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assortative mating

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734064/extensive-seed-and-pollen-dispersal-and-assortative-mating-in-the-rain-forest-tree-entandrophragma-cylindricum-meliaceae-inferred-from-indirect-and-direct-analyses
#1
F K Monthe, O J Hardy, J L Doucet, J Loo, J Duminil
Pollen and seed dispersal are key processes affecting the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of plant species, and are also important considerations for the sustainable management of timber trees. Through direct and indirect genetic analyses we studied the mating system and the extent of pollen and seed dispersal in an economically-important timber species, Entandrophragma cylindricum (Meliaceae). We genotyped adult trees, seeds and saplings from a 400-ha study plot in a natural forest from East Cameroon using eight nuclear microsatellite markers...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730723/do-assortative-mating-and-immigrant-inviability-help-maintain-population-genetic-structuring-of-an-herbivore-on-a-crop-and-a-wild-relative
#2
Ricardo Ramirez-Romero, Delia Garibay-Benítez, Ofelia Vargas-Ponce, Andrea Joyce, Julio S Bernal
Population genetic structuring is common among herbivorous insects and frequently is associated with divergent host plants, such as crops and their wild relatives. Previous studies showed population genetic structuring in corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis in Mexico, such that the species consists of two sympatric, host plant-associated populations: an abundant and widespread "pestiferous" population on maize (Zea mays mays), and a small and localized "wild" population on perennial teosinte (Zea diploperennis), a maize wild relative with a limited distribution...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709925/the-infinitesimal-model-definition-derivation-and-implications
#3
N H Barton, A M Etheridge, A Véber
Our focus here is on the infinitesimal model. In this model, one or several quantitative traits are described as the sum of a genetic and a non-genetic component, the first being distributed within families as a normal random variable centred at the average of the parental genetic components, and with a variance independent of the parental traits. Thus, the variance that segregates within families is not perturbed by selection, and can be predicted from the variance components. This does not necessarily imply that the trait distribution across the whole population should be Gaussian, and indeed selection or population structure may have a substantial effect on the overall trait distribution...
July 11, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673911/the-role-of-physiological-traits-in-assortment-among-and-within-fish-shoals
#4
REVIEW
Shaun S Killen, Stefano Marras, Lauren Nadler, Paolo Domenici
Individuals of gregarious species often group with conspecifics to which they are phenotypically similar. This among-group assortment has been studied for body size, sex and relatedness. However, the role of physiological traits has been largely overlooked. Here, we discuss mechanisms by which physiological traits-particularly those related to metabolism and locomotor performance-may result in phenotypic assortment not only among but also within animal groups. At the among-group level, varying combinations of passive assortment, active assortment, phenotypic plasticity and selective mortality may generate phenotypic differences among groups...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668648/familial-digit-ratio-2d-4d-associations-in-a-general-population-sample-from-wales
#5
Gareth Richards, Wynford Bellin, William Davies
BACKGROUND: The relative length of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D) may be a sex-linked correlate of prenatal androgen exposure. However, the nature of the sex-linkage is controversial, with evidence for both X- and Y-linkage of the 2D:4D phenotype. AIMS: To examine transgenerational effects relating to sex-linkage. In addition, assortative mating on 2D:4D was considered, as well as associations between 2D:4D and age and sex. STUDY DESIGN: A family study was conducted...
June 29, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626946/do-changes-in-gene-expression-contribute-to-sexual-isolation-and-reinforcement-in-the-house-mouse
#6
Etienne Loire, Sergio Tusso, Pierre Caminade, Dany Severac, Pierre Boursot, Guila Ganem, Carole M Smadja
Expression divergence, rather than sequence divergence, has been shown to be important in speciation, particularly in the early stages of divergence of traits involved in reproductive isolation. In the two European subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, earlier studies have demonstrated olfactory-based assortative mate preference in populations close to their hybrid zone. It has been suggested that this behaviour evolved following the recent secondary contact between the two taxa (~3,000 years ago) in response to selection against hybridisation...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620992/detection-of-imprinting-effects-for-quantitative-traits-on-x-chromosome-using-nuclear-families-with-multiple-daughters
#7
Kexin Yu, Ji-Yuan Zhou, Wing Kam Fung
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon in which the expression of an allele copy depends on its parental origin. This mechanism has been found to play an important role in many complex diseases. Statistical tests for imprinting effects have been developed for more than 15 years, but they are only suitable for autosomes. It was not until recently that the parental-asymmetry test on the X chromosome (XPAT) was proposed to test for imprinting effects. However, this test can only be used for qualitative traits...
