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Influenza Pandemic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437291/much-ado-about-flu-a-mixed-methods-study-of-parental-perceptions-trust-and-information-seeking-in-a-pandemic
#1
Catherine L King, Maria Y K Chow, Kerrie E Wiley, Julie Leask
BACKGROUND: Effective public health messaging is essential in both the planning phase and duration of a pandemic. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to gain an understanding of parental information seeking, trusted sources and needs in relation to pandemic influenza A 2009 (pH1N1) to inform future policy planning and resource development. PATIENTS/METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study; parents from 16 childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, were surveyed between 16 November and 9 December 2009 and interviews were conducted with participants from six childcare centres between June 2009 and May 2011...
February 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434600/negative-effect-of-age-but-not-of-latent-cytomegalovirus-infection-on-the-antibody-response-to-a-novel-influenza-vaccine-strain-in-healthy-adults
#2
Sara P H van den Berg, Albert Wong, Marion Hendriks, Ronald H J Jacobi, Debbie van Baarle, Josine van Beek
Older adults are more vulnerable to influenza virus infection and at higher risk for severe complications and influenza-related death compared to younger adults. Unfortunately, influenza vaccine responses tend to be impaired in older adults due to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is assumed to enhance age-associated deleterious changes of the immune system. Although lower responses to influenza vaccination were reported in CMV-seropositive compared to CMV-seronegative adults and elderly, beneficial effects of CMV infection were observed as well...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433792/clinical-characteristics-of-influenza-virus-induced-lower-respiratory-infection-during-the-2015-to-2016-season
#3
Kazuhiro Uda, Kensuke Shoji, Chitose Koyama-Wakai, Munehiro Furuichi, Noriyasu Iwase, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Shinji Watanabe, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections often manifest severe respiratory symptoms, particularly in patients with a past history of allergic disease. Most of these findings were reported during the 2009 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to detail the clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection (LRI) during the A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant 2015-2016 season. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of influenza-induced LRI cases in children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425250/25-hydroxyvitamin-d-influenza-vaccine-response-and-healthcare-encounters-among-a-young-adult-population
#4
Rachel U Lee, Seung Hyun Won, Christian Hansen, Nancy F Crum-Cianflone
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality; the pandemic in 2009-2010 was a reminder of the potential for novel strains and antigenic changes. Studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency may be associated with poor vaccine immunogenicity, therefore we sought to determine if there was a correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and influenza vaccine response. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted among young, healthy military members to evaluate the association between total 25(OH)D levels with post influenza vaccination antibody titers and healthcare encounters during the 2009-10 influenza season...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425232/identification-and-characterization-of-influenza-a-viruses-in-selected-domestic-animals-in-kenya-2010-2012
#5
Peninah Munyua, Clayton Onyango, Lydia Mwasi, Lilian W Waiboci, Geoffrey Arunga, Barry Fields, Joshua A Mott, Carol J Cardona, Philip Kitala, Philip N Nyaga, M Kariuki Njenga
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus subtypes in non-human hosts have not been characterized in Kenya. We carried out influenza surveillance in selected domestic animals and compared the virus isolates with isolates obtained in humans during the same period. METHODS: We collected nasal swabs from pigs, dogs and cats; oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from poultry; and blood samples from all animals between 2010 and 2012. A standardized questionnaire was administered to farmers and traders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421321/2017-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#6
REVIEW
Mike Catton, Glenda Gray, Diane Griffin, Hideki Hasegawa, Stephen Kent, Jason Mackenzie, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Linfa Wang
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 to strengthen research and responses to emerging viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemics. There are now 40 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. The 2017 meeting was held from September 25-27 in Melbourne, Australia, and was hosted by the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity and the Institut Pasteur. This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including the recent Zika epidemic, infections by human papillomavirus, influenza, HIV, hepatitis C, HTLV-1, and chikungunya viruses, and new and emerging viruses in the Australasia region...
