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Influenza Pandemic

Ee Hui Goh, Lili Jiang, Jung Pu Hsu, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Wei Yen Lim, Meng Chee Phoon, Yee Sin Leo, Ian G Barr, Vincent Tak Kwong Chow, Vernon J Lee, Cui Lin, Raymond Lin, Sapna P Sadarangani, Barnaby Young, Mark I-Cheng Chen
Background: After 2009, pandemic influenza A(H1N1) [A(H1N1)pdm09] cocirculated with A(H3N2) and B in Singapore. Methods: A cohort of 760 participants contributed demographic data and up to 4 blood samples each from October 2009 to September 2010. We compared epidemiology of the 3 subtypes and investigated evidence for heterotypic immunity through multivariable logistic regression using a generalized estimating equation. To examine age-related differences in severity between subtypes, we used LOESS (locally weighted smoothing) plots of hospitalization to infection ratios and explored birth cohort effects referencing the pandemic years (1957; 1968)...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Susannah Paul, Osaro Mgbere, Raouf Arafat, Biru Yang, Eunice Santos
Objective The objective was to forecast and validate prediction estimates of influenza activity in Houston, TX using four years of historical influenza-like illness (ILI) from three surveillance data capture mechanisms. Background Using novel surveillance methods and historical data to estimate future trends of influenza-like illness can lead to early detection of influenza activity increases and decreases. Anticipating surges gives public health professionals more time to prepare and increase prevention efforts...
2017: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
Sara Ghaderi, Ketil Størdal, Nina Gunnes, Inger J Bakken, Per Magnus, Siri E Håberg
Background: Influenza is known to be associated with various neurological complications, including encephalitis. We conducted a registry-based study to assess the risk of encephalitis after influenza and A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Methods: Data from Norwegian national health registries during 2008-14 were linked using the unique personal identifiers given to all Norwegian residents ( N  = 5 210 519). Cox proportional-hazard models with time-varying variables were fitted to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of encephalitis after influenza and A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine, using the risk windows 0-7, 0-14, 0-30, 0-60, 0-90 and 0-180 days...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
Ahmed O Hassan, Omar Amen, Ekramy E Sayedahmed, Sai V Vemula, Samuel Amoah, Ian York, Shivaprakash Gangappa, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Suresh K Mittal
The emergence of H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza virus subtypes in humans reveals their pandemic potential. Although human-to-human transmission has been limited, the genetic reassortment of the avian and human/porcine influenza viruses or mutations in some of the genes resulting in virus replication in the upper respiratory tract of humans could generate novel pandemic influenza viruses. Current vaccines do not provide cross protection against antigenically distinct strains of the H5, H7, and H9 influenza viruses...
2017: PloS One
Jasmina Vasilijevic, Noelia Zamarreño, Juan Carlos Oliveros, Ariel Rodriguez-Frandsen, Guillermo Gómez, Guadalupe Rodriguez, Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz, Sonia Rey, Isabel Barba, Francisco Pozo, Inmaculada Casas, Amelia Nieto, Ana Falcón
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection can be severe or even lethal in toddlers, the elderly and patients with certain medical conditions. Infection of apparently healthy individuals nonetheless accounts for many severe disease cases and deaths, suggesting that viruses with increased pathogenicity co-circulate with pandemic or epidemic viruses. Looking for potential virulence factors, we have identified a polymerase PA D529N mutation detected in a fatal IAV case, whose introduction into two different recombinant virus backbones, led to reduced defective viral genomes (DVGs) production...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Golubinka Bosevska, Vladimir Mikik, Irena Kondova Topuzovska, Nikola Panovski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to comprehend results of the influenza lab surveillance system in the Republic of Macedonia after the 2009 pandemic and to determine the main characteristics of four consecutive epidemic seasons (from 2010/2011 until 2013/2014). METHODS: As part of the universal surveillance system, nasal and throat specimens were collected from patients. After extraction of RNA, the CDC real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of influenza types and subtypes were performed...
September 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Marek L Grabowski, Bożena Kosińska, Józef P Knap, Lidia B Brydak
The Spanish influenza pandemic in the years 1918-1920 was the largest and most tragic pandemic of infectious disease in human history. Deciphering the structure of the virus (including the determination of complete genome sequence) of this pandemic and the phylogenetic analysis and explanation of its virulence became possible thanks to molecular genetic analysis of the virus isolated from the fixed and frozen lung tissue of influenza victims who died in 1918 and were buried frozen in Alaska and Spitsbergen...
