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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453845/effect-of-repeated-vaccination-with-the-same-vaccine-component-against-2009-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-virus
#1
Iván Martínez-Baz, Itziar Casado, Ana Navascués, Jorge Díaz-González, Aitziber Aguinaga, Laura Barrado, Josu Delfrade, Carmen Ezpeleta, Jesús Castilla
Background.: The 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (A[H1N1]pdm09) vaccine component has remained unchanged from 2009. We estimate the effectiveness of current and prior inactivated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination from influenza seasons 2010-2011 to 2015-2016. Methods.: Patients attended with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza. Four periods with continued A(H1N1)pdm09 circulation were included in a test-negative design. Results.: We enrolled 1278 cases and 2343 controls...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449019/the-clear-and-present-danger-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-cpe-in-new-zealand-time-for-a-national-response-plan
#2
Matthew Blakiston, Helen Heffernan, Sally Roberts, Joshua Freeman
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in general poses a threat to the sustainability of modern healthcare, but a particularly urgent and serious threat is posed by a specific group of antibiotic-resistant bacteria known as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). CPE are resistant to nearly all antibiotics and include common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In New Zealand, the incidence of CPE has increased from three isolates in 2012 to 45 in 2016. The current epidemiology of CPE in New Zealand has similarities with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) epidemic in the early 2000s (just before ESBL-PE underwent a non-linear increase in incidence)...
April 28, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448045/fluorescence-based-neuraminidase-inhibition-assay-to-assess-the-susceptibility-of-influenza-viruses-to-the-neuraminidase-inhibitor-class-of-antivirals
#3
Sook-Kwan Leang, Aeron C Hurt
The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the only class of antivirals approved for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza that are effective against currently circulating strains. In addition to their use in treating seasonal influenza, the NA inhibitors have been stockpiled by a number of countries for use in the event of a pandemic. It is therefore important to monitor the susceptibility of circulating influenza viruses to this class of antivirals. There are different types of assays that can be used to assess the susceptibility of influenza viruses to the NA inhibitors, but the enzyme inhibition assays using either a fluorescent substrate or a chemiluminescent substrate are the most widely used and recommended...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447436/role-of-no-vasp-signaling-pathway-against-obesity-related-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#4
REVIEW
Yu Mi Kang, Francis Kim, Woo Je Lee
Obesity has quickly become a worldwide pandemic, causing major adverse health outcomes such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancers. Obesity-induced insulin resistance is the key for developing these metabolic disorders, and investigation to understand the molecular mechanisms involved has been vibrant for the past few decades. Of these, low-grade chronic inflammation is suggested as a critical concept in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, and the anti-inflammatory effect of nitric oxide (NO) signaling has been reported to be linked to improvement of insulin resistance in multiple organs involved in glucose metabolism...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446785/possible-role-of-pandemic-ah1n1-swine-flu-virus-in-a-childhood-leukemia-cluster
#5
G Cazzaniga, L Bisanti, G Randi, S Deandrea, S Bungaro, F Pregliasco, D Perotti, F Spreafico, G Masera, M G Valsecchi, A Biondi, M Greaves
Leukemia accepted article preview online, 27 April 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.127.
April 27, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446669/salivary-blockade-protects-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-mice-from-lethal-influenza
#6
Karen Ivinson, Georgia Deliyannis, Leanne McNabb, Lara Grollo, Brad Gilbertson, David Jackson, Lorena E Brown
It is possible to model progression of influenza virus from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract in the mouse using viral inoculum delivered in a restricted manner to the nose. In this model, infection with the A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) strain of virus results ultimately in high viral titres in both the trachea and lungs. In contrast, the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) strain causes an infection that is almost entirely limited to the nasal passages. The factors that govern the progression of virus down the respiratory tract are not well understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446519/cationic-polystyrene-resolves-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders-by-promoting-eubiosis-of-gut-microbiota-and-decreasing-endotoxemia
#7
Airu Zhu, Jingjing Chen, Pengfei Wu, Mei Luo, Yilan Zeng, Han Zheng, Li Zhang, Zishou Cheng, Qun Sun, Wenwen Li, Yixiang Duan, Danmei Su, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Li Bei, Xiaohui Zhang, Zhongyuan Ju, Richard Hu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
A pandemic of metabolic diseases, consisting of type-2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and obesity, has imposed critical challenges for societies worldwide, prompting investigation of underlying mechanisms and exploration of low cost and effective treatment. In this report, we demonstrate that metabolic disorders in mice generated by feeding with a high-fat diet without dietary vitamin D (HD) can be prevented by oral administration of polycationic amine resin. Oral administration of cholestyramine , but not the control uncharged polystyrene, was able to sequester negatively charged bacterial endotoxin in the gut, leading to (1) reducing plasma endotoxin levels, (2) resolving systemic inflammation and hepatic steatohepatitis,and (3) improving insulin sensitivity...
