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Influenza Pandemic

Xian Lin, Shiman Yu, Kelei Guo, Xin Sun, Haiming Yi, Meilin Jin
Reassortment is a key driving force of the evolution and host adaptation of the influenza virus. A(H1N1)pdm2009 (pdm09), a novel H1N1 influenza viral subtype, caused a pandemic in 2009. The strain was established in pig herds and cocirculated with the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. The coexistence of pdm09 with H5N1 raises concerns that reassortment may cause the development of novel viral strains with unpredictable virulence. Given that the viral polymerase subunit PB2 is a determinant of host range and pathogenicity, and that the substantial amino acid differences in PB2 between pdm09 and H5N1, including positions 590/591 and 271, which are shown to play key roles in enhanced polymerase activity in mammalian host cells, we generated a reassortant virus containing PB2 derived from a pdm09 (A/Liaoning/1/2009, LN/09) to investigate if pdm09-derived PB2 can function in a heterologous avian virus isolate as an adaptive strategy, with H5N1 (A/duck/Hubei/hangmei01/2006, HM/06) as the backbone...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adrian J Reber, Nedzad Music, Jin Hyang Kim, Shane Gansebom, Jufu Chen, Ian York
Influenza virus causes widespread, yearly epidemics by accumulating surface protein mutations to escape neutralizing antibodies established from prior exposure. In contrast to antibody epitopes, T cell mediated immunity targets influenza epitopes that are more highly conserved and have potential for cross-protection. The extent of T cell cross-reactivity between a diverse array of contemporary and historical influenza strains was investigated in ferrets challenged with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza or the seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Perth/16/2009...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carolien E van de Sandt, Kyung A Sagong, Mark R Pronk, Theo M Bestebroer, Monique I Spronken, Marion P G Koopmans, Ron A M Fouchier, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Extra-epitopic amino acid residues affect recognition of human influenza A viruses (IAVs) by CD8+ T-lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for the highly conserved HLA-A*0201 restricted M158-66 epitope located in the matrix 1 (M1) protein. These residues are absent in the M1 protein of the 2009-pandemic IAV (H1N1pdm09). Consequently, stimulation with M1 protein of H1N1pdm09 IAV resulted in stronger activation and lytic activity of M158-66-specific CTLs than stimulation with seasonal H3N2 IAVs. During more than six years of circulation in the human population, descendants of the H1N1pdm09 virus had accumulated four other amino acid substitutions...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Isabel A Lüthy, Viviana Ritacco, Isabel N Kantor
The "Spanish" flu pandemic, which occurred a century ago, is considered the most devastating in human history. An estimated one third of world population fell ill with flu and more than 2.5% of them died. The course of the epidemic had two main waves (1918 and 1919) and showed an unusual W-shaped morbidity/mortality distribution. Death was not a direct outcome of flu itself but rather a consequence of secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia, for which antibiotics had not yet been discovered. Pre-existing pulmonary tuberculosis was also accountable for increased flu death rates during the pandemic...
2018: Medicina
Vicki Stover Hertzberg, Yuke A Wang, Lisa K Elon, Douglas W Lowery-North
OBJECTIVESThe risk of cross infection in a busy emergency department (ED) is a serious public health concern, especially in times of pandemic threats. We simulated cross infections due to respiratory diseases spread by large droplets using empirical data on contacts (ie, close-proximity interactions of ≤1m) in an ED to quantify risks due to contact and to examine factors with differential risks associated with them.DESIGNProspective study.PARTICIPANTSHealth workers (HCWs) and patients.SETTINGA busy ED.METHODSData on contacts between participants were collected over 6 months by observing two 12-hour shifts per week using a radiofrequency identification proximity detection system...
April 16, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
J J Lee, C Bankhead, M Smith, A A Kousoulis, C C Butler, K Wang
Primary care clinicians have a central role in managing influenza/influenza-like illness (ILI) during influenza pandemics. This study identifies risk factors for influenza-related complications in children presenting with influenza/ILI in primary care. We conducted a cohort study using routinely collected linked data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink on children aged 17 years and younger who presented with influenza/ILI during the 2009/10 pandemic. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for potential risk factors in relation to influenza-related complications, complications requiring intervention, pneumonia, all-cause hospitalisation and hospitalisation due to influenza-related complications within 30 days of presentation...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Ka Chun Chong, Benny Chung Ying Zee, Maggie Haitian Wang
BACKGROUND: In an influenza pandemic, arrival times of cases are a proxy of the epidemic size and disease transmissibility. Because of intense surveillance of travelers from infected countries, detection is more rapid and complete than on local surveillance. Travel information can provide a more reliable estimation of transmission parameters. METHOD: We developed an Approximate Bayesian Computation algorithm to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0 ) in addition to the reporting rate and unobserved epidemic start time, utilizing travel, and routine surveillance data in an influenza pandemic...
