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Influenza Pandemic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232151/adjuvanted-influenza-vaccines
#1
John S Tregoning, Ryan F Russell, Ekaterina Kinnear
In spite of current influenza vaccines being immunogenic, evolution of the influenza virus can reduce efficacy and so influenza remains a major threat to public health. One approach to improve influenza vaccines is to include adjuvants; substances that boost the immune response. Adjuvants are particularly beneficial for influenza vaccines administered during a pandemic when a rapid response is required or for use in patients with impaired immune responses, such as infants and the elderly. This review outlines the current use of adjuvants in human influenza vaccines, including what they are, why they are used and what is known of their mechanism of action...
December 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229526/an-oligothiophene-compound-neutralized-influenza-a-viruses-by-interfering-with-hemagglutinin
#2
Xintian Shen, Zhibo Zhu, Yi Ding, Wenjiao Wu, Jie Yang, Shuwen Liu
Background and Objectives Recently influenza pandemic outbreaks were caused by emerging H5N1H7N9 and H1N1 viruses. However, virucidal disinfectants are mainly unspecific and toxic. It is tactical to discover specific virucidal compounds. METHODS: The inhibitory potency was determined in H5N1 pseudovirus system; Interactions of compounds with hemagglutinin(HA) were detected with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and further calculated with molecular docking. Virucidal effect was also estimated in influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1)...
December 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220671/structural-comparison-among-the-2013-2017-avian-influenza-a-h5n6-hemagglutinin-proteins-a-computational-study-with-epidemiological-implications
#3
Marni E Cueno, Izuho Suzuki, Shiori Shimotomai, Takuma Yokoyama, Kai Nagahisa, Kenichi Imai
Avian influenza viruses easily spread allowing viral re-assortment to simply occur which in-turn increases the potential for a pandemic. A novel 2013 H5N6 influenza strain was detected among the avian population and was reported to continuously evolve, however, this was never structurally demonstrated. Here, we elucidated the putative structural evolution of the novel H5N6 influenza strain. Throughout this study, we analyzed 2013-2017 H5N6 HA protein models. Model quality was first verified before further analyses and structural comparison was made using superimposition...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218303/dynamic-regimes-of-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation-and-influenza-pandemic-timing
#4
Olusegun Steven Ayodele Oluwole
El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) dynamics has been shown to drive seasonal influenza dynamics. Severe seasonal influenza epidemics and the 2009-2010 pandemic were coincident with chaotic regime of ENSO dynamics. ENSO dynamics from 1876 to 2016 were characterized to determine if influenza pandemics are coupled to chaotic regimes. Time-varying spectra of southern oscillation index (SOI) and sea surface temperature (SST) were compared. SOI and SST were decomposed to components using the algorithm of noise-assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214495/comparison-of-anti-influenza-virus-activity-and-pharmacokinetics-of-oseltamivir-free-base-and-oseltamivir-phosphate
#5
Jin Soo Shin, Keun Bon Ku, Yejin Jang, Yi-Seul Yoon, Daeho Shin, Oh Seung Kwon, Yun Young Go, Seong Soon Kim, Myoung Ae Bae, Meehyein Kim
Influenza viruses are major human respiratory pathogens that cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic antiviral agents are used to prevent and control influenza virus infection. Oseltamivir free base (OSV-FB), a modified generic antiviral drug of Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate, OSV-P), was launched in the Republic of Korea last year. Here, we examine the bioequivalence of these two compounds by assessing their antiviral efficacy in infected cells and in a mouse model...
December 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212936/structural-insight-into-a-human-neutralizing-antibody-against-influenza-virus-h7n9
#6
Cong Chen, Liguo Liu, Yan Xiao, Sheng Cui, Jianmin Wang, Qi Jin
Since its first emergence in East China in early 2013, many cases of avian influenza A H7N9 have been reported. The disease has extended to 22 provinces in mainland China and some surrounding areas. Strategies to combat viral infection are urgently needed. We previously isolated a human monoclonal antibody, HNIgGA6, that neutralized H7N9 virus both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of viral hemagglutinin (HA) globular head bound to the Fab fragment of HNIgGA6. The crystal structure shows that the tip of the HNIgGA6 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) directly interposes into the receptor binding site (RBS) and mimics, in many respects, the interaction of the sialic acid receptor...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212934/influenza-a-virus-reassortment-is-limited-by-anatomical-compartmentalization-following-co-infection-via-distinct-routes
#7
Mathilde Richard, Sander Herfst, Hui Tao, Nathan T Jacobs, Anice C Lowen
Exchange of gene segments through reassortment is a major feature of influenza A virus evolution and frequently contributes to the emergence of novel epidemic, pandemic and zoonotic strains. It has long been evident that viral diversification through reassortment is constrained by genetic incompatibility between divergent parental viruses. In contrast, the role of virus-extrinsic factors in determining the likelihood of reassortment has remained unclear. To evaluate the impact of such factors in the absence of confounding effects of segment mismatch, we previously reported an approach in which reassortment between wild-type (wt) and genetically tagged variant (var) viruses of the same strain is measured...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209053/development-of-an-influenza-virus-protein-microarray-to-measure-the-humoral-response-to-influenza-virus-infection-in-mallards
#8
Philip Meade, Neus Latorre-Margalef, David E Stallknecht, Florian Krammer
Avian influenza viruses pose a serious zoonotic threat, in part because current seasonal influenza virus vaccines only offer strain-specific protection, instead of heterosubtypic or universal protection against influenza virus infection. Understanding the humoral response to vaccination and natural infection in the broadest context possible is important to developing defenses against influenza zoonosis. Protein microarrays are a novel platform well suited to assaying the humoral immune response broadly and efficiently...