April 26, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441417/minimum-lethal-concentration-of-sodium-hypochlorite-for-the-amphibian-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#8
Matthew H Becker, Brian Gratwicke
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the active ingredient in household bleach and is commonly used as a disinfectant to clean equipment contaminated by the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in lab husbandry and field studies. We conducted a series of replicated exposure trials using a single Global Pandemic Lineage Bd isolate from Panama (JEL 310) and concentrations of NaOCl ranging from 0.006% to 0.6% for exposure times ranging from 30 seconds to 15 minutes to determine the minimum lethal concentration of NaOCl for this isolate of Bd...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440717/serum-carotenoid-interactions-in-premenopausal-women-reveal-%C3%AE-carotene-is-negatively-impacted-by-body-fat
#9
Emily Taylor Nuss, Ashley R Valentine, Zhumin Zhang, HuiChuan Jennifer Lai, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
Increasing body mass indices (BMIs) across the globe reflect pandemic shifts towards habitual positive energy imbalances. Excess body fat in individuals is often associated with high-energy and high-fat diets scanty in fresh produce. Carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments plentiful in many fruits and vegetables. They are well-known for provitamin A and antioxidant functions, but little research has been done related to carotenoid-body mass interactions. Serum carotenoids were analyzed relative to body fat to determine correlations between major serum carotenoids, retinol, BMI, fat mass, and lean mass...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440543/registered-nurses-perceptions-regarding-nurse-led-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-hhohho-region-swaziland
#10
A H Mavhandu-Mudzusi, P T Sandy, A Hettema
BACKGROUND: Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence globally. It faces a critical shortage of health workers for addressing the HIV pandemic. To curb this human resource challenge, Swaziland adopted a nurse-driven model for antiretroviral therapy delivery in line with the recommendations of the World Health Organization on task shifting. OBJECTIVE: The study explored the perceptions of registered nurses on the nurse-led antiretroviral therapy initiation programme in the Hhohho region of Swaziland (NARTIS)...
April 25, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439032/inactivation-of-transcriptional-regulators-during-within-household-evolution-of-escherichia-coli
#11
Dagmara I Kisiela, Matthew Radey, Sandip Paul, Stephen Porter, Kseniya Polukhina, Veronika Tchesnokova, Sofiya Shevchenko, Diana Chan, Maliha Aziz, Timothy J Johnson, Lance B Price, James R Johnson, Evgeni V Sokurenko
We analyzed the within-household evolution of two household-associated Escherichia coli strains from pandemic clonal group ST131-H30, using isolates recovered from five individuals within two families, each of which had a distinct strain. Family 1's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (older sister) with recurrent cystitis, and a blood isolate from her younger sister with fatal urosepsis. Family 2's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (father) with pyelonephritis and renal abscesses, blood and kidney drainage isolates from the daughter with emphysematous pyelonephritis, and urine and fecal isolates from the mother with cystitis...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438939/emergence-and-evolution-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-with-both-blakpc-and-blactx-m-integrated-in-chromosome
#12
Weihua Huang, Guiqing Wang, Robert Sebra, Jian Zhuge, Changhong Yin, Maria E Aguero-Rosenfeld, Audrey N Schuetz, Nevenka Dimitrova, John T Fallon
The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae represent serious and urgent threats to public health. In a retrospective study of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae, we identified three clinical isolates, CN1, CR14 and NY9, carrying both blaCTX-M and blaKPC genes. The complete genomes of these three K. pneumoniae isolates were de novo assembled by using both short- and long-read whole-genome sequencing. In CR14 and NY9, blaCTX-M and blaKPC were carried on two different plasmids...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438343/developmental-and-transmittable-origins-of-obesity-associated-health-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Arin K Oestreich, Kelle H Moley
The current global obesity pandemic is clearly linked to both the increasing prevalence of, and preference for, foods high in calories, specifically fat and sucrose, and declining levels of daily physical activity. A less commonly discussed possible explanation is that risk of obesity begins in utero as a result of developmental plasticity during early life. This idea fits into the broader Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases (DOHAD) hypothesis, which holds that stressful in utero exposure manifests as disease in adulthood...
