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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205222/strong-amerindian-mitonuclear-discordance-in-puerto-rican-genomes-suggests-amerindian-mitochondrial-benefit
#1
Steven E Massey
A large discrepancy between the Amerindian contribution to the mitochondrial and nuclear genetic components of 55 Puerto Rican (PR) genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project is identified, with Amerindian mitochondrial haplotypes being highly represented (67.3%), in strong contrast to the Amerindian autosomal contribution (12.9%). I examine the potential causes behind this strong mitonuclear discordance. The Amerindian contribution to the X chromosome is 19.8%, implying assortative mating with Amerindian females during the establishment of the PR population...
March 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202807/the-genetics-of-mate-preferences-in-hybrids-between-two-young-and-sympatric-lake-victoria-cichlid-species
#2
Ola Svensson, Katie Woodhouse, Cock van Oosterhout, Alan Smith, George F Turner, Ole Seehausen
The genetic architecture of mate preferences is likely to affect significant evolutionary processes, including speciation and hybridization. Here, we investigate laboratory hybrids between a pair of sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fish species that appear to have recently evolved from a hybrid population between similar predecessor species. The species demonstrate strong assortative mating in the laboratory, associated with divergent male breeding coloration (red dorsum versus blue). We show in a common garden experiment, using DNA-based paternity testing, that the strong female mate preferences among males of the two species are fully recovered in a large fraction of their F2 hybrid generation...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202469/establishment-and-maintenance-of-sexual-preferences-that-cause-a-reproductive-isolation-between-medaka-strains-in-close-association
#3
Mayuka Ikawa, Emi Ohya, Hiroka Shimada, Makiko Kamijo, Shoji Fukamachi
Animals choose reproductive partners based on their sexual preferences which are established at a certain time point before, during, or after sexual maturation. The preferences are often divergent within a species, which suppresses gene flow between populations and may promote speciation. There are two strains of medaka (Oryzias latipes) that differ by a single transgene and mate assortatively depending on skin color. Here, we demonstrate that symmetrically biased (mutually exclusive) sexual preferences are (1) gradually established during growth depending on skin color and the color of surrounding fish, (2) strong enough to minimize gene flow between the strains at a population level, and (3) inflexibly retained after sexual maturation, even after weeks of daily mating with partners of the other strain...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192145/population-based-familial-aggregation-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-suggests-a-genetic-contribution
#4
Kristina Allen-Brady, Rafael Firszt, John C Fang, Jathine Wong, Ken R Smith, Kathryn A Peterson
BACKGROUND: Prior familial clustering studies have observed an increased risk of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) mostly among first-degree relatives suggesting a genetic contribution to EoE, and twin studies have suggested a powerful contribution from environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: Clarify the contribution of genetic factors to EoE through estimation of familial aggregation and risk of EoE in extended relatives. METHODS: The Utah Population Database, a population-based genealogy resource linked to electronic medical records for healthcare systems across the state of Utah, was used to identify EoE cases and age, sex and birthplace-matched controls at a 5:1 ratio...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160233/the-intergenerational-transmission-of-low-birth-weight-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-a-large-cross-generational-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#5
Mengcen Qian, Shin-Yi Chou, Lea Gimenez, Jin-Tan Liu
Objectives Our research provides evidence on the intergenerational fetal programming effect by examining associations in the low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) status between two adjacent generations from both the maternal and paternal sides. Methods Birth certificate data of the entire Taiwanese population are used to construct three-consecutive-generational samples. The final samples consist of the third-generation children born during 1999-2006 to at least one second-generation (G2) parent born during 1978-1985...
