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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902471/narrow-hybrid-zones-in-spite-of-very-low-population-differentiation-in-neutral-markers-in-an-island-bird-species-complex
#1
Boris Delahaie, Josselin Cornuault, Charline Masson, Joris A M Bertrand, Yann X C Bourgeois, Borja Milá, Christophe Thébaud
Patterns of phenotypic and genic frequencies across hybrid zones provide insight into the origin and evolution of reproductive isolation. The Reunion grey white-eye, Zosterops borbonicus, exhibits parapatrically distributed plumage colour forms across the lowlands of the small volcanic island of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago). These forms meet and hybridise in regions that are natural barriers to dispersal (rivers, lava fields). Here, we investigated the relationship among patterns of differentiation at neutral genetic (microsatellite) markers, phenotypic traits (morphology and plumage colour) and niche characteristics across three independent hybrid zones...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857165/no-mutual-mate-choice-for-quality-in-zebra-finches-time-to-question-a-widely-held-assumption
#2
Daiping Wang, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Bart Kempenaers
Studies of mate choice typically assume that individuals prefer high quality mates and select them based on condition-dependent indicator traits. In species with bi-parental care, mutual mate choice is expected to result in assortative mating for quality. When assortment is not perfect, the lower quality pair members are expected to compensate by increased parental investment to secure their partner (positive differential allocation). This framework has been assumed to hold for monogamous species like the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), but progress has been hampered by the difficulty to define individual quality...
August 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817654/investigating-spousal-concordance-of-diabetes-through-statistical-analysis-and-data-mining
#3
Jong-Yi Wang, Chiu-Shong Liu, Chi-Hsuan Lung, Ya-Tun Yang, Ming-Hung Lin
OBJECTIVE: Spousal clustering of diabetes merits attention. Whether old-age vulnerability or a shared family environment determines the concordance of diabetes is also uncertain. This study investigated the spousal concordance of diabetes and compared the risk of diabetes concordance between couples and noncouples by using nationally representative data. METHODS: A total of 22,572 individuals identified from the 2002-2013 National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan constituted 5,643 couples and 5,643 noncouples through 1:1 dual propensity score matching (PSM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812238/women-s-progress-for-men-s-gain-gender-specific-changes-in-the-return-to-education-as-measured-by-family-standard-of-living-1990-to-2009-2011
#4
ChangHwan Kim, Arthur Sakamoto
This study investigates gender-specific changes in the total financial return to education among persons of prime working ages (35-44 years) using U.S. Census data from 1990 and 2000, and the 2009-2011 American Community Survey. We define the total financial return to education as the family standard of living as measured by family income adjusted for family size. Our results indicate that women experienced significant progress in educational attainment and labor market outcomes over this time period. Ironically, married women's progress in education and personal earnings has led to greater improvement in the family standard of living for married men than for women themselves...
August 15, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810861/the-implementation-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-bed-nets-has-differential-effects-on-the-genetic-structure-of-the-african-malaria-vectors-in-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex-in-dielmo-senegal
#5
Seynabou Sougoufara, Cheikh Sokhna, Nafissatou Diagne, Souleymane Doucouré, Pape MBacké Sembène, Myriam Harry
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex are the main vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Among these, An. gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles arabiensis are the most efficient vectors and are largely distributed in sympatric locations. However, these species present ecological and behavioural differences that impact their vectorial capacity and complicate vector-control efforts, mainly based on long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805044/nm%C3%AF-improved-re-implementation-of-nm-a-software-for-estimating-gene-dispersal-and-mating-patterns
#6
Igor J Chybicki
This paper introduces the NMπ computer program designed for estimation of plant mating system and seed and pollen dispersal kernels. NMπ is a re-implementation of the NM+ program and provides new features such as support for multi-core processors, explicit treatment of dioecy, the possibility of incorporating uniparentally cytoplasmic markers, the possibility of assessing assortative mating due to phenotypic similarity and inference about offspring genealogies. The probability model of parentage (the neighborhood model) accounts for missing data and genotyping errors, which can be estimated along with regular parameters of the mating system...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797137/stay-at-home-strategy-brings-fitness-benefits-to-migrants
#7
James J Gilroy