December 6, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203926/pandemic-h1n1-influenza-a-viruses-suppress-immunogenic-ripk3-driven-dendritic-cell-death
#9
Boris M Hartmann, Randy A Albrecht, Elena Zaslavsky, German Nudelman, Hanna Pincas, Nada Marjanovic, Michael Schotsaert, Carles Martínez-Romero, Rafael Fenutria, Justin P Ingram, Irene Ramos, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Siddharth Balachandran, Adolfo García-Sastre, Stuart C Sealfon
The risk of emerging pandemic influenza A viruses (IAVs) that approach the devastating 1918 strain motivates finding strain-specific host-pathogen mechanisms. During infection, dendritic cells (DC) mature into antigen-presenting cells that activate T cells, linking innate to adaptive immunity. DC infection with seasonal IAVs, but not with the 1918 and 2009 pandemic strains, induces global RNA degradation. Here, we show that DC infection with seasonal IAV causes immunogenic RIPK3-mediated cell death. Pandemic IAV suppresses this immunogenic DC cell death...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202715/epidemiology-of-influenza-in-west-africa-after-the-2009-influenza-a-h1n1-pandemic-2010-2012
#10
Ndahwouh Talla Nzussouo, Jazmin Duque, Adebayo Abel Adedeji, Daouda Coulibaly, Samba Sow, Zekiba Tarnagda, Issaka Maman, Adamou Lagare, Sonia Makaya, Mohamed Brahim Elkory, Herve Kadjo Adje, Paul Alhassan Shilo, Boubou Tamboura, Assana Cisse, Kossi Badziklou, Halima Boubacar Maïnassara, Ahmed Ould Bara, Adama Mamby Keita, Thelma Williams, Ann Moen, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Meredith McMorrow
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, capacity for influenza surveillance and research in West Africa has strengthened. Data from these surveillance systems showed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulated in West Africa later than in other regions of the continent. METHODS: We contacted 11 West African countries to collect information about their influenza surveillance systems (number of sites, type of surveillance, sampling strategy, populations sampled, case definitions used, number of specimens collected and number of specimens positive for influenza viruses) for the time period January 2010 through December 2012...
December 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202190/lack-of-truncated-ifitm3-transcripts-in-cells-homozygous-for-the-rs12252-c-variant-that-is-associated-with-severe-influenza-infection
#11
Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad, Henry Laurenson-Schafer, LiLi Wang, Dannielle Wellington, Yan Zhao, Boquan Jin, Ling Qin, Kerry Kite, Hooman K Moghadam, Chaojun Song, Kevin Clark, Philip Hublitz, Alain R Townsend, Hao Wu, Andrew J McMichael, YongHong Zhang, Tao Dong
Interferon-induced transmembrane 3 (IFITM3) is known to restrict the entry of a range of enveloped viruses. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs12252-C within IFITM3 has been shown to be associated with severe influenza A virus infection. It has been suggested that rs12252-C results in expression of a truncated IFITM3 protein lacking the first 21 amino acids. By performing high-throughput RNA sequencing on primary dendritic cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pandemic H1N1 influenza and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients we show that full-length IFITM3 mRNA is dominantly expressed (>99%) across all rs12252 genotypes...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199043/evaluating-interest-in-an-influenza-a-h5n1-vaccine-among-laboratory-workers-who-work-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-the-united-states
#12
Kate E Russell, J S Bresee, J M Katz, S J Olsen
BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) viruses found in poultry and wild birds occasionally infect humans and can cause serious disease. In 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed data from one licensed ASO3-adjuvanted influenza A(H5N1) vaccine for consideration of use during inter-pandemic periods among persons with occupational exposure. To guide vaccine policy decisions, we conducted a survey of laboratory workers to assess demand for HPAI vaccination...