July 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611437/reproductive-isolation-through-experimental-manipulation-of-sexually-antagonistic-coevolution-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Zeeshan Ali Syed, Martik Chatterjee, Manas Arun Samant, Nagaraj Guru Prasad
Promiscuity can drive the evolution of sexual conflict before and after mating occurs. Post mating, the male ejaculate can selfishly manipulate female physiology, leading to a chemical arms race between the sexes. Theory suggests that drift and sexually antagonistic coevolution can cause allopatric populations to evolve different chemical interactions between the sexes, thereby leading to postmating reproductive barriers and speciation. There is, however, little empirical evidence supporting this form of speciation...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590579/flexible-mate-choice-may-contribute-to-ecotype-assortative-mating-in-pumpkinseed-sunfish-lepomis-gibbosus
#9
W M C Jarvis, S M Comeau, S F Colborne, B W Robinson
Gene flow is expected to limit adaptive divergence but the ecological and behavioural factors that govern gene flow are still poorly understood, particularly at the earliest stages of population divergence. Reduced gene flow through mate choice (sexual isolation) can evolve even under conditions of subtle population divergence if intermediate phenotypes have reduced fitness. We indirectly tested the hypothesis that mate choice has evolved between coexisting littoral and pelagic ecotypes of polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) that have diverged in morphology and resource use and where intermediate phenotypes have reduced performance...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586142/experimental-hybridization-and-reproductive-isolation-between-two-sympatric-species-of-tephritid-fruit-flies-in-the-anastrepha-fraterculus-species-group
#10
Juan Rull, Eduardo Tadeo, Rodrigo Lasa, Christian L Rodríguez, Alma Altuzar-Molina, Martín Aluja
Among tephritid fruit flies, hybridzation has been found to produce local adaptation and speciation, and in the case of pest species, induce behavioral and ecological alterations that can adversely impact efficient pest management. The fraterculus species group within Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a rapidly radiating aggregate, which includes cryptic species complexes, numerous sister species, and several pest species. Molecular studies have highlighted the possibility of introgression between A. fraterculus and A...
June 6, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575204/analysis-of-copy-number-variation-in-the-abp-gene-regions-of-two-house-mouse-subspecies-suggests-divergence-during-the-gene-family-expansions
#11
Željka Pezer, Amanda G Chung, Robert C Karn, Christina M Laukaitis
The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene region of the mouse genome contains 64 genes, some encoding pheromones that influence assortative mating between mice from different subspecies. Using CNVnator and quantitative PCR, we explored copy number variation in this gene family in natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm), two subspecies of house mice that form a narrow hybrid zone in Central Europe. We found that copy number variation in the center of the Abp gene region is very common in wild Mmd, primarily representing the presence/absence of the final duplications described for the mouse genome...
May 29, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493350/reproductive-character-displacement-of-female-but-not-male-song-discrimination-in-an-avian-hybrid-zone
#12
David Wheatcroft, Anna Qvarnström
Divergence of male sexual signals and female preferences for those signals often maintains reproductive boundaries between closely related, co-occurring species. However, contrasting sources of selection, such as interspecific competition, can lead to weak divergence or even convergence of sexual signals in sympatry. When signals converge, assortative mating can be maintained if the mating preferences of females diverge in sympatry (reproductive character displacement; RCD), but there are few explicit examples...
May 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490820/the-end-of-hypergamy-global-trends-and-implications
#13
Albert Esteve, Christine R Schwartz, Jan Van Bavel, Iñaki Permanyer, Martin Klesment, Joan Garcia
The gender gap in education that has long favored men has reversed for young adults in almost all high and middle-income countries. In 2010, the proportion of women aged 25-29 with a college education was higher than that of men in more than 139 countries which altogether represent 86% of the world's population. According to recent population forecasts, women will have more education than men in nearly every country in the world by 2050, with the exception of only a few African and West Asian countries (KC et al...