February 3, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148817/pre-copula-acoustic-behaviour-of-males-in-the-malarial-mosquitoes-anopheles-coluzzii-and-anopheles-gambiae-s-s-does-not-contribute-to-reproductive-isolation
#6
Patrício M V Simões, Gabriella Gibson, Ian J Russell
We reveal that males of two members of the Anopheles gambiae s.l. species complex, Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae s.s. (hereafter A. gambiae), which are both malaria vectors, perform a stereotypical acoustic behaviour in response to pure tones at frequencies that encompass the frequency range of the female's flight-tones. This behaviour resembles that described for Culex quinquefasciatus and consists of phonotactic flight initiated by a steep increase in wing-beat frequency (WBF) followed by rapid frequency modulation (RFM) of WBF when in close proximity to the sound source...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141898/a-combination-of-sexual-and-ecological-divergence-contributes-to-rearrangement-spread-during-initial-stages-of-speciation
#7
Genevieve M Kozak, Crista B Wadsworth, Shoshanna C Kahne, Steven M Bogdanowicz, Richard G Harrison, Brad S Coates, Erik B Dopman
Chromosomal rearrangements between sympatric species often contain multiple loci contributing to assortative mating, local adaptation, and hybrid sterility. When and how these associations arise during the process of speciation remains a subject of debate. Here, we address the relative roles of local adaptation and assortative mating on the dynamics of rearrangement evolution by studying how a rearrangement co-varies with sexual and ecological trait divergence within a species. Previously, a chromosomal rearrangement that suppresses recombination on the Z (sex) chromosome was identified in European corn borer moths (Ostrinia nubilalis)...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141891/can-mhc-assortative-partner-choice-promote-offspring-diversity-a-new-combination-of-mhc-dependent-behaviors-among-sexes-in-a-highly-successful-invasive-mammal
#8
Pablo S C Santos, Frank-Uwe Michler, Simone Sommer
Sexual selection involving genetically disassortative mate choice is one of several evolutionary processes that can maintain or enhance population genetic variability. Examples of reproductive systems in which choosers (generally females) select mates depending on their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have been reported for several vertebrate species. Notably, the role of MHC-dependent choice in non-mating contexts, but in other kinds of social interactions such as in the establishment of complex social systems, has not yet drawn significant scientific interest and is virtually absent from the literature...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133841/incipient-speciation-driven-by-hypertrophied-lips-in-midas-cichlids-fish
#9
Gonzalo Machado-Schiaffino, Andreas F Kautt, Julian Torres-Dowdall, Lukas Baumgarten, Frederico Henning, Axel Meyer
Sympatric speciation has been debated in evolutionary biology for decades. Although it has gained in acceptance recently, still only a handful of empirical examples are seen as valid (e.g. crater lake cichlids). In this study, we disentangle the role of hypertrophied lips in the repeated adaptive radiations of Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fish. We assessed the role of disruptive selection and assortative mating during the early stages of divergence and found a functional trade-off in feeding behavior between thick- and thin-lipped ecotypes suggesting that this trait is a target of disruptive selection...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125736/population-structure-diversity-and-reproductive-mode-of-the-grape-phylloxera-daktulosphaira-vitifoliae-across-its-native-range
#10
Karl T Lund, Summaira Riaz, M Andrew Walker
Grape Phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, is a gall-forming insect that feeds on the leaves and roots of many Vitis species. The roots of the cultivated V. vinifera cultivars and hybrids are highly susceptible to grape phylloxera feeding damage. The native range of this insect covers most of North America, and it is particularly abundant in the eastern and central United States. Phylloxera was introduced from North America to almost all grape-growing regions across five of the temperate zone continents. It devastated vineyards in each of these regions causing large-scale disruptions to grape growers, wine makers and national economies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116069/can-spatial-sorting-associated-with-spawning-migration-explain-evolution-of-body-size-and-vertebral-number-in-anguilla-eels
#11
Anders Forsman, Hanna Berggren
Spatial sorting is a process that can contribute to microevolutionary change by assembling phenotypes through space, owing to nonrandom dispersal. Here we first build upon and develop the "neutral" version of the spatial sorting hypothesis by arguing that in systems that are not characterized by repeated range expansions, the evolutionary effects of variation in dispersal capacity and assortative mating might not be independent of but interact with natural selection. In addition to generating assortative mating, variation in dispersal capacity together with spatial and temporal variation in quality of spawning area is likely to influence both reproductive success and survival of spawning migrating individuals, and this will contribute to the evolution of dispersal-enhancing traits...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116068/cryptic-female-strawberry-poison-frogs-experience-elevated-predation-risk-when-associating-with-an-aposematic-partner
#12
Julia Carolina Segami Marzal, Andreas Rudh, Björn Rogell, Anders Ödeen, Hanne Løvlie, Charlotte Rosher, Anna Qvarnström
Population divergence in sexual signals may lead to speciation through prezygotic isolation. Sexual signals can change solely due to variation in the level of natural selection acting against conspicuousness. However, directional mate choice (i.e., favoring conspicuousness) across different environments may lead to gene flow between populations, thereby delaying or even preventing the evolution of reproductive barriers and speciation. In this study, we test whether natural selection through predation upon mate-choosing females can favor corresponding changes in mate preferences...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116062/size-selection-by-a-gape-limited-predator-of-a-marine-snail-insights-into-magic-traits-for-speciation
#13
Elizabeth G Boulding, María José Rivas, Nerea González-Lavín, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez, Juan Galindo
The intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis has repeatedly evolved two parallel ecotypes assumed to be wave adapted and predatory shore crab adapted, but the magnitude and targets of predator-driven selection are unknown. In Spain, a small, wave ecotype with a large aperture from the lower shore and a large, thick-shelled crab ecotype from the upper shore meet in the mid-shore and show partial size-assortative mating. We performed complementary field tethering and laboratory predation experiments; the first set compared the survival of two different size-classes of the crab ecotype while the second compared the same size-class of the two ecotypes...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974054/heritability-of-tic-disorders-a-twin-family-study
#14
N R Zilhão, M C Olthof, D J A Smit, D C Cath, L Ligthart, C A Mathews, K Delucchi, D I Boomsma, C V Dolan
BACKGROUND: Genetic-epidemiological studies that estimate the contributions of genetic factors to variation in tic symptoms are scarce. We estimated the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to tics, employing various phenotypic definitions ranging between mild and severe symptomatology, in a large population-based adult twin-family sample. METHOD: In an extended twin-family design, we analysed lifetime tic data reported by adult mono- and dizygotic twins (n = 8323) and their family members (n = 7164; parents and siblings) from 7311 families in the Netherlands Twin Register...
