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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141034/structure-of-the-human-chromosome-interaction-network
#1
Sergio Sarnataro, Andrea M Chiariello, Andrea Esposito, Antonella Prisco, Mario Nicodemi
New Hi-C technologies have revealed that chromosomes have a complex network of spatial contacts in the cell nucleus of higher organisms, whose organisation is only partially understood. Here, we investigate the structure of such a network in human GM12878 cells, to derive a large scale picture of nuclear architecture. We find that the intensity of intra-chromosomal interactions is power-law distributed. Inter-chromosomal interactions are two orders of magnitude weaker and exponentially distributed, yet they are not randomly arranged along the genomic sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140454/gestational-age-specific-perinatal-mortality-rates-for-assisted-reproductive-technology-art-and-other-births
#2
Abrar A Chughtai, Alex Y Wang, Lisa Hilder, Zhuoyang Li, Kei Lui, Cindy Farquhar, Elizabeth A Sullivan
STUDY QUESTION: Is perinatal mortality rate higher among births born following assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to non-ART births? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overall perinatal mortality rates in ART births was higher compared to non-ART births, but gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births was lower for very preterm and moderate to late preterm births. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Births born following ART are reported to have higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to non-ART births...
November 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140407/targeted-treatment-of-yaws-with-household-contact-tracing-how-much-do-we-miss
#3
Louise Dyson, Michael Marks, Oliver M Crook, Oliver Sokana, Anthony W Solomon, Alex Bishop, David C W Mabey, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection primarily found in warm and humid tropical areas. The World Health Organisation strategy mandates an initial round of total community treatment (TCT) with single-dose azithromycin followed either by further TCT or active case finding and treatment of cases and their contacts (the Morges strategy). We wish to investigate the effectiveness of the Morges strategy. We employ a stochastic household model to study the transmission of infection using data collected from a pre-TCT survey conducted in the Solomon Islands...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139627/understanding-and-meeting-your-legal-responsibilities-as-a-nurse
#4
Louise Terry, Graham Carr, Yvonne Halpin
Nurses, midwives and nursing students are legally responsible for their actions. This article discusses the legal standard of care required in relation to nursing and midwifery practice and nurses' professional standards and code of conduct. It examines how courts in the UK determine if nurses have met their duty of care and how nurses must ensure they maintain competence to provide safe care. It examines why organisational knowing - understanding the organisation in which one is employed; its people, values and how it works - is important for all nurses, regardless of their level in the organisation...
November 15, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139331/kinematic-modeling-of-a-7-degree-of-freedom-spatial-hybrid-manipulator-for-medical-surgery
#5
Amanpreet Singh, Ekta Singla, Sanjeev Soni, Ashish Singla
The prime objective of this work is to deal with the kinematics of spatial hybrid manipulators. In this direction, in 1955, Denavit and Hartenberg proposed a consistent and concise method, known as D-H parameters method, to deal with kinematics of open serial chains. From literature review, it is found that D-H parameter method is widely used to model manipulators consisting of lower pairs. However, the method leads to ambiguities when applied to closed-loop, tree-like and hybrid manipulators. Furthermore, in the dearth of any direct method to model closed-loop, tree-like and hybrid manipulators, revisions of this method have been proposed from time-to-time by different researchers...
November 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139220/creating-and-facilitating-change-for-person-centred-coordinated-care-p3c-the-development-of-the-organisational-change-tool-p3c-oct
#6
Jane Horrell, Helen Lloyd, Thavapriya Sugavanam, James Close, Richard Byng
BACKGROUND: Person Centred Coordinated Care (P3C) is a UK priority for patients, carers, professionals, commissioners and policy makers. Services are developing a range of approaches to deliver this care with a lack of tools to guide implementation. METHODOLOGY: A scoping review and critical examination of current policy, key literature and NHS guidelines, together with stakeholder involvement led to the identification of domains, subdomains and component activities (processes and behaviours) required to deliver P3C...
