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Influenza Pandemic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453845/effect-of-repeated-vaccination-with-the-same-vaccine-component-against-2009-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-virus
#1
Iván Martínez-Baz, Itziar Casado, Ana Navascués, Jorge Díaz-González, Aitziber Aguinaga, Laura Barrado, Josu Delfrade, Carmen Ezpeleta, Jesús Castilla
Background.: The 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (A[H1N1]pdm09) vaccine component has remained unchanged from 2009. We estimate the effectiveness of current and prior inactivated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination from influenza seasons 2010-2011 to 2015-2016. Methods.: Patients attended with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza. Four periods with continued A(H1N1)pdm09 circulation were included in a test-negative design. Results.: We enrolled 1278 cases and 2343 controls...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449019/the-clear-and-present-danger-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-cpe-in-new-zealand-time-for-a-national-response-plan
#2
Matthew Blakiston, Helen Heffernan, Sally Roberts, Joshua Freeman
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in general poses a threat to the sustainability of modern healthcare, but a particularly urgent and serious threat is posed by a specific group of antibiotic-resistant bacteria known as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). CPE are resistant to nearly all antibiotics and include common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In New Zealand, the incidence of CPE has increased from three isolates in 2012 to 45 in 2016. The current epidemiology of CPE in New Zealand has similarities with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) epidemic in the early 2000s (just before ESBL-PE underwent a non-linear increase in incidence)...
April 28, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448045/fluorescence-based-neuraminidase-inhibition-assay-to-assess-the-susceptibility-of-influenza-viruses-to-the-neuraminidase-inhibitor-class-of-antivirals
#3
Sook-Kwan Leang, Aeron C Hurt
The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the only class of antivirals approved for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza that are effective against currently circulating strains. In addition to their use in treating seasonal influenza, the NA inhibitors have been stockpiled by a number of countries for use in the event of a pandemic. It is therefore important to monitor the susceptibility of circulating influenza viruses to this class of antivirals. There are different types of assays that can be used to assess the susceptibility of influenza viruses to the NA inhibitors, but the enzyme inhibition assays using either a fluorescent substrate or a chemiluminescent substrate are the most widely used and recommended...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446669/salivary-blockade-protects-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-mice-from-lethal-influenza
#4
Karen Ivinson, Georgia Deliyannis, Leanne McNabb, Lara Grollo, Brad Gilbertson, David Jackson, Lorena E Brown
It is possible to model progression of influenza virus from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract in the mouse using viral inoculum delivered in a restricted manner to the nose. In this model, infection with the A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) strain of virus results ultimately in high viral titres in both the trachea and lungs. In contrast, the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) strain causes an infection that is almost entirely limited to the nasal passages. The factors that govern the progression of virus down the respiratory tract are not well understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435679/targeting-the-pro-inflammatory-factor-ccl2-mcp-1-with-bindarit-for-influenza-a-h7n9-treatment
#5
Stefan Wolf, Scott Johnson, Olivia Perwitasari, Suresh Mahalingam, Ralph A Tripp
Influenza A viruses are important human and animal pathogens. Seasonal influenza viruses cause infections every year, and occasionally zoonotic viruses emerge to cause pandemics with significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates. Three cases of laboratory confirmed human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were reported in 2013, and there have been several cases reported across South East Asia, and recently in North America. Most patients experience severe respiratory illness, with mortality rates approaching 40%...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435249/detection-of-influenza-viruses-by-coupling-multiplex-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-with-cascade-invasive-reaction-using-nanoparticles-as-a-sensor
#6
Yiyue Ge, Qiang Zhou, Kangchen Zhao, Ying Chi, Bin Liu, Xiaoyan Min, Zhiyang Shi, Bingjie Zou, Lunbiao Cui
Influenza virus infections represent a worldwide public health and economic problem due to the significant morbidity and mortality caused by seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Sensitive and convenient methodologies for detection of influenza viruses are essential for further disease control. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is the most commonly used method of nucleic acid isothermal amplification. However, with regard to multiplex LAMP, differentiating the ladder-like LAMP products derived from multiple targets is still challenging today...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431426/anesthesiologists-and-disaster-medicine-a-needs-assessment-for-education-and-training-and-reported-willingness-to-respond
#7
Heather K Hayanga, Daniel J Barnett, Natasha R Shallow, Michael Roberts, Carol B Thompson, Itay Bentov, Gozde Demiralp, Bradford D Winters, Deborah A Schwengel
BACKGROUND: Anesthesiologists provide comprehensive health care across the emergency department, operating room, and intensive care unit. To date, anesthesiologists' perspectives regarding disaster medicine and public health preparedness have not been described. METHODS: Anesthesiologists' thoughts and attitudes were assessed via a Web-based survey at 3 major academic institutions. Frequencies, percentages, and odds ratios (ORs) were used to assess self-reported perceptions of knowledge and skills, as well as attitudes and beliefs regarding education and training, employee development, professional obligation, safety, psychological readiness, efficacy, personal preparedness, and willingness to respond (WTR)...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429728/a-formulated-tlr7-8-agonist-is-a-flexible-highly-potent-and-effective-adjuvant-for-pandemic-influenza-vaccines