In Focus: Lok, T., Veldhoen, L., Overdijk, O., Tinbergen, J. M., & Piersma, T. (2017). An age-dependent fitness cost of migration? Old trans-Saharan migrating spoonbills breed later than those staying in Europe, and late breeders have lower recruitment. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 998-1009. In Focus: Grist, H., Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Burthe, S. J., Newell, M. A., Harris, M. P., & Reid, J. M. (2017). Reproductive performance of resident and migrant males, females and pairs in a partially migratory bird. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1010-1021...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783753/is-telomere-length-associated-with-mate-choice-in-a-songbird-with-a-high-rate-of-extra-pair-paternity
#8
Arild Johnsen, Angela Pauliny, Jan T Lifjeld, Donald Blomqvist
Telomere length is related to aging in many eukaryotes and the rate of telomere attrition has been suggested to reflect individual genetic quality. Telomere length could thus have implications for mate choice. We investigated telomere length variation in bluethroat Luscinia svecica families with mixed paternity, including social parents, extra-pair fathers and nestlings, testing whether telomere length is associated with social and/or extra-pair mate choice through assortative mating or selection of mates with relatively long telomeres...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734064/extensive-seed-and-pollen-dispersal-and-assortative-mating-in-the-rain-forest-tree-entandrophragma-cylindricum-meliaceae-inferred-from-indirect-and-direct-analyses
#9
F K Monthe, O J Hardy, J L Doucet, J Loo, J Duminil
Pollen and seed dispersal are key processes affecting the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of plant species, and are also important considerations for the sustainable management of timber trees. Through direct and indirect genetic analyses we studied the mating system and the extent of pollen and seed dispersal in an economically-important timber species, Entandrophragma cylindricum (Meliaceae). We genotyped adult trees, seeds and saplings from a 400-ha study plot in a natural forest from East Cameroon using eight nuclear microsatellite markers...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730723/do-assortative-mating-and-immigrant-inviability-help-maintain-population-genetic-structuring-of-an-herbivore-on-a-crop-and-a-wild-relative
#10
Ricardo Ramirez-Romero, Delia Garibay-Benítez, Ofelia Vargas-Ponce, Andrea Joyce, Julio S Bernal
Population genetic structuring is common among herbivorous insects and frequently is associated with divergent host plants, such as crops and their wild relatives. Previous studies showed population genetic structuring in corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis in Mexico, such that the species consists of two sympatric, host plant-associated populations: an abundant and widespread "pestiferous" population on maize (Zea mays mays), and a small and localized "wild" population on perennial teosinte (Zea diploperennis), a maize wild relative with a limited distribution...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709925/the-infinitesimal-model-definition-derivation-and-implications
#11
N H Barton, A M Etheridge, A Véber
Our focus here is on the infinitesimal model. In this model, one or several quantitative traits are described as the sum of a genetic and a non-genetic component, the first being distributed within families as a normal random variable centred at the average of the parental genetic components, and with a variance independent of the parental traits. Thus, the variance that segregates within families is not perturbed by selection, and can be predicted from the variance components. This does not necessarily imply that the trait distribution across the whole population should be Gaussian, and indeed selection or population structure may have a substantial effect on the overall trait distribution...
July 11, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673911/the-role-of-physiological-traits-in-assortment-among-and-within-fish-shoals
#12
REVIEW
Shaun S Killen, Stefano Marras, Lauren Nadler, Paolo Domenici
Individuals of gregarious species often group with conspecifics to which they are phenotypically similar. This among-group assortment has been studied for body size, sex and relatedness. However, the role of physiological traits has been largely overlooked. Here, we discuss mechanisms by which physiological traits-particularly those related to metabolism and locomotor performance-may result in phenotypic assortment not only among but also within animal groups. At the among-group level, varying combinations of passive assortment, active assortment, phenotypic plasticity and selective mortality may generate phenotypic differences among groups...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668648/familial-digit-ratio-2d-4d-associations-in-a-general-population-sample-from-wales
#13
Gareth Richards, Wynford Bellin, William Davies
BACKGROUND: The relative length of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D) may be a sex-linked correlate of prenatal androgen exposure. However, the nature of the sex-linkage is controversial, with evidence for both X- and Y-linkage of the 2D:4D phenotype. AIMS: To examine transgenerational effects relating to sex-linkage. In addition, assortative mating on 2D:4D was considered, as well as associations between 2D:4D and age and sex. STUDY DESIGN: A family study was conducted...
