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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493350/reproductive-character-displacement-of-female-but-not-male-song-discrimination-in-an-avian-hybrid-zone
#1
David Wheatcroft, Anna Qvarnström
Divergence of male sexual signals and female preferences for those signals often maintains reproductive boundaries between closely related, co-occurring species. However, contrasting sources of selection, such as interspecific competition, can lead to weak divergence or even convergence of sexual signals in sympatry. When signals converge, assortative mating can be maintained if the mating preferences of females diverge in sympatry (reproductive character displacement; RCD), but there are few explicit examples...
May 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490820/the-end-of-hypergamy-global-trends-and-implications
#2
Albert Esteve, Christine R Schwartz, Jan Van Bavel, Iñaki Permanyer, Martin Klesment, Joan Garcia
The gender gap in education that has long favored men has reversed for young adults in almost all high and middle-income countries. In 2010, the proportion of women aged 25-29 with a college education was higher than that of men in more than 139 countries which altogether represent 86% of the world's population. According to recent population forecasts, women will have more education than men in nearly every country in the world by 2050, with the exception of only a few African and West Asian countries (KC et al...
December 2016: Population and Development Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479989/a-novel-method-for-estimating-the-strength-of-positive-mating-preference-by-similarity-in-the-wild
#3
Mónica Fernández-Meirama, Daniel Estévez, Terence P T Ng, Gray A Williams, Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez
Mating preference can be a driver of sexual selection and assortative mating and is, therefore, a key element in evolutionary dynamics. Positive mating preference by similarity is the tendency for the choosy individual to select a mate which possesses a similar variant of a trait. Such preference can be modelled using Gaussian-like mathematical functions that describe the strength of preference, but such functions cannot be applied to empirical data collected from the field. As a result, traditionally, mating preference is indirectly estimated by the degree of assortative mating (using Pearson's correlation coefficient, r) in wild captured mating pairs...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455620/trends-in-economic-homogamy-changes-in-assortative-mating-or-the-division-of-labor-in-marriage
#4
Pilar Gonalons-Pons, Christine R Schwartz
The growing economic resemblance of spouses has contributed to rising inequality by increasing the number of couples in which there are two high- or two low-earning partners. The dominant explanation for this trend is increased assortative mating. Previous research has primarily relied on cross-sectional data and thus has been unable to disentangle changes in assortative mating from changes in the division of spouses' paid labor-a potentially key mechanism given the dramatic rise in wives' labor supply. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to decompose the increase in the correlation between spouses' earnings and its contribution to inequality between 1970 and 2013 into parts due to (a) changes in assortative mating, and (b) changes in the division of paid labor...
April 28, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419447/divergence-and-evolution-of-assortative-mating-in-a-polygenic-trait-model-of-speciation-with-gene-flow
#5
Himani Sachdeva, Nicholas H Barton
Assortative mating is an important driver of speciation in populations with gene flow and is predicted to evolve under certain conditions in few-locus models. However, the evolution of assortment is less understood for mating based on quantitative traits, which are often characterized by high genetic variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium between trait loci. We explore this scenario for a two-deme model with migration, by considering a single polygenic trait subject to divergent viability selection across demes, as well as assortative mating and sexual selection within demes, and investigate how trait divergence is shaped by various evolutionary forces...
