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Influenza Pandemic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818690/early-estimates-of-2016-17-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-primary-care-in-france
#1
Cécile Souty, Ana-Maria Vilcu, Lisandru Capai, Sylvie van der Werf, Martine Valette, Thierry Blanchon, Bruno Lina, Sylvie Behillil, Thomas Hanslik, Alessandra Falchi
BACKGROUND: The ongoing 2016/17 influenza epidemic in France is characterized by the circulation of A(H3N2) viruses, known to cause more severe illness among at risk populations. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to provide early influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) estimates for the ongoing influenza epidemic in France and compare these estimates over the six post-pandemic IVE. STUDY DESIGN: We used clinical and virological data collected in primary care by the French Sentinelles network...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818469/vaccine-epidemiology-its-role-in-promoting-sound-immunization-programs-in-japan
#2
Yoshio Hirota, Kotaro Ozasa, Takashi Nakano
In Japan, the Vaccine Epidemiology Research Group created by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has played an important role in demonstrating the solid scientific basis for vaccine efficacy and safety since 2002. Members of the group, including epidemiologists, clinicians and microbiologists, have been conducting collaborative studies on vaccines for influenza, pertussis, rotavirus gastroenteritis, polio and pneumonia. So far, the group has achieved several works and contributed to the national vaccination program, including research on the immunogenicity of low doses of influenza vaccine among young children, the immunogenicity and effectiveness of the 2009 influenza pandemic vaccine among various risk groups, the interchangeability of live/inactivated polio vaccines, the health impact of influenza on pregnant women, and the monitoring of influenza vaccine effectiveness using case-control studies with a test-negative design...
August 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817714/insights-into-secular-trends-of-respiratory-tuberculosis-the-20th-century-maltese-experience
#3
Lianne Tripp, Larry A Sawchuk
Over half a century ago, McKeown and colleagues proposed that economics was a major contributor to the decline of infectious diseases, including respiratory tuberculosis, during the 19th and 20th centuries. Since then, there is no consensus among researchers as to the factors responsible for the mortality decline. Using the case study of the islands of Malta and Gozo, we examine the relationship of economics, in particular, the cost of living (Fisher index) and its relationship to the secular trends of tuberculosis mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817330/readiness-to-vaccinate-critical-personnel-during-an-influenza-pandemic-united-states-2015
#4
Danielle L Moulia, Stephanie A Dopson, Sara J Vagi, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Samuel B Graitcer
OBJECTIVES: To assess the readiness to vaccinate critical infrastructure personnel (CIP) involved in managing public works, emergency services, transportation, or any other system or asset that would have an immediate debilitating impact on the community if not maintained. METHODS: We analyzed self-reported planning to vaccinate CIP during an influenza pandemic with data from 2 surveys: (1) the Program Annual Progress Assessment of immunization programs and (2) the Pandemic Influenza Readiness Assessment of public health emergency preparedness programs...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814525/structure-guided-functional-annotation-of-the-influenza-a-virus-ns1-protein-reveals-dynamic-evolution-of-the-p85%C3%AE-binding-site-during-circulation-in-humans
#5
Antonio M Lopes, Patricia Domingues, Roland Zell, Benjamin G Hale
Rational characterization of virulence and host-adaptive markers in the multifunctional influenza A virus NS1 protein is hindered by a lack of comprehensive knowledge about NS1-host protein-protein interfaces. Here, we surveyed the impact of amino-acid variation in NS1 at its structurally-defined binding site for host p85β, a regulator of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling. Structure-guided alanine-scanning of all viral residues at this interface defined 10 positions contributing to the interaction, with residues 89, 95, 98, 133, 145 and 162 being most important...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814518/a-single-amino-acid-substitution-at-position-225-in-ha-alters-the-transmissibility-of-eurasian-avian-like-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-in-guinea-pigs
#6
Zeng Wang, Huanliang Yang, Yan Chen, Shiyu Tao, Liling Liu, Huihui Kong, Shujie Ma, Fei Meng, Yasuo Suzuki, Chuanling Qiao, Hualan Chen
Efficient transmission from human to human is the prerequisite for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic; however, the molecular determinants of influenza virus transmission are still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the molecular basis for transmission of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses by comparing two viruses that are genetically similar but differ in their transmissibility in guinea pigs: the A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus (GX/18) is highly transmissible by respiratory droplet in guinea pigs, whereas the A/swine/Heilongjiang/27/2012 virus (HLJ/27) does not transmit in this animal model...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814512/zoonotic-risk-pathogenesis-and-transmission-of-avian-origin-h3n2-canine-influenza-virus
#7
Hailiang Sun, Sherry Blackmon, Guohua Yang, Kaitlyn Waters, Tao Li, Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat, Yifei Xu, Daniel Shyu, Feng Wen, Jim Cooley, Lucy Senter, Xiaoxu Lin, Richard Jarman, Larry Hanson, Richard Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV-H3N8, are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have demonstrated seroconversion to diverse IAVs and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antisera we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting there may be minimal herd immunity in humans...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813716/no-correlation-of-the-disease-severity-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-with-the-rs12252-polymorphism-of-the-interferon-induced-transmembrane-protein-3-gene
#8
Yong-Chan Kim, Byung-Hoon Jeong
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, which involved a more pathogenic virus than seasonal influenza viruses, rapidly spread around the world and caused many deaths in humans. The members of the interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) protein family prevent viral replication and are crucial for defending the host cell against influenza A virus (IAV). Several studies suggest that the CC genotype at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12252 of IFITM3 confers a genetic predisposition to pandemic influenza A in Europeans and Han Chinese, although one study in a British cohort failed to show an association...