April 10, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Damien Ferhadian, Maud Contrant, Anne Printz-Schweigert, Redmond P Smyth, Jean-Christophe Paillart, Roland Marquet
Influenza A viruses (IAV) are responsible for recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional devastating pandemics in humans and animals. They belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family and their genome consists of eight (-) sense viral RNA (vRNA) segments of different lengths coding for at least 11 viral proteins. A heterotrimeric polymerase complex is bound to the promoter consisting of the 13 5'-terminal and 12 3'-terminal nucleotides of each vRNA, while internal parts of the vRNAs are associated with multiple copies of the viral nucleoprotein (NP), thus forming ribonucleoproteins (vRNP)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Clement Meseko, Anja Globig, Jeremiah Ijomanta, Tony Joannis, Chika Nwosuh, David Shamaki, Timm Harder, Donata Hoffman, Anne Pohlmann, Martin Beer, Thomas Mettenleiter, Elke Starick
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) potentially transmit to swine as shown by experiments, where further reassortment may contribute to the generation of pandemic strains. Associated risks of AIV inter-species transmission are greater in countries like Nigeria with recurrent epidemics of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) in poultry and significant pig population. Analysis of 129 tracheal swab specimens collected from apparently healthy pigs at slaughterhouse during presence of HPAI virus H5N1 in poultry in Nigeria for influenza A by RT-qPCR yielded 43 positive samples...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paul Kim, Yo Han Jang, Soon Bin Kwon, Chung Min Lee, Gyoonhee Han, Baik Lin Seong
Glycosylation of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the influenza provides crucial means for immune evasion and viral fitness in a host population. However, the time-dependent dynamics of each glycosylation sites have not been addressed. We monitored the potential N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites of over 10,000 HA and NA of H1N1 subtype isolated from human, avian, and swine species over the past century. The results show a shift in glycosylation sites as a hallmark of 1918 and 2009 pandemics, and also for the 1976 "abortive pandemic"...
April 7, 2018: Viruses
Ava Marie S Conlin, Anna T Bukowinski, Jordan A Levine, Zeina G Khodr, Navjot Kaur, Susan C Farrish, Carter J Sevick
OBJECTIVE: To update a previous assessment of birth defects among infants born to active duty U.S. military mothers who received the 2009-2010 pandemic H1N1 vaccine, in comparison to the 2008-2009 seasonal influenza vaccine, during pregnancy. Here, we updated the previous comparative analyses with a more refined definition for birth defects using an additional year of follow-up data from both inpatient and outpatient medical encounters. METHODS: The study population included 15,510 live born infants born to active duty mothers vaccinated during pregnancy with either the 2009-2010 pandemic H1N1 vaccine (n = 9033) or the 2008-2009 seasonal influenza vaccine (n = 6477)...
April 3, 2018: Vaccine
Yao-Qing Chen, Teddy John Wohlbold, Nai-Ying Zheng, Min Huang, Yunping Huang, Karlynn E Neu, Jiwon Lee, Hongquan Wan, Karla Thatcher Rojas, Ericka Kirkpatrick, Carole Henry, Anna-Karin E Palm, Christopher T Stamper, Linda Yu-Ling Lan, David J Topham, John Treanor, Jens Wrammert, Rafi Ahmed, Maryna C Eichelberger, George Georgiou, Florian Krammer, Patrick C Wilson
Antibodies to the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins are the major mediators of protection against influenza virus infection. Here, we report that current influenza vaccines poorly display key NA epitopes and rarely induce NA-reactive B cells. Conversely, influenza virus infection induces NA-reactive B cells at a frequency that approaches (H1N1) or exceeds (H3N2) that of HA-reactive B cells. NA-reactive antibodies display broad binding activity spanning the entire history of influenza A virus circulation in humans, including the original pandemic strains of both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes...