April 17, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406167/persistence-of-a-sugar-rejecting-cockroach-genotype-under-various-dietary-regimes
#6
Kim Jensen, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal, Jules Silverman
Glucose-aversion is a heritable trait that evolved in a number of German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations in response to strong selection with glucose-containing insecticide baits. However, in the absence of glucose-containing bait, glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches have lower performance than wild-type (WT) cockroaches in several fitness-determining traits. We allocated 48 caged populations initiated with homozygous GA and WT adults to four dietary treatments consisting of either pure rodent chow, rodent chow mixed to yield a content of either 20% glucose or 20% fructose, or a treatment consisting of choice between the 20% glucose- and the 20% fructose-containing food...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405273/assortative-mating-by-colored-ornaments-in-blue-tits-space-and-time-matter
#7
Amélie Fargevieille, Arnaud Grégoire, Anne Charmantier, Maria Del Rey Granado, Claire Doutrelant
Assortative mating is a potential outcome of sexual selection, and estimating its level is important to better understand local adaptation and underlying trait evolution. However, assortative mating studies frequently base their conclusions on small numbers of individuals sampled over short periods of time and limited spatial scales even though spatiotemporal variation is common. Here, we characterized assortative mating patterns over 10 years in four populations of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), a passerine bird...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384154/structured-mating-patterns-and-implications
#8
Ronnie Sebro, Gina M Peloso, Josée Dupuis, Neil J Risch
Genetic similarity of spouses can reflect factors influencing mate choice, such as physical/behavioral characteristics, and patterns of social endogamy. Spouse correlations for both genetic ancestry and measured traits may impact genotype distributions (Hardy Weinberg and linkage equilibrium), and therefore genetic association studies. Here we evaluate white spouse-pairs from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) original and offspring cohorts (N = 124 and 755, respectively) to explore spousal genetic similarity and its consequences...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382882/mating-system-mate-choice-and-parental-care-in-a-bark-beetle
#9
O Baruch, Z Mendel, I Scharf, A R Harari
The cypress bark beetle, Phloeosinus armatus, is a common element of the dying cypress tree system in East-Mediterranean countries. Adult beetles congregate for breeding on this ephemeral resource. We studied three traits that characterize this beetle's sexual behavior and linked them to its reproductive success: mating system, mate choice, and parental care. We found that the females are the 'pioneering sex', excavating the mating chamber. The average female is slightly larger than the male, and female and male body size is correlated, demonstrating size-assortative mating...
April 6, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356540/population-genetics-of-immune-related-multilocus-copy-number-variation-in-native-americans
#10
Luciana W Zuccherato, Silvana Schneider, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Robert J Hardwick, Douglas E Berg, Helen Bogle, Mateus H Gouveia, Lee R Machado, Moara Machado, Fernanda Rodrigues-Soares, Giordano B Soares-Souza, Diego L Togni, Roxana Zamudio, Robert H Gilman, Denise Duarte, Edward J Hollox, Maíra R Rodrigues
While multiallelic copy number variation (mCNV) loci are a major component of genomic variation, quantifying the individual copy number of a locus and defining genotypes is challenging. Few methods exist to study how mCNV genetic diversity is apportioned within and between populations (i.e. to define the population genetic structure of mCNV). These inferences are critical in populations with a small effective size, such as Amerindians, that may not fit the Hardy-Weinberg model due to inbreeding, assortative mating, population subdivision, natural selection or a combination of these evolutionary factors...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345625/assortative-mating-encounter-network-topology-and-the-evolution-of-attractiveness
#11
S Dipple, T Jia, T Caraco, G Korniss, B K Szymanski
We model a social-encounter network where linked nodes match for reproduction in a manner depending probabilistically on each node's attractiveness. The developed model reveals that increasing either the network's mean degree or the "choosiness" exercised during pair formation increases the strength of positive assortative mating. That is, we note that attractiveness is correlated among mated nodes. Their total number also increases with mean degree and selectivity during pair formation. By iterating over the model's mapping of parents onto offspring across generations, we study the evolution of attractiveness...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338099/difference-in-diel-mating-time-contributes-to-assortative-mating-between-host-plant-associated-populations-of-chilo-suppressalis
#12
Wei-Li Quan, Wen Liu, Rui-Qi Zhou, Rong Chen, Wei-Hua Ma, Chao-Liang Lei, Xiao-Ping Wang
Behavioral isolation in animals can be mediated by inherent mating preferences and assortative traits, such as divergence in the diel timing of mating activity. Although divergence in the diel mating time could, in principle, promote the reproductive isolation of sympatric, conspecific populations, there is currently no unequivocal evidence of this. We conducted different mate-choice experiments to investigate the contribution of differences in diel mating activity to the reproductive isolation of the rice and water-oat populations of Chilo suppressalis...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337988/molecular-heterogeneity-in-major-urinary-proteins-of-mus-musculus-subspecies-potential-candidates-involved-in-speciation
#13
Jane L Hurst, Robert J Beynon, Stuart D Armstrong, Amanda J Davidson, Sarah A Roberts, Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Carole M Smadja, Guila Ganem
When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289773/temporal-variation-in-size-assortative-mating-and-male-mate-choice-in-a-spider-with-amphisexual-care
#14
Rafael R Moura, Marcelo O Gonzaga
Males should be more selective when they have a high investment in reproduction, especially in species with biparental or paternal care. In this context, male mate choice can promote size-assortative mating (SAM) when (1) large males win intrasexual disputes, (2) large females are more fecund, and (3) males prefer larger females to smaller ones. In the spider Manogea porracea, males exhibit high reproductive investment by building their webs above those of females and exhibiting extended care of offspring in the absence of females...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245824/alternative-reproductive-tactics-and-inverse-size-assortment-in-a-high-density-fish-spawning-aggregation
#15
Rucha Karkarey, Amod Zambre, Kavita Isvaran, Rohan Arthur
BACKGROUND: At high densities, terrestrial and marine species often employ alternate reproductive tactics (ARTs) to maximize reproductive benefits. We describe ARTs in a high-density and unfished spawning aggregation of the squaretail grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) in Lakshadweep, India. RESULTS: As previously reported for this species, territorial males engage in pair-courtship, which is associated with a pair-spawning tactic. Here, we document a previously unreported school-courtship tactic; where territorial males court multiple females in mid-water schools, which appears to culminate in a unique 'school-spawning' tactic...