#8
Neal Van Hoeven, Christopher B Fox, Brian Granger, Tara Evers, Sharvari W Joshi, Ghislain I Nana, Sarah C Evans, Susan Lin, Hong Liang, Li Liang, Rie Nakajima, Philip L Felgner, Richard A Bowen, Nicole Marlenee, Airn Hartwig, Susan L Baldwin, Rhea N Coler, Mark Tomai, James Elvecrog, Steven G Reed, Darrick Carter
Since 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been transmitted from avian hosts to humans. The severity of H5N1 infection in humans, as well as the sporadic nature of H5N1 outbreaks, both geographically and temporally, make generation of an effective vaccine a global public health priority. An effective H5N1 vaccine must ultimately provide protection against viruses from diverse clades. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist adjuvant formulations have a demonstrated ability to broaden H5N1 vaccine responses in pre-clinical models...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426646/community-mitigation-guidelines-to-prevent-pandemic-influenza-united-states-2017
#9
Noreen Qualls, Alexandra Levitt, Neha Kanade, Narue Wright-Jegede, Stephanie Dopson, Matthew Biggerstaff, Carrie Reed, Amra Uzicanin
When a novel influenza A virus with pandemic potential emerges, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) often are the most readily available interventions to help slow transmission of the virus in communities, which is especially important before a pandemic vaccine becomes widely available. NPIs, also known as community mitigation measures, are actions that persons and communities can take to help slow the spread of respiratory virus infections, including seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses.These guidelines replace the 2007 Interim Pre-pandemic Planning Guidance: Community Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Mitigation in the United States - Early, Targeted, Layered Use of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (https://stacks...
April 21, 2017: MMWR. Recommendations and Reports: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423338/an-amphibian-host-defense-peptide-is-virucidal-for-human-h1-hemagglutinin-bearing-influenza-viruses
#10
David J Holthausen, Song Hee Lee, Vineeth Tv Kumar, Nicole M Bouvier, Florian Krammer, Ali H Ellebedy, Jens Wrammert, Anice C Lowen, Sanil George, Madhavan Radhakrishna Pillai, Joshy Jacob
Although vaccines confer protection against influenza A viruses, antiviral treatment becomes the first line of defense during pandemics because there is insufficient time to produce vaccines. Current antiviral drugs are susceptible to drug resistance, and developing new antivirals is essential. We studied host defense peptides from the skin of the South Indian frog and demonstrated that one of these, which we named "urumin," is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin-bearing human influenza A viruses. This peptide specifically targeted the conserved stalk region of H1 hemagglutinin and was effective against drug-resistant H1 influenza viruses...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418930/the-innate-immunity-of-guinea-pigs-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-infection
#11
Kun Zhang, Wei Wei Xu, Zhaowei Zhang, Jing Liu, Jing Li, Lijuan Sun, Weiyang Sun, Peirong Jiao, Xiaoyu Sang, Zhiguang Ren, Zhijun Yu, Yuanguo Li, Na Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Hualei Wang, Songtao Yang, Yongkun Zhao, Xuemei Zhang, Peter R Wilker, WenJun Liu, Ming Liao, Hualan Chen, Yuwei Gao, Xianzhu Xia
H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418904/a-consensus-hemagglutinin-based-vaccine-delivered-by-an-attenuated-salmonella-mutant-protects-chickens-against-heterologous-h7n1-influenza-virus
#12
Kim Je Hyoung, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
H7N3 and H7N7 are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and have posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but for the human health as well. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is also highly pathogenic to humans, and there is a great concern that these H7 subtypes would acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, thereby becoming a pandemic threat. A vaccine candidate covering all the three subtypes must, therefore, be an integral part of any pandemic preparedness plan...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418745/taiwan-s-experience-in-hospital-preparedness-and-response-for-emerging-infectious-diseases
#13
Hui-Yun Kao, Hai-Yun Ko, Peng Guo, Chang-Hsun Chen, Su-Mei Chou
The Communicable Disease Control Medical Network (CDCMN), established in 2003 after the SARS outbreak in Taiwan, has undergone several phases of modification in structure and activation. The main organizing principles of the CDCMN are centralized isolation of patients with severe highly infectious diseases and centralization of medical resources, as well as a network of designated regional hospitals like those in other countries. The CDCMN is made up of a command system, responding hospitals, and supporting hospitals...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418300/population-responses-during-the-pandemic-phase-of-the-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-epidemic-hong-kong-china
#14
Nelson C Y Yeung, Joseph T F Lau, Kai Chow Choi, Sian Griffiths
During August 2009-July 2010, we conducted 7 longitudinal telephone surveys among 503 adults in Hong Kong, China, to explore changes in their behavioral and psychological responses to the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus epidemic. Trends were examined using generalized estimating equations models. Findings showed that responses varied with the course of the pandemic.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417640/combinations-of-l-n-g-monomethyl-arginine-and-oseltamivir-against-pandemic-influenza-a-virus-infections-in-mice
#15
Donald F Smee, Ashley Dagley, E B Tarbet
L-N(G)-monomethyl-arginine (L-NMMA) is an experimental compound that suppresses nitric oxide production in animals. The compound was combined with oseltamivir to treat lethal influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) pandemic virus infections in mice. Treatments were given twice a day for five days starting 4 h (oseltamivir, by oral gavage) or three days (L-NMMA, by intraperitoneal route; corresponding to the time previously reported for nitric oxide induction in the animals) after infection. Low doses of oseltamivir were used in order to demonstrate synergy or antagonism...