February 5, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420667/a-comparison-of-rsv-and-influenza-in-vitro-kinetic-parameters-reveals-differences-in-infecting-time
#7
Gilberto Gonzàlez-Parra, Filip De Ridder, Dymphy Huntjens, Dirk Roymans, Gabriela Ispas, Hana M Dobrovolny
Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause acute infections of the respiratory tract. Since the viruses both cause illnesses with similar symptoms, researchers often try to apply knowledge gleaned from study of one virus to the other virus. This can be an effective and efficient strategy for understanding viral dynamics or developing treatment strategies, but only if we have a full understanding of the similarities and differences between the two viruses. This study used mathematical modeling to quantitatively compare the viral kinetics of in vitro RSV and influenza virus infections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416543/neutralizing-antibodies-induced-by-gene-based-hydrodynamic-injection-have-a-therapeutic-effect-in-lethal-influenza-infection
#8
Tatsuya Yamazaki, Maria Nagashima, Daisuke Ninomiya, Akira Ainai, Akira Fujimoto, Isao Ichimonji, Hidekazu Takagi, Naoko Morita, Kenta Murotani, Hideki Hasegawa, Joe Chiba, Sachiko Akashi-Takamura
The influenza virus causes annual epidemics and occasional pandemics and is thus a major public health problem. Development of vaccines and antiviral drugs is essential for controlling influenza virus infection. We previously demonstrated the use of vectored immune-prophylaxis against influenza virus infection. We generated a plasmid encoding neutralizing IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against A/PR/8/34 influenza virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA). We then performed electroporation of the plasmid encoding neutralizing mAbs (EP) in mice muscles and succeeded in inducing the expression of neutralizing antibodies in mouse serum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413644/app-to-model-pandemic-influenza
#9
Talha Khan Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406467/subtype-specific-clinical-presentation-medical-treatment-and-family-impact-of-influenza-in-children-one-to-five-years-of-age-treated-in-outpatient-practices-in-germany-during-three-post-pandemic-years-2013-2015
#10
Andrea Streng, Christiane Prifert, Benedikt Weissbrich, Andreas Sauerbrei, Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott, Johannes G Liese
BACKGROUND: Limited data on the influenza burden in pediatric outpatients are available, especially regarding direct comparison of the co-circulating (sub)types A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B. METHODS: Children 1-5 years of age, unvaccinated against influenza and presenting with febrile acute respiratory infections (ARI), were enrolled in 33 paediatric practices in Germany from 2013-2015 (January-May). Influenza was confirmed by multiplex PCR from pharyngeal swabs and (sub)typed...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406283/novel-reassortant-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-influenza-a-viruses-in-vietnamese-quail-outbreaks
#11
Hien Dang Thanh, Van Trung Tran, Duc Tan Nguyen, Vu-Khac Hung, Wonyong Kim
Avian influenza A H5N6 virus is a highly contagious infectious agent that affects domestic poultry and humans in South Asian countries. Vietnam may be an evolutionary hotspot for influenza viruses and therefore could serve as a source of pandemic strains. In 2015, two novel reassortant H5N6 influenza viruses designated as A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI01/2015 and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI03/2015 were isolated from dead quails during avian influenza outbreaks in central Vietnam, and the whole genome sequences were analyzed...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403116/pandemic-risk-how-large-are-the-expected-losses
#12
Victoria Y Fan, Dean T Jamison, Lawrence H Summers
There is an unmet need for greater investment in preparedness against major epidemics and pandemics. The arguments in favour of such investment have been largely based on estimates of the losses in national incomes that might occur as the result of a major epidemic or pandemic. Recently, we extended the estimate to include the valuation of the lives lost as a result of pandemic-related increases in mortality. This produced markedly higher estimates of the full value of loss that might occur as the result of a future pandemic...
February 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403115/revision-of-clinical-case-definitions-influenza-like-illness-and-severe-acute-respiratory-infection
#13
Julia Fitzner, Saba Qasmieh, Anthony Wayne Mounts, Burmaa Alexander, Terry Besselaar, Sylvie Briand, Caroline Brown, Seth Clark, Erica Dueger, Diane Gross, Siri Hauge, Siddhivinayak Hirve, Pernille Jorgensen, Mark A Katz, Ali Mafi, Mamunur Malik, Margaret McCarron, Tamara Meerhoff, Yuichiro Mori, Joshua Mott, Maria Teresa da Costa Olivera, Justin R Ortiz, Rakhee Palekar, Helena Rebelo-de-Andrade, Loes Soetens, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Wenqing Zhang, Katelijn Vandemaele
The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnostic testing. Optimal case definitions also need to have a balance of sensitivity and specificity that reflects their intended use. After the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a technical consultation on global influenza surveillance...