April 5, 2018: Cell
Isabel Pagani, Andrea Di Pietro, Alexandra Oteiza, Michela Ghitti, Nadir Mechti, Nadia Naffakh, Elisa Vicenzi
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can cause zoonotic infections with pandemic potential when most of the human population is immunologically naive. After a pandemic, IAVs evolve to become seasonal in the human host by acquiring adaptive mutations. We have previously reported that the interferon (IFN)-inducible tripartite motif 22 (TRIM22) protein restricts the replication of seasonal IAVs by direct interaction with the viral nucleoprotein (NP), leading to its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here we show that, in contrast to seasonal H1N1 IAVs, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain as well as H1N1 strains from the 1930s are resistant to TRIM22 restriction...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
Zhen Ding, Gengyun Sun, Zhongming Zhu
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses (IAV) can cause pandemics and are big threats to human health. Inflammation is the main pathological process in the lungs after IAV infection. We aimed at investigating whether hesperidin, a well-known anti-inflammatory material, could be effective in improving IAV-induced lung injury. METHODS: We generated a rat model using H1N1 virus infection, and intraperitoneally injected with different doses of hesperidin for 5 days. Pulmonary function was analyzed...
April 6, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Henning Petersen, Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed A Tantawy, Azeem A Iqbal, Donata Hoffmann, Aravind Tallam, Balachandar Selvakumar, Frank Pessler, Martin Beer, Silke Rautenschlein, Stephan Pleschka
The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) has widely spread and is circulating in humans and swine together with other human and avian IAVs. This fact raises the concern that reassortment between H1N1pdm09 and co-circulating viruses might lead to an increase of H1N1pdm09 pathogenicity in different susceptible host species. Herein, we explored the potential of different NS segments to enhance the replication dynamics, pathogenicity and host range of H1N1pdm09 strain A/Giessen/06/09 (Gi-wt)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gerardo Chowell, Patrick Sullivan, Richard Rothenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Ana Rita de Toledo-Piza, Maria Isabel de Oliveira, Giuseppina Negri, Ronaldo Zucatelli Mendonça, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo
Influenza viruses cause worldwide outbreaks and pandemics in humans and animals every year with considerable morbidity and mortality. The molecular diversity of secondary metabolites extracted from mollusks is a good alternative for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds with unique structures and diverse biological activities. Phyllocaulis boraceiensis is a hermaphroditic slug that exudes mucus, in which was detected hydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids that exhibited potent antiviral activity against measles virus...
April 3, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Ruyi Gao, Min Gu, Kaituo Liu, Qunhui Li, Juan Li, Liwei Shi, Xiuli Li, Xiaoquan Wang, Jiao Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
Most clade H5NX subtype avian influenza viruses possess a T160A amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein that has been shown to affect the receptor binding properties of a clade 2.3.4 H5N1 virus. However, the effect of this single site mutation on the HA backbone of clade H5NX viruses remains unclear. In this study, two H5N6 field isolates possessing HA-160A with dual α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptor binding properties (Y6 virus) and HA-160T with α-2,3 receptor binding affinity (HX virus), respectively, were selected to generate HA mutants containing all of the internal genes from A/PR8/H1N1 virus for comparative investigation...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Francesco Berlanda Scorza, Norbert Pardi
RNA-based immunization strategies have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional vaccine approaches. A substantial body of published work demonstrates that RNA vaccines can elicit potent, protective immune responses against various pathogens. Consonant with its huge impact on public health, influenza virus is one of the best studied targets of RNA vaccine research. Currently licensed influenza vaccines show variable levels of protection against seasonal influenza virus strains but are inadequate against drifted and pandemic viruses...
April 1, 2018: Vaccines
Chenjun Bai, Zhangwei Lu, Hua Jiang, Zihua Yang, Xuemei Liu, Hongmei Ding, Hui Li, Jie Dong, Aixue Huang, Tao Fang, Yongqiang Jiang, Lingling Zhu, Xinhui Lou, Shaohua Li, Ningsheng Shao
The type A influenza viruses are the most virulent and variable human pathogens with epidemic or even pandemic threat. The development of sensitive, specific and safe field testing methods is in particular need and quite challenging. We report here the selection and practical utilization of the inactivated influenza virus-specific aptamers. The DNA aptamers against inactivated intact H1N1 virus particles were identified through the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) procedure...
March 22, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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