April 21, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435813/medical-care-or-disciplinary-discourses-preventive-measures-against-the-black-death-in-late-medieval-paris-a-brief-review
#14
REVIEW
Yong Jin Hong, Sam Hun Park
BACKGROUND: This paper examined the political and social implications of the Compendium de epidemia prescription written by the Masters of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Paris in the mid-14th century during the Black Death. This study aimed to examine how the effects of power as a discourse owned by medical knowledge are revealed. METHODS: This paper outlines the composition of the contents based on the 1888 edition edited and translated by Émile H...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435679/targeting-the-pro-inflammatory-factor-ccl2-mcp-1-with-bindarit-for-influenza-a-h7n9-treatment
#15
Stefan Wolf, Scott Johnson, Olivia Perwitasari, Suresh Mahalingam, Ralph A Tripp
Influenza A viruses are important human and animal pathogens. Seasonal influenza viruses cause infections every year, and occasionally zoonotic viruses emerge to cause pandemics with significantly higher morbidity and mortality rates. Three cases of laboratory confirmed human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were reported in 2013, and there have been several cases reported across South East Asia, and recently in North America. Most patients experience severe respiratory illness, with mortality rates approaching 40%...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435249/detection-of-influenza-viruses-by-coupling-multiplex-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-with-cascade-invasive-reaction-using-nanoparticles-as-a-sensor
#16
Yiyue Ge, Qiang Zhou, Kangchen Zhao, Ying Chi, Bin Liu, Xiaoyan Min, Zhiyang Shi, Bingjie Zou, Lunbiao Cui
Influenza virus infections represent a worldwide public health and economic problem due to the significant morbidity and mortality caused by seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Sensitive and convenient methodologies for detection of influenza viruses are essential for further disease control. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is the most commonly used method of nucleic acid isothermal amplification. However, with regard to multiplex LAMP, differentiating the ladder-like LAMP products derived from multiple targets is still challenging today...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434857/a-study-evaluating-the-postprandial-plasma-glucose-control-among-type-2-diabetes-patients-attending-a-teaching-hospital-in-malaysia
#17
REVIEW
Salwa Selim Ibrahim Abougalambou, Nahid Osman Ahmed, Ayman S Abougalambou
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Type 2 DM is rapidly rising as a global health care problem that threatens to reach pandemic levels by 2030. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease with no cure and chronic disease that results in major morbidity and mortality. The main objective of this study is to evaluate postprandial plasma glucose level and to determine factors affect on postprandial plasma glucose level among type 2 diabetes outpatients attending endocrinology clinics at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Teaching Hospital...
April 10, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434154/protective-effects-of-cell-free-supernatant-and-live-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-thai-pigs-against-a-pandemic-strain-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#18
Wandee Sirichokchatchawan, Gun Temeeyasen, Dachrit Nilubol, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus which causes severe diarrhea and fatal dehydration in piglets. In general, probiotic supplements could enhance recovery and protect piglets against enteric pathogens. Seven local lactic acid bacteria (LAB), (Ent. faecium 79N and 40N, Lact. plantarum 22F, 25F and 31F, Ped. acidilactici 72N and Ped. pentosaceus 77F) from pig feces were well-characterized as high potential probiotics. Cell-free supernatants (CFS) and live LAB were evaluated for antiviral activities by co-incubation on Vero cells and challenged with a pandemic strain of PEDV isolated from pigs in Thailand...
April 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433492/is-tavr-ready-for-the-global-aging-population
#19
REVIEW
Travis Bergmann, Partho P Sengupta, Jagat Narula
The emergence of the global pandemic of chronic diseases necessitates critical assessment of interventions that can be targeted at both the individual and population levels. Among cardiovascular diseases, the increasing prevalence of valvular heart diseases such as aortic stenosis parallels the rising burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. As an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement, technological innovation has allowed development of minimally invasive transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)...
April 19, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431426/anesthesiologists-and-disaster-medicine-a-needs-assessment-for-education-and-training-and-reported-willingness-to-respond
#20
Heather K Hayanga, Daniel J Barnett, Natasha R Shallow, Michael Roberts, Carol B Thompson, Itay Bentov, Gozde Demiralp, Bradford D Winters, Deborah A Schwengel
BACKGROUND: Anesthesiologists provide comprehensive health care across the emergency department, operating room, and intensive care unit. To date, anesthesiologists' perspectives regarding disaster medicine and public health preparedness have not been described. METHODS: Anesthesiologists' thoughts and attitudes were assessed via a Web-based survey at 3 major academic institutions. Frequencies, percentages, and odds ratios (ORs) were used to assess self-reported perceptions of knowledge and skills, as well as attitudes and beliefs regarding education and training, employee development, professional obligation, safety, psychological readiness, efficacy, personal preparedness, and willingness to respond (WTR)...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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