November 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189855/-changes-in-the-clinical-presentation-of-influenza-a-h1n1pdm09-after-the-pandemic
#13
Raúl Riquelme, María Luisa Rioseco, Karen Velásquez, Fernando Campos, Benjamín Gayán, Cristian Medina, Carlos Inzunza, Mauricio Riquelme
BACKGROUND: After the 2009 influenza pandemic the H1N1pdm09 strain circulate seasonally. In 2015, Puerto Montt Hospital in Chile faced a simultaneous outbreak of both seasonal H3N2 and H1N1pdm09 influenza A (IA). AIM: To evaluate the clinical differences between the two viral strains and recent changes in the behavior of H1N1pdm09 IA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We set up a retrospective study including every adult hospitalized in Puerto Montt Hospital in 2015 due to IA, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
August 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187420/bayesian-diallel-analysis-reveals%C3%A2-mx1-dependent-and%C3%A2-mx1-independent-effects-on-response-to-influenza-a-virus-in-mice
#14
Paul L Maurizio, Martin T Ferris, Gregory R Keele, Darla R Miller, Ginger D Shaw, Alan C Whitmore, Ande West, Clayton R Morrison, Kelsey E Noll, Kenneth S Plante, Adam S Cockrell, David W Threadgill, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Ralph S Baric, Mark T Heise, William Valdar
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a respiratory pathogen that causes substantial morbidity and mortality during both seasonal and pandemic outbreaks. Infection outcomes in unexposed populations are affected by host genetics, but this host genetic architecture is not well understood. Here we obtain a broad view of how heritable factors affect a mouse model of response to IAV infection using an 8×8 diallel of the eight inbred founder strains of the Collaborative Cross (CC). Expanding on a prior statistical framework for modeling treatment response in diallels, we explore how a range of heritable effects modify acute host response to IAV through 4 days post-infection...
November 29, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178863/estimating-disease-burden-of-a-potential-a-h7n9-pandemic-influenza-outbreak-in-the-united-states
#15
Walter Silva, Tapas K Das, Ricardo Izurieta
BACKGROUND: Since spring 2013, periodic emergence of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China has heightened the concern for a possible pandemic outbreak among humans, though it is believed that the virus is not yet human-to-human transmittable. Till June 2017, A(H7N9) has resulted in 1533 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infections causing 592 deaths. The aim of this paper is to present disease burden estimates (measured by infection attack rates (IAR) and number of deaths) in the event of a possible pandemic outbreak caused by human-to-human transmission capability acquired by A(H7N9) virus...
November 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176589/australia-s-influenza-pandemic-preparedness-plans-an-analysis
#16
Ralf Itzwerth, Aye Moa, C Raina MacIntyre
We analysed Australian plans issued by the public sector and current at the time of the last human pandemic in 2009. They came from various levels of governance, and offered guidance in key domains. Using 13 established criteria, we rated 10 plans (national, state, and territorial) for their usefulness to guide health and medical intervention, business continuity, and crisis communication, plus consideration of at-risk populations. The intended end-user of most plans was not clear, whether hospital manager, health worker, or policy maker...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176564/avian-influenza-h5n6-viruses-exhibit-differing-pathogenicities-and-transmissibilities-in-mammals
#17
Zongzheng Zhao, Zhendong Guo, Chunmao Zhang, Lina Liu, Ligong Chen, Cheng Zhang, Zhongyi Wang, Yingying Fu, Jianming Li, Huabin Shao, Qingping Luo, Jun Qian, Linna Liu
Since 2013, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses have emerged in poultry and caused sporadic infections in humans, increasing global concerns regarding their potential as human pandemic threats. Here, we characterized the receptor-binding specificities, pathogenicities and transmissibilities of three H5N6 viruses isolated from poultry in China. The surface genes hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) were closely related to the human-originating strain A/Changsha/1/2014 (H5N6). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the HA genes were clustered in the 2...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172967/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-italian-web-pages-mentioning-squalene-based-influenza-vaccine-adjuvants-reveals-a-high-prevalence-of-misinformation
#18
Donatella Panatto, Daniela Amicizia, Lucia Arata, Piero Luigi Lai, Roberto Gasparini
Squalene-based adjuvants have been included in influenza vaccines since 1997. Despite several advantages of adjuvanted seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines, laypeople's perception of such formulations may be hesitant or even negative under certain circumstances. Moreover, in Italian, the term "squalene" has the same root as such common words as "shark" (squalo), "squalid" and "squalidness" that tend to have negative connotations. This study aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a representative sample of Italian web pages mentioning squalene-based adjuvants used in influenza vaccines...
November 27, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169772/seasonal-and-pandemic-influenza-global-fatigue-versus-global-preparedness
#19
Judith A Gilbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167343/ubiquitination-of-the-cytoplasmic-domain-of-influenza-a-virus-m2-protein-is-crucial-for-production-of-infectious-virus-particles
#20
Wen-Chi Su, Wen-Ya Yu, Shih-Han Huang, Michael M C Lai
Virus replication is mediated by interactions between virus and host. Here, we demonstrate that influenza A virus membrane protein 2 (M2) can be ubiquitinated. The lysine residue at position 78, which is located in the cytoplasmic domain of M2, is essential for M2 ubiquitination. An M2-K78R (Lys78→Arg78) mutant, which produces ubiquitination-deficient M2, showed a severe defect in production of infectious virus particles. M2-K78R mutant progeny contained more HA proteins, less viral RNAs and less internal viral proteins, including M1 and NP, than the wild-type virus...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
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