October 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Don Changsom, Li Jiang, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Rungrueng Kitphati, Phisanu Pooruk, Prasert Auewarakul, Pilaipan Puthavathana
The kinetics, longevity and breadth of antibodies to influenza neuraminidase (NA) in archival, sequential serum/plasma samples from influenza A virus (IAV) H5N1 survivors, and from patients infected with the 2009 pandemic IAV (H1N1) virus were determined using an enzyme linked lectin based assay. The reverse genetics-derived H4N1 viruses harboring an hemagglutinin (HA) segment from A/duck/Shan Tou/461/2000 (H4N9) and an NA segment derived from either IAV H5N1 clade 1, IAV H5N1 clade 2.3.4, the 2009 pandemic IAV (H1N1) (H1Npdm) or A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus were used as the test antigens...
October 11, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Pere Godoy, Jesús Castilla, Núria Soldevila, José María Mayoral, Diana Toledo, Vicente Martín, Jenaro Astray, Mikel Egurrola, Maria Morales-Suarez-Varela, Angela Domínguez
Background: Through its effects on the immune system, smoking may facilitate influenza virus infection, its severity and its most frequent complications. The objective was to investigate the smoking history as a risk factor for influenza hospitalization and influenza vaccine effectiveness in elderly smokers/ex-smokers and non-smokers. Methods: We carried out a multicenter case-control study in the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 influenza seasons. Cases aged ≥65 years and age-, sex-matched controls were selected from 20 Spanish hospitals...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Yongqiang Deng, Chunlin Li, Jianfeng Han, Yingfen Wen, Jian Wang, Wenxing Hong, Xiaofeng Li, Zhongyu Liu, Qing Ye, Jing Li, Changshuai Zhou, Lei Yu, Chengfeng Qin, Fuchun Zhang, Tao Jiang
Pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses continue to pose a public health concern. The H7N9 virus has caused five outbreak waves of human infections in China since 2013. In the present study, a novel H7N9 strain (A/Guangdong/8H324/2017) was isolated from a female patient with severe respiratory illness during the fifth wave of the 2017 H7N9 epidemic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H7N9 viruses collected during the fifth wave belong to two different lineages: the Pearl River Delta lineage and the Yangtze River Delta lineage...
October 9, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
Zenglei Hu, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
Severe H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) infections in humans have public health authorities around the world on high alert for the potential development of a human influenza pandemic. Currently, the newly-emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) virus poses a dual challenge for public health and poultry industry. Numerous H7N9 vaccine candidates have been generated using various platforms. Immunization trials in animals and humans showed that H7N9 vaccines are apparently poorly immunogenic because they induced low hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing antibody titers...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Philip N Britton, Christopher C Blyth, Kristine Macartney, Russell C Dale, Jean Li-Kim-Moy, Gulam Khandaker, Nigel W Crawford, Helen Marshall, Julia E Clark, Elizabeth J Elliott, Robert Booy, Allen C Cheng, Cheryl A Jones
Background: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza-associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern Hemisphere. Methods: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from 2 studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Shi-Yu Huang, Wen-Chi Huang, Yi-Chun Chen, Ching-Yen Tsai, Ing-Kit Lee
We conducted a retrospective study to compare clinical and laboratory findings between 1) severe influenza A and mild influenza A and 2) pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pdm09 A/H1) and seasonal H3N2 (A/H3) from 2009 to 2010. A total of 526 (mean age, 13.6 years; 447 pdm09 A/H1, 79 seasonal A/H3) patients were included, 41 (7.8%) with severe influenza (mean age, 28.1 years; 26 pdm09 A/H1, 15 seasonal A/H3). Influenza-associated complications were pneumonia (75.6%), meningoencephalitis (14.6%), acute kidney injury (14.6%), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (12...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mizuho Suzuki, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Yoshihiro Sakoda
H2N2 influenza virus caused a pandemic starting in 1957 but has not been detected in humans since 1968. Thus, most people are immunologically naive to viruses of the H2 subtype. In contrast, H2 influenza viruses are continually isolated from wild birds, and H2N3 viruses were isolated from pigs in 2006. H2 influenza viruses could cause a pandemic if re-introduced into humans. In the present study, a vaccine against H2 influenza was prepared as an effective control measure against a future human pandemic. A/duck/Hokkaido/162/2013 (H2N1), which showed broad antigenic cross-reactivity, was selected from the candidate H2 influenza viruses recently isolated from wild birds in Asian countries...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Ellen B Fragaszy, Charlotte Warren-Gash, Peter J White, Maria Zambon, W John Edmunds, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Estimates of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work/school absences for influenza are typically based on medically-attended cases or those meeting influenza-like-illness (ILI) case definitions, and thus biased towards severe disease. Although community influenza cases are more common, estimates of their effects on HRQoL and absences are limited. OBJECTIVES: To measure Quality-Adjusted Life Days and Years (QALDs and QALYs) lost and work/school absences among community cases of acute respiratory infections (ARI), ILI and influenza A and B and to estimate community burden of QALY loss and absences from influenza...