February 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399575/challenges-of-influenza-a-viruses-in-humans-and-animals-and-current-animal-vaccines-as-an-effective-control-measure
#14
REVIEW
Sung J Yoo, Taeyong Kwon, Young S Lyoo
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are genetically diverse and variable pathogens that share various hosts including human, swine, and domestic poultry. Interspecies and intercontinental viral spreads make the ecology of IAV more complex. Beside endemic IAV infections, human has been exposed to pandemic and zoonotic threats from avian and swine influenza viruses. Animal health also has been threatened by high pathogenic avian influenza viruses (in domestic poultry) and reverse zoonosis (in swine). Considering its dynamic interplay between species, prevention and control against IAV should be conducted effectively in both humans and animal sectors...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396684/genetic-characterization-and-diversity-of-circulating-influenza-a-h1n1pdm09-viruses-isolated-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia-between-2014-and-2015
#15
Anwar M Hashem, Esam I Azhar, Sarah Shalhoub, Turki S Abujamel, Norah A Othman, Abdulwahab B Al Zahrani, Hanan M Abdullah, Maha M Al-Alawi, Anees A Sindi
The emerged influenza A/H1N1pdm09 viruses have replaced the previously circulating seasonal H1N1 viruses. The close antigenic properties of these viruses to the 1918 H1N1 pandemic viruses and their post-pandemic evolution pattern could further enhance their adaptation and pathogenicity in humans representing a major public health threat. Given that data on the dynamics and evolution of these viruses in Saudi Arabia is sparse we investigated the genetic diversity of circulating influenza A/H1N1pdm09 viruses from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, by analyzing 39 full genomes from isolates obtained between 2014-2015, from patients with varying symptoms...
February 2, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396418/structural-insights-into-the-design-of-novel-anti-influenza-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Nicholas C Wu, Ian A Wilson
A limited arsenal of therapies is currently available to tackle the emergence of a future influenza pandemic or even to deal effectively with the continual outbreaks of seasonal influenza. However, recent findings hold great promise for the design of novel vaccines and therapeutics, including the possibility of more universal treatments. Structural biology has been a major contributor to those advances, in particular through the many studies on influenza hemagglutinin (HA), the major surface antigen. HA's primary function is to enable the virus to enter host cells, and structural work has revealed the various HA conformational forms generated during the entry process...
February 2, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395518/influenza-b-virus-reverse-genetic-backbones-with-improved-growth-properties-in-the-eb66%C3%A2-cell-line-as-basis-for-vaccine-seed-virus-generation
#17
Kris M White, Juan Ayllon, Ignacio Mena, Anna Potenski, Florian Krammer, Adolfo García-Sastre
Vaccination remains the best available prophylaxis to prevent influenza virus infections, yet current inadequacies in influenza virus vaccine manufacturing often lead to vaccine shortages at times when the vaccine is most needed, as it was the case during the last influenza virus pandemic. Novel influenza virus vaccine production systems will be crucial to improve public health and safety. Here we report the optimization of influenza B virus growth in the proprietary EB66® cell line, currently in use for human vaccine production...
January 25, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394063/anti-influenza-triterpene-saponins-from-the-bark-of-burkea-africana
#18
Christina E Mair, Ulrike Grienke, Anke Wilhelm, Ernst Urban, Martin Zehl, Michaela Schmidtke, Judith M Rollinger
In an in vitro cytopathic effect inhibition assay with the H3N2 influenza virus A/Hong Kong/68 (HK/68), the bark extract of Burkea africana was found to be a promising antiviral lead with an IC50 value of 5.5 μg/mL without noteworthy cytotoxicity in Madin Darby canine kidney cells. After several chromatographic steps, triterpene saponins of the lupane and oleanane types were identified as the bioactive principles. In total, eight new triterpene saponins (1-8) with four so far undescribed aglycone structures were isolated and characterized via HRESIMS, GC-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388196/vaccines-for-preventing-influenza-in-healthy-adults
#19
REVIEW
Vittorio Demicheli, Tom Jefferson, Eliana Ferroni, Alessandro Rivetti, Carlo Di Pietrantonj
BACKGROUND: The consequences of influenza in adults are mainly time off work. Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended internationally. This is an update of a review published in 2014. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated due to their lack of influence on the review conclusions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (efficacy, effectiveness, and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy adults, including pregnant women...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388195/vaccines-for-preventing-influenza-in-healthy-children
#20
REVIEW
Tom Jefferson, Alessandro Rivetti, Carlo Di Pietrantonj, Vittorio Demicheli
BACKGROUND: The consequences of influenza in children and adults are mainly absenteeism from school and work. However, the risk of complications is greatest in children and people over 65 years of age. This is an update of a review published in 2011. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated because of their lack of influence on the review conclusions...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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