April 2017: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417321/adjuvanted-as03-a-h1n1-2009-pandemic-influenza-vaccines-and-solid-organ-transplant-rejection-systematic-signal-evaluation-and-lessons-learnt
#16
Gaël Dos Santos, Harry A Seifert, Vincent Bauchau, Vivek Shinde, Dominique M Barbeau, Catherine Cohet
INTRODUCTION: We investigated a signal of solid organ transplant (SOT) rejection after immunisation with (AS03) A/H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza vaccines. METHODS: Potential immunological mechanisms were reviewed and quantitative analyses were conducted. The feasibility of pharmacoepidemiological studies was explored. RESULTS: Overall results, including data from a pharmacoepidemiological study, support the safety of adjuvanted (AS03) pandemic influenza vaccination in SOT recipients...
April 17, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415629/a-h1n1-pdm09-influenza-infection-vaccine-inefficiency
#17
Nehemya Friedman, Yaron Drori, Rakefet Pando, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Hanna Sefty, Ravit Bassal, Yaniv Stein, Tamy Shohat, Ella Mendelson, Musa Hindiyeh, Michal Mandelboim
The last influenza pandemic, caused by the swine A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, began in North America at 2009. Since then, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended integration of the swine-based virus A/California/07/2009 strain in yearly vaccinations. Yet, infections with A(H1N1)pdm09 have continued in subsequent years. The reasons for this are currently unknown. During the 2015-2016 influenza season, we noted an increased prevalence of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus infection in Israel. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that the circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 strains belonged to 6B...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414953/health-shocks-and-their-long-lasting-impact-on-health-behaviors-evidence-from-the-2009-h1n1-pandemic-in-mexico
#18
Jorge M Agüero, Trinidad Beleche
Worldwide, the leading causes of death could be avoided with health behaviors that are low-cost but also difficult to adopt. We show that exogenous health shocks could facilitate the adoption of these behaviors and provide long-lasting effects on health outcomes. Specifically, we exploit the spatial and temporal variation of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in Mexico and show that areas with a higher incidence of H1N1 experienced larger reductions in diarrhea-related cases among young children. These reductions continue even three years after the shock ended...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413489/retrospective-review-of-epidemic-viral-pneumonia-cases-in-turkey-a-multicenter-study
#19
Mustafa Çörtük, Murat Acat, Onur Yazici, Zehra Yasar, Kemal Kiraz, Sena Yapicioglu Ataman, Elif Tanriverdi, Burcak Zitouni, Cenk Kirakli, Ozlem Ediboglu, Fevziye Tuksavul, Adem Dirican, Hale Kefeli Celik, Sevket Ozkaya, Erdogan Cetinkaya
Influenza A (H1N1) caused its first pandemic in 2009 in USA and Mexico. Since then, clinicians have exercised great care in order to make an early diagnosis of viral pneumonias. This is due in part to pandemic influenza A infection having greater impact on populations <65 years old than other viral strains, including seasonal influenza. Chest radiographies of those affected displayed a rapid progression of patchy infiltrates, and a large proportion of individuals required admission to intensive care units (ICU)...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410940/stability-of-different-influenza-subtypes-how-can-high-hydrostatic-pressure-be-a-useful-tool-for-vaccine-development
#20
Carlos Henrique Dumard, Shana P C Barroso, Ana Clara V Santos, Nathalia S Alves, José Nelson S S Couceiro, Andre M O Gomes, Patricia S Santos, Jerson L Silva, Andréa C Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A viruses can cross naturally into mammals and cause severe diseases, as observed for H5N1. The high lethality of human infections causes major concerns about the real risk of a possible pandemic of severe diseases to which human susceptibility may be high and universal. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a valuable tool for studies regarding the folding of proteins and the assembly of macromolecular structures such as viruses; furthermore, HHP has already been demonstrated to promote viral inactivation...
April 6, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
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