endocrine tumours in France since January 2003 (GTE network). We reviewed all the individual medical reports of gastric neuro-endocrine tumours in order to collect data on treatment...
June 29, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494461/accuracy-of-pancreatic-neuro-endocrine-tumour-grading-by-endoscopic-ultrasound-fine-needle-aspiration-analysis-of-a-large-cohort-and-perspectives-for-improvement
#11
Laure Boutsen, Anne Jouret-Mourin, Ivan Borbath, Aline van Maanen, Birgit Weynand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435855/first-clinical-experiences-with-a-novel-endoscopic-over-the-scope-clip-system
#12
Marco Dinelli, Barbara Omazzi, Paolo Andreozzi, Nicola Zucchini, Alessandro Redaelli, Gianpiero Manes
We describe our experience with a new over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system (Padlock Clip?) in the treatment of 14 patients. Eight of the 14 patients were treated for closure of gastrointestinal fistulas (n?=?4), iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforations (n?=?2), or hemostasis of post-polypectomy bleeding (n?=?2). The site of clipping was the lower gastrointestinal tract in five patients and the upper gastrointestinal tract in three patients. The clip was successfully delivered in seven out of the eight patients and clinical success was achieved in all patients...
March 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396845/chromogranin-a-as-a-valid-marker-in-oncology-clinical-application-or-false-hopes
#13
REVIEW
Stavros Gkolfinopoulos, Konstantinos Tsapakidis, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Demetris Papamichael, Panteleimon Kountourakis
Chromogranin A, due to its primary expression throughout the neuroendocrine system, is a widely accepted biomarker for the assessment of neuro-endocrine tumors. It has been traditionally used in the management of patients with tumors of gastro-enteropancreatic origin. Lately, it has also been implicated in various conditions and diseases, both benign and malignant. However, the paucity of data of adequate strength, as well as its relation with common physiologic conditions and its interaction with commonly prescribed medications, limit its clinical use in only a narrow spectrum...
March 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395863/a-full-life-cycle-bioassay-with-cantareus-aspersus-shows-reproductive-effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-suggesting-potential-endocrine-disruption
#14
Coline Druart, Frédéric Gimbert, Renaud Scheifler, Annette de Vaufleury
A full life-cycle (240 days) bioassay using the terrestrial snail, Cantareus aspersus, allowing exposure during embryogenesis and/or the growth and reproduction phases, was used to assess the effects of Bypass(®), a glyphosate-based herbicide (GlyBH), on a range of endpoints, including parameters under endocrine control. As a positive control, a mixture (R-A) made of diquat (Reglone(®)) and nonylphenols (NP, Agral(®)), known for its endocrine disrupting effects in other organisms, was tested. At environmental concentrations, both pesticides (R-A mixture and GlyBH) enhanced growth but reduced reproduction...
July 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372260/preliminary-investigation-for-effects-of-hypothalamic-leptin-ghrelin-and-arcuate-nucleus-pro-opiomelanocortin-system-on-regulation-of-high-altitude-acclimatization
#15
Yong-Nian Liu, Qi-Sheng Ma, Qiong Wu
This study aims to investigate the mechanism of hypothalamic Leptin/Ghrelin and arcuate nucleus pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system in the regulation of high-altitude acclimatization. SD rats (male) were divided into two groups and separately fed at the 2260m and 4700m altitude. Tow groups contained 5 small groups separately, including 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 15 d and 30 d, and 8 rats in each group. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid and tissues were taken at setting time. Leptin and Ghrelin were detected by using radioactivity immuno-assay...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352632/decoding-white-coat-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Dennis A Bloomfield, Alex Park
There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the "white coat" condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile...
March 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316570/isometric-exercise-training-for-managing-vascular-risk-factors-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Nicole C L Hess, Neil A Smart
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia diagnosed amongst the elderly. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition often indicative of the earliest symptomatology of AD with 10%-15% of MCI patients reportedly progressing to a diagnosis of AD. Individuals with a history of vascular risk factors (VRF's) are considered high risk candidates for developing cognitive impairment in later life. Evidence suggests that vascular injury resulting from untreated VRF's promotes progression from MCI to AD and exacerbates the severity of dementia in AD, and neuroimaging studies have found that the neurodegenerative processes associated with AD are heavily driven by VRF's that promote cerebral hypoperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303116/comparative-physiology-of-energy-metabolism-fishing-for-endocrine-signals-in-the-early-vertebrate-pool
#18
REVIEW
Iris van de Pol, Gert Flik, Marnix Gorissen
Energy is the common currency of life. To guarantee a homeostatic supply of energy, multiple neuro-endocrine systems have evolved in vertebrates; systems that regulate food intake, metabolism, and distribution of energy. Even subtle (lasting) dysregulation of the delicate balance of energy intake and expenditure may result in severe pathologies. Feeding-related pathologies have fueled research on mammals, including of course the human species. The mechanisms regulating food intake and body mass are well-characterized in these vertebrates...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261381/role-of-surgical-resection-for-non-colorectal-non-neuroendocrine-liver-metastases
#19
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Takemura, Akio Saiura
It is widely accepted that the indications for hepatectomy in colorectal cancer liver metastases and liver metastases of neuro-endocrine tumors result in relatively better prognoses, whereas, the indications and prognoses of hepatectomy for non-colorectal non-neuroendocrine liver metastases (NCNNLM) remain controversial owing to the limited number of cases and the heterogeneity of the primary diseases. There have been many publications on NCNNLM; however, its background heterogeneity makes it difficult to reach a specific conclusion...
February 18, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245448/immune-neuro-endocrine-reflexes-circuits-and-networks-physiologic-and-evolutionary-implications
#20
REVIEW
Adriana Del Rey, Hugo O Besedovsky
The existence of a network of interactions between the immune and nervous systems that influences host defenses and brain functions is now well-established. Here we discuss how immune and classical neuro/sensorial signals are processed in the brain and how neuro-endocrine immunoregulatory and behavioral responses are integrated. Considering the ability of brain cells to produce cytokines, originally described as immune cell products, we propose that the tripartite synapse plays a central role in the integration of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
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