August 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809087/spontaneous-reporting-of-suspected-narcolepsy-after-vaccination-against-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-in-germany
#9
Doris Oberle, Jutta Pavel, Brigitte Keller-Stanislawski
PURPOSE: We aimed at investigating whether, in Germany, the number of individual case safety reports (ICSR) of confirmed narcolepsy following Pandemrix® vaccination notified to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (PEI, German Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines) was higher than expected when compared with the prepandemic background incidence rates. METHODS: ICSR of narcolepsy after vaccination with Pandemrix® notified to the PEI until September 2016 were reviewed and validated according to the criteria of narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC)...
August 14, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805681/influenza-virus-infection-interferon-response-viral-counter-response-and-apoptosis
#10
REVIEW
Jung Min Shim, Jinhee Kim, Tanel Tenson, Ji-Young Min, Denis E Kainov
Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics, which remain serious threats to public health because of the shortage of effective means of control. To combat the surge of viral outbreaks, new treatments are urgently needed. Developing new virus control modalities requires better understanding of virus-host interactions. Here, we describe how IAV infection triggers cellular apoptosis and how this process can be exploited towards the development of new therapeutics, which might be more effective than the currently available anti-influenza drugs...
August 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805466/the-critical-need-for-rapid-influenza-serology-testing-for-avian-influenza-pandemic-preparedness
#11
Joshua Powell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805243/factors-associated-with-acceptance-of-pandemic-flu-vaccine-by-healthcare-professionals-in-spain-2009-2010
#12
Tania Fernández-Villa, Antonio J Molina, Nuria Torner, Jesus Castilla, Jenaro Astray, Susana García-Gutiérrez, José María Mayoral, Sonia Tamames, Ángela Domínguez, Vicente Martín
The A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus reached pandemic level in Spain in 2009, prompting a national vaccination campaign. To avoid transmission to patients, healthcare professionals' vaccination against pandemic influenza is crucial. The main objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with the failure by healthcare professionals to accept the pandemic vaccination in 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of healthcare professionals in seven of Spain's autonomous regions. A questionnaire was used to collect information about personal and professional details, the respondents' flu vaccination status in the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons (seasonal and pandemic vaccines), and their knowledge and attitudes...
August 14, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802695/scarce-resource-allocation-during-disasters-a-mixed-method-community-engagement-study
#13
Elizabeth Lee Daugherty Biddison, Howard S Gwon, Monica Schoch-Spana, Alan C Regenberg, Chrissie Juliano, Ruth R Faden, Eric S Toner
BACKGROUND: During a catastrophe, health care providers may face difficult questions regarding who will receive limited life-saving resources. The ethical principles that should guide decision-making have been considered by expert panels but have not been well explored with the public or front line clinicians. The objective of this study was to characterize the public's values regarding how scarce mechanical ventilators should be allocated during an influenza pandemic, with the ultimate goal of informing a statewide scare resource allocation framework...
August 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802028/h5n1-ns-genomic-segment-distinctly-governs-the-influenza-virus-infectivity-and-cytokine-induction-in-monocytic-cells
#14
Prem Prasad Lamichhane, Kobporn Boonnak, Don Changsom, Pirom Noisumdaeng, Kantima Sangsiriwut, Sa-Nga Pattanakitsakul, Pilaipan Puthavathana
BACKGROUND: The level of virulence of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was higher than those of the other virus subtypes. It has been suggested that the nonstructural (NS) gene might be a factor contributing to H5N1 HPAI virulence. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficiency of the NS genomic segment of H5N1 HPAI virus on governing viral infectivity and cytokine induction in monocytic cells compared to other virus strain/subtypes. METHODS: By reverse genetics, five reassortant influenza viruses carrying the NS genomic segment derived from seasonal influenza A(H1N1), 2009 pandemic A(H1N1), A(H3N2) or H5N1 HPAI virus in the backbone of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8) virus were constructed together with the reassorted PR8 virus control, i...