September 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626946/do-changes-in-gene-expression-contribute-to-sexual-isolation-and-reinforcement-in-the-house-mouse
#14
Etienne Loire, Sergio Tusso, Pierre Caminade, Dany Severac, Pierre Boursot, Guila Ganem, Carole M Smadja
Expression divergence, rather than sequence divergence, has been shown to be important in speciation, particularly in the early stages of divergence of traits involved in reproductive isolation. In the two European subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, earlier studies have demonstrated olfactory-based assortative mate preference in populations close to their hybrid zone. It has been suggested that this behaviour evolved following the recent secondary contact between the two taxa (~3,000 years ago) in response to selection against hybridisation...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620992/detection-of-imprinting-effects-for-quantitative-traits-on-x-chromosome-using-nuclear-families-with-multiple-daughters
#15
Kexin Yu, Ji-Yuan Zhou, Wing Kam Fung
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon in which the expression of an allele copy depends on its parental origin. This mechanism has been found to play an important role in many complex diseases. Statistical tests for imprinting effects have been developed for more than 15 years, but they are only suitable for autosomes. It was not until recently that the parental-asymmetry test on the X chromosome (XPAT) was proposed to test for imprinting effects. However, this test can only be used for qualitative traits...
July 2017: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611437/reproductive-isolation-through-experimental-manipulation-of-sexually-antagonistic-coevolution-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Zeeshan Ali Syed, Martik Chatterjee, Manas Arun Samant, Nagaraj Guru Prasad
Promiscuity can drive the evolution of sexual conflict before and after mating occurs. Post mating, the male ejaculate can selfishly manipulate female physiology, leading to a chemical arms race between the sexes. Theory suggests that drift and sexually antagonistic coevolution can cause allopatric populations to evolve different chemical interactions between the sexes, thereby leading to postmating reproductive barriers and speciation. There is, however, little empirical evidence supporting this form of speciation...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590579/flexible-mate-choice-may-contribute-to-ecotype-assortative-mating-in-pumpkinseed-sunfish-lepomis-gibbosus
#17
W M C Jarvis, S M Comeau, S F Colborne, B W Robinson
Gene flow is expected to limit adaptive divergence but the ecological and behavioural factors that govern gene flow are still poorly understood, particularly at the earliest stages of population divergence. Reduced gene flow through mate choice (sexual isolation) can evolve even under conditions of subtle population divergence if intermediate phenotypes have reduced fitness. We indirectly tested the hypothesis that mate choice has evolved between coexisting littoral and pelagic ecotypes of polyphenic pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) that have diverged in morphology and resource use and where intermediate phenotypes have reduced performance...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586142/experimental-hybridization-and-reproductive-isolation-between-two-sympatric-species-of-tephritid-fruit-flies-in-the-anastrepha-fraterculus-species-group
#18
Juan Rull, Eduardo Tadeo, Rodrigo Lasa, Christian L Rodríguez, Alma Altuzar-Molina, Martín Aluja
Among tephritid fruit flies, hybridzation has been found to produce local adaptation and speciation, and in the case of pest species, induce behavioral and ecological alterations that can adversely impact efficient pest management. The fraterculus species group within Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a rapidly radiating aggregate, which includes cryptic species complexes, numerous sister species, and several pest species. Molecular studies have highlighted the possibility of introgression between A. fraterculus and A...
June 6, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575204/analysis-of-copy-number-variation-in-the-abp-gene-regions-of-two-house-mouse-subspecies-suggests-divergence-during-the-gene-family-expansions
#19
Željka Pezer, Amanda G Chung, Robert C Karn, Christina M Laukaitis
The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) gene region of the mouse genome contains 64 genes, some encoding pheromones that influence assortative mating between mice from different subspecies. Using CNVnator and quantitative PCR, we explored copy number variation in this gene family in natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm), two subspecies of house mice that form a narrow hybrid zone in Central Europe. We found that copy number variation in the center of the Abp gene region is very common in wild Mmd, primarily representing the presence/absence of the final duplications described for the mouse genome...
May 29, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493350/reproductive-character-displacement-of-female-but-not-male-song-discrimination-in-an-avian-hybrid-zone
#20
David Wheatcroft, Anna Qvarnström
Divergence of male sexual signals and female preferences for those signals often maintains reproductive boundaries between closely related, co-occurring species. However, contrasting sources of selection, such as interspecific competition, can lead to weak divergence or even convergence of sexual signals in sympatry. When signals converge, assortative mating can be maintained if the mating preferences of females diverge in sympatry (reproductive character displacement; RCD), but there are few explicit examples...
May 11, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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