December 2016: Population and Development Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479989/a-novel-method-for-estimating-the-strength-of-positive-mating-preference-by-similarity-in-the-wild
#14
Mónica Fernández-Meirama, Daniel Estévez, Terence P T Ng, Gray A Williams, Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez
Mating preference can be a driver of sexual selection and assortative mating and is, therefore, a key element in evolutionary dynamics. Positive mating preference by similarity is the tendency for the choosy individual to select a mate which possesses a similar variant of a trait. Such preference can be modelled using Gaussian-like mathematical functions that describe the strength of preference, but such functions cannot be applied to empirical data collected from the field. As a result, traditionally, mating preference is indirectly estimated by the degree of assortative mating (using Pearson's correlation coefficient, r) in wild captured mating pairs...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455620/trends-in-economic-homogamy-changes-in-assortative-mating-or-the-division-of-labor-in-marriage
#15
Pilar Gonalons-Pons, Christine R Schwartz
The growing economic resemblance of spouses has contributed to rising inequality by increasing the number of couples in which there are two high- or two low-earning partners. The dominant explanation for this trend is increased assortative mating. Previous research has primarily relied on cross-sectional data and thus has been unable to disentangle changes in assortative mating from changes in the division of spouses' paid labor-a potentially key mechanism given the dramatic rise in wives' labor supply. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to decompose the increase in the correlation between spouses' earnings and its contribution to inequality between 1970 and 2013 into parts due to (a) changes in assortative mating, and (b) changes in the division of paid labor...
April 28, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419447/divergence-and-evolution-of-assortative-mating-in-a-polygenic-trait-model-of-speciation-with-gene-flow
#16
Himani Sachdeva, Nicholas H Barton
Assortative mating is an important driver of speciation in populations with gene flow and is predicted to evolve under certain conditions in few-locus models. However, the evolution of assortment is less understood for mating based on quantitative traits, which are often characterized by high genetic variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium between trait loci. We explore this scenario for a two-deme model with migration, by considering a single polygenic trait subject to divergent viability selection across demes, as well as assortative mating and sexual selection within demes, and investigate how trait divergence is shaped by various evolutionary forces...
June 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406167/persistence-of-a-sugar-rejecting-cockroach-genotype-under-various-dietary-regimes
#17
Kim Jensen, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal, Jules Silverman
Glucose-aversion is a heritable trait that evolved in a number of German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations in response to strong selection with glucose-containing insecticide baits. However, in the absence of glucose-containing bait, glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches have lower performance than wild-type (WT) cockroaches in several fitness-determining traits. We allocated 48 caged populations initiated with homozygous GA and WT adults to four dietary treatments consisting of either pure rodent chow, rodent chow mixed to yield a content of either 20% glucose or 20% fructose, or a treatment consisting of choice between the 20% glucose- and the 20% fructose-containing food...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405273/assortative-mating-by-colored-ornaments-in-blue-tits-space-and-time-matter
#18
Amélie Fargevieille, Arnaud Grégoire, Anne Charmantier, Maria Del Rey Granado, Claire Doutrelant
Assortative mating is a potential outcome of sexual selection, and estimating its level is important to better understand local adaptation and underlying trait evolution. However, assortative mating studies frequently base their conclusions on small numbers of individuals sampled over short periods of time and limited spatial scales even though spatiotemporal variation is common. Here, we characterized assortative mating patterns over 10 years in four populations of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), a passerine bird...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384154/structured-mating-patterns-and-implications
#19
Ronnie Sebro, Gina M Peloso, Josée Dupuis, Neil J Risch
Genetic similarity of spouses can reflect factors influencing mate choice, such as physical/behavioral characteristics, and patterns of social endogamy. Spouse correlations for both genetic ancestry and measured traits may impact genotype distributions (Hardy Weinberg and linkage equilibrium), and therefore genetic association studies. Here we evaluate white spouse-pairs from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) original and offspring cohorts (N = 124 and 755, respectively) to explore spousal genetic similarity and its consequences...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382882/mating-system-mate-choice-and-parental-care-in-a-bark-beetle
#20
O Baruch, Z Mendel, I Scharf, A R Harari
The cypress bark beetle, Phloeosinus armatus, is a common element of the dying cypress tree system in East-Mediterranean countries. Adult beetles congregate for breeding on this ephemeral resource. We studied three traits that characterize this beetle's sexual behavior and linked them to its reproductive success: mating system, mate choice, and parental care. We found that the females are the 'pioneering sex', excavating the mating chamber. The average female is slightly larger than the male, and female and male body size is correlated, demonstrating size-assortative mating...
April 6, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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