October 9, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Peifang Sun, Nancy F Crum-Cianflone, Gabriel Defang, Maya Williams, Anuradha Ganesan, Brian K Agan, Tahaniyat Lalani, Timothy Whitman, Carolyn Brandt, Timothy H Burgess
BACKGROUND: This study was to compare B and T memory cells elicited by a single dose monovalent 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (strain A/California/7/2009 H1N1) in HIV(+) and HIV(-) groups, and to analyze the impact of the prior seasonal vaccines to the immunogenicity of this vaccine. METHODS: Blood samples were collected before vaccination (day 0) and at days 28 and 180. Participants were categorized into HIV(-)/LAIV, HIV(-)/TIV and HIV(+)/TIV subgroups according to the trivalent live-attenuated or inactivated (LAIV or TIV) seasonal influenza vaccines they received previously...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dennis Km Ip, Eric Hy Lau, Hau Chi So, Jingyi Xiao, Chi Kin Lam, Vicky J Fang, Yat Hung Tam, Gabriel M Leung, Benjamin J Cowling
BACKGROUND: School-aged children have the highest incidence of respiratory virus infections each year, and transmission of respiratory viruses such as influenza virus can be a major concern in school settings. School absenteeism data have been employed as a component of influenza surveillance systems in some locations. Data timeliness and system acceptance remain as key determinants affecting the usefulness of a prospective surveillance system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing an electronic school absenteeism surveillance system using smart card-based technology for influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance among a representative network of local primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong...
October 6, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Sophia Ng, Saira Saborio, Guillermina Kuan, Lionel Gresh, Nery Sanchez, Sergio Ojeda, Eva Harris, Angel Balmaseda, Aubree Gordon
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the pandemic A(H1N1) virus has been changing as population immunity continues to co-evolve with the virus. The impact of genetic changes in the virus on human's susceptibility is an outstanding important question in vaccine design. In a community-based study, we aim to (1) determine the genetic characteristics of 2009-2015 pandemic H1N1 viruses, (2) assess antibody response following natural infections and (3) assess the correlation of A/California/07/09 antibody titers to protection in the 2013 and 2015 epidemics...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
Bin Zhou, Yi-Mo Deng, John R Barnes, October Sessions, Tsui-Wen Chou, Malania Wilson, Thomas J Stark, Michelle Volk, Natalie Spirason, Rebecca A Halpin, Uma Sangumathi Kamaraj, Tao Ding, Timothy B Stockwell, Mirella Salvatore, Elodie Ghedin, Ian G Barr, David E Wentworth
Influenza A and B viruses are the causative agents of annual influenza epidemics that can be severe; influenza A viruses intermittently cause pandemics. Sequence information from influenza genomes is instrumental in determining mechanisms underpinning antigenic evolution and antiviral resistance. However, due to sequence diversity and the dynamics of influenza evolution, rapid and high-throughput sequencing of influenza viruses remains a challenge. We developed a single-reaction FluA/B Multiplex RT-PCR method that amplifies the most critical genomic segments (HA, NA, and M) of seasonal influenza A and B viruses for next-generation sequencing, regardless of viral types, subtypes, or lineages...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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