November 15, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139110/unconditional-cash-transfers-for-reducing-poverty-and-vulnerabilities-effect-on-use-of-health-services-and-health-outcomes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#7
REVIEW
Frank Pega, Sze Yan Liu, Stefan Walter, Roman Pabayo, Ruhi Saith, Stefan K Lhachimi
BACKGROUND: Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs; provided without obligation) for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities (e.g. orphanhood, old age or HIV infection) are a type of social protection intervention that addresses a key social determinant of health (income) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The relative effectiveness of UCTs compared with conditional cash transfers (CCTs; provided so long as the recipient engages in prescribed behaviours such as using a health service or attending school) is unknown...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138088/comparing-multilayer-brain-networks-between-groups-introducing-graph-metrics-and-recommendations
#8
Kanad Mandke, Jil Meier, Matthew J Brookes, Reuben D O'Dea, Piet Van Mieghem, Cornelis J Stam, Arjan Hillebrand, Prejaas Tewarie
There is an increasing awareness of the advantages of multi-modal neuroimaging. Networks obtained from different modalities are usually treated in isolation, which is however contradictory to accumulating evidence that these networks show non-trivial interdependencies. Even networks obtained from a single modality, such as frequency-band specific functional networks measured from magnetoencephalography (MEG) are often treated independently. Here, we discuss how a multilayer network framework allows for integration of multiple networks into a single network description and how graph metrics can be applied to quantify multilayer network organisation for group comparison...
November 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137854/-inclusion-of-patient-safety-into-the-medical-degree-electives-description-of-the-experience-and-student-perception
#9
R Ladenheim, D Macchiavello, M Milberg
INTRODUCTION: One of the factors identified to reduce medical errors has been the organisational culture. Education is proposed as a tool for its modification, but this does not have a unique way of being achieved. This paper sought to describe a patient safety elective for medical students and to determine their perceptions on the subject. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study was performed in the Center of Medical Education and Clinical Investigations, in Argentina...
November 11, 2017: Revista de Calidad Asistencial: Organo de la Sociedad Española de Calidad Asistencial
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137660/optimising-the-value-of-the-evidence-generated-in-implementation-science-the-use-of-ontologies-to-address-the-challenges
#10
EDITORIAL
Susan Michie, Marie Johnston
Implementing research findings into healthcare practice and policy is a complex process occurring in diverse contexts; it invariably depends on changing human behaviour in many parts of an intricate implementation system. Questions asked with the aim of improving implementation are multifarious variants of 'What works, compared with what, how well, with what exposure, with what behaviours (for how long), for whom, in what setting and why?'. Relevant evidence is being published at a high rate, but its quantity, complexity and lack of shared terminologies present challenges...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137649/exploring-the-factors-affecting-the-implementation-of-tobacco-and-substance-use-interventions-within-a-secondary-school-setting-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Gillian Waller, Tracy Finch, Emma L Giles, Dorothy Newbury-Birch
BACKGROUND: The aim of this mixed-methods, systematic literature review was to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the implementation of tobacco and substance use intervention programmes in the secondary school setting using NPT as an analytical framework. METHODS: A search strategy was developed that combined implementation, school and intervention search terms. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycHINFO, Scopus, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137609/a-comparative-content-analysis-of-media-reporting-of-sports-betting-in-australia-lessons-for-public-health-media-advocacy-approaches
#12
Jennifer L David, Samantha L Thomas, Melanie Randle, Steven J Bowe, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Harmful gambling is a significant public health issue. There has been widespread discussion in the Australian media about the extent and impact of sports betting on the Australian community, particularly relating to young men and children. Given the role that the media plays in influencing policy change and political agendas, and the acknowledgement that media based advocacy is a fundamental component of successful advocacy campaigns, this research aimed to investigate how different stakeholder groups discuss sports betting within the Australian print media...
November 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137552/clinical-governance-breakdown-australian-cases-of-wilful-blindness-and-whistleblowing
#13
Sonja Cleary, Maxine Duke
BACKGROUND: After their attempts to have patient safety concerns addressed internally were ignored by wilfully blind managers, nurses from Bundaberg Base Hospital and Macarthur Health Service felt compelled to 'blow the whistle'. Wilful blindness is the human desire to prefer ignorance to knowledge; the responsibility to be informed is shirked. OBJECTIVE: To provide an account of instances of wilful blindness identified in two high-profile cases of nurse whistleblowing in Australia...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137548/exploring-organisational-competences-in-human-factors-and-ux-project-work-managing-careers-project-tactics-and-organisational-strategy
#14
Dominic Furniss, Paul Curzon, Ann Blandford
Organisational competence in Human Factors and UX (user experience) has not been looked at before despite its relevance to project success. We define organisational competence as the collective competence of the individuals, bringing together their complementary abilities to deliver an outcome that is typically more than the sum of its parts. Twenty-two UX and Human Factors practitioners were interviewed about their project work in two contrasting domains: web design and safety-critical systems to explore organisational competences...
November 15, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137302/functional-and-non-functional-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-enets-or-ajcc-tnm-staging-system
#15
Min Yang, Neng-Wen