February 28, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205222/strong-amerindian-mitonuclear-discordance-in-puerto-rican-genomes-suggests-amerindian-mitochondrial-benefit
#16
Steven E Massey
A large discrepancy between the Amerindian contribution to the mitochondrial and nuclear genetic components of 55 Puerto Rican (PR) genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project is identified, with Amerindian mitochondrial haplotypes being highly represented (67.3%), in strong contrast to the Amerindian autosomal contribution (12.9%). I examine the potential causes behind this strong mitonuclear discordance. The Amerindian contribution to the X chromosome is 19.8%, implying assortative mating with Amerindian females during the establishment of the PR population...
March 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202807/the-genetics-of-mate-preferences-in-hybrids-between-two-young-and-sympatric-lake-victoria-cichlid-species
#17
Ola Svensson, Katie Woodhouse, Cock van Oosterhout, Alan Smith, George F Turner, Ole Seehausen
The genetic architecture of mate preferences is likely to affect significant evolutionary processes, including speciation and hybridization. Here, we investigate laboratory hybrids between a pair of sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fish species that appear to have recently evolved from a hybrid population between similar predecessor species. The species demonstrate strong assortative mating in the laboratory, associated with divergent male breeding coloration (red dorsum versus blue). We show in a common garden experiment, using DNA-based paternity testing, that the strong female mate preferences among males of the two species are fully recovered in a large fraction of their F2 hybrid generation...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202469/establishment-and-maintenance-of-sexual-preferences-that-cause-a-reproductive-isolation-between-medaka-strains-in-close-association
#18
Mayuka Ikawa, Emi Ohya, Hiroka Shimada, Makiko Kamijo, Shoji Fukamachi
Animals choose reproductive partners based on their sexual preferences which are established at a certain time point before, during, or after sexual maturation. The preferences are often divergent within a species, which suppresses gene flow between populations and may promote speciation. There are two strains of medaka (Oryzias latipes) that differ by a single transgene and mate assortatively depending on skin color. Here, we demonstrate that symmetrically biased (mutually exclusive) sexual preferences are (1) gradually established during growth depending on skin color and the color of surrounding fish, (2) strong enough to minimize gene flow between the strains at a population level, and (3) inflexibly retained after sexual maturation, even after weeks of daily mating with partners of the other strain...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192145/population-based-familial-aggregation-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-suggests-a-genetic-contribution
#19
Kristina Allen-Brady, Rafael Firszt, John C Fang, Jathine Wong, Ken R Smith, Kathryn A Peterson
BACKGROUND: Prior familial clustering studies have observed an increased risk of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) mostly among first-degree relatives, suggesting a genetic contribution to EoE, and twin studies have suggested a powerful contribution from environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to clarify the contribution of genetic factors to EoE through estimation of familial aggregation and risk of EoE in extended relatives. METHODS: The Utah Population Database, a population-based genealogy resource linked to electronic medical records for health care systems across the state of Utah, was used to identify EoE cases and age, sex, and birthplace-matched controls at a 5:1 ratio...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160233/the-intergenerational-transmission-of-low-birth-weight-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-a-large-cross-generational-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#20
Mengcen Qian, Shin-Yi Chou, Lea Gimenez, Jin-Tan Liu
Objectives Our research provides evidence on the intergenerational fetal programming effect by examining associations in the low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) status between two adjacent generations from both the maternal and paternal sides. Methods Birth certificate data of the entire Taiwanese population are used to construct three-consecutive-generational samples. The final samples consist of the third-generation children born during 1999-2006 to at least one second-generation (G2) parent born during 1978-1985...
February 3, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
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