August 8, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794042/palmitoylation-contributes-to-membrane-curvature-in-influenza-a-virus-assembly-and-hemagglutinin-mediated-membrane-fusion
#15
Petr Chlanda, Elena Mekhedov, Hang Waters, Alexander Sodt, Cindi Schwartz, Vinod Nair, Paul S Blank, Joshua Zimmerberg
The highly conserved cytoplasmic tail of influenza virus glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) contains three cysteines, post-translationally modified by covalently bound fatty acids. While viral HA acylation is crucial in virus replication, its physico-chemical role is unknown. We used virus-like particles (VLP) to study the effect of acylation on morphology, protein incorporation, lipid composition, and membrane fusion. De-acylation interrupted HA-M1 interactions since de-acylated mutant HA fail to incorporate an M1 layer within spheroidal VLP, and filamentous particles incorporated increased numbers of neuraminidase (NA)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791803/genetic-analysis-of-human-and-swine-influenza-a-viruses-isolated-in-northern-italy-during-2010-2015
#16
C Chiapponi, E Ebranati, E Pariani, S Faccini, A Luppi, L Baioni, R Manfredi, V Carta, M Merenda, P Affanni, M E Colucci, L Veronesi, G Zehender, E Foni
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in swine plays an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses. The emergence of new IAVs comes through different mechanisms, with the genetic reassortment of genes between influenza viruses, also originating from different species, being common. We performed a genetic analysis on 179 IAV isolates from humans (n. 75) and pigs (n. 104) collected in Northern Italy between 2010 and 2015, to monitor the genetic exchange between human and swine IAVs. No cases of human infection with swine strains were noticed, but direct infections of swine with H1N1pdm09 strains were detected...
August 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790432/conformational-modulation-of-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-characterization-and-in-vivo-efficacy-of-monomeric-form
#17
Jong Hyeon Seok, Jeongwon Kim, Dan Bi Lee, Ki Joon Cho, Ji-Hye Lee, Garam Bae, Mi Sook Chung, Kyung Hyun Kim
Mutational changes that mostly occur at the head region of hemagglutinin (HA) lead to the emergence of new epidemic influenza viruses, whereas HA antigens have been modified to generate broadly neutralizing antibodies toward highly conserved epitopes in the HA stem. Interestingly, a recent analysis of serum antibody repertoires showed that broadly neutralizing antibodies bind to HA monomer at a conserved region occluded at the intermonomer interface of HA trimer and confer protection in animal models. We showed previously that the recombinant HA ectodomain from a pandemic strain A/Korea/01/2009 was monomeric in solution and crystal structure...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789850/broadened-immunity-and-protective-responses-with-emulsion-adjuvanted-h5-cobra-vlp-vaccines
#18
James D Allen, Simon O Owino, Donald M Carter, Corey J Crevar, Valerie A Reese, Christopher B Fox, Rhea N Coler, Steven G Reed, Susan L Baldwin, Ted M Ross
A number of challenges for developing a protective pre-pandemic influenza A vaccine exists including predicting the target influenza strain and designing the vaccine for an immunologically naïve population. Manufacturing and supply of the vaccine would also require implementing ways to increase coverage for the largest number of people through dose-sparing methods, while not compromising the potency of the vaccine. Previously, our group described a novel hemagglutinin (HA) for H5N1 influenza derived from a methodology termed computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA)...
August 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783091/evolution-of-influenza-a-virus-by-mutation-and-re-assortment
#19
REVIEW
Wenhan Shao, Xinxin Li, Mohsan Ullah Goraya, Song Wang, Ji-Long Chen
Influenza A virus (IAV), a highly infectious respiratory pathogen, has continued to be a significant threat to global public health. To complete their life cycle, influenza viruses have evolved multiple strategies to interact with a host. A large number of studies have revealed that the evolution of influenza A virus is mainly mediated through the mutation of the virus itself and the re-assortment of viral genomes derived from various strains. The evolution of influenza A virus through these mechanisms causes worldwide annual epidemics and occasional pandemics...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780285/urgent-challenges-in-implementing-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine
#20
REVIEW
Anika Singanayagam, Maria Zambon, Ajit Lalvani, Wendy Barclay
Conflicting reports have emerged about the effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine. The live attenuated influenza vaccine appears to protect particularly poorly against currently circulating H1N1 viruses that are derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. During the 2015-16 influenza season, when pandemic H1N1 was the predominant virus, studies from the USA reported a complete lack of effectiveness of the live vaccine in children. This finding led to a crucial decision in the USA to recommend that the live vaccine not be used in 2016-17 and to switch to the inactivated influenza vaccine...
August 2, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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