December 15, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886734/does-the-internet-affect-assortative-mating-evidence-from-the-u-s-and-germany
#15
Gina Potarca
The Internet has now become a habitual channel for finding a partner, but little is known about the impact of this recent partnership market on mate selection patterns. This study revisits the supply side perspective on assortative mating by exploring the role played by online venues in breeding educational, racial/ethnic and religious endogamy. It compares couples that met online (through either online dating platforms, Internet social networking, Internet gaming website, Internet chat, Internet community, etc...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882549/digest-mechanisms-of-assortative-mating-and-ecological-speciation
#16
Spencer J Ingley, Gil G Rosenthal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879348/the-effects-of-migration-and-assortative-mating-on-admixture-linkage-disequilibrium
#17
Noah Zaitlen, Scott Huntsman, Donglei Hu, Melissa Spear, Celeste Eng, Sam S Oh, Marquitta J White, Angel Mak, Adam Davis, Kelly Meade, Emerita Brigino-Buenaventura, Michael A LeNoir, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Esteban G Burchard, Eran Halperin
Statistical models in medical and population genetics typically assume that individuals assort randomly in a population. While this simplifies model complexity, it contradicts an increasing body of evidence of nonrandom mating in human populations. Specifically, it has been shown that assortative mating is significantly affected by genomic ancestry. In this work, we examine the effects of ancestry-assortative mating on the linkage disequilibrium between local ancestry tracks of individuals in an admixed population...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862535/sexual-isolation-promotes-divergence-between-parapatric-lake-and-stream-stickleback
#18
D Berner, M Ammann, E Spencer, A Rüegg, D Lüscher, D Moser
Speciation can be initiated by adaptive divergence between populations in ecologically different habitats, but how sexually based reproductive barriers contribute to this process is less well understood. We here test for sexual isolation between ecotypes of threespine stickleback fish residing in adjacent lake and stream habitats in the Lake Constance basin, Central Europe. Mating trials exposing females to pairings of territorial lake and stream males in outdoor mesocosms allowing for natural reproductive behaviour reveal that mating occurs preferentially between partners of the same ecotype...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859823/patterns-of-mhc-dependent-mate-selection-in-humans-and-nonhuman-primates-a-meta-analysis
#19
J Winternitz, J L Abbate, E Huchard, J Havlíček, L Z Garamszegi
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are integral for effective adaptive immune response and are associated with sexual selection. Evidence from a range of vertebrates supports MHC-based preference for diverse and dissimilar mating partners, but evidence from human mate choice studies has been disparate and controversial. Methodologies and sampling peculiarities specific to human studies make it difficult to know whether wide discrepancies in results among human populations are real or artefact...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835739/examining-the-association-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-substance-use-disorders-a-familial-risk-analysis
#20
Amy M Yule, MaryKate Martelon, Stephen V Faraone, Nicholas Carrellas, Timothy E Wilens, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to use familial risk analysis to examine the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) attending to sex effects and the specificity of alcohol and drug use disorder risks. METHODS: Subjects were derived from two longitudinal case-control family studies of probands aged 6-17 years with and without DSM-III-R ADHD of both sexes and their first degree relatives followed from childhood onto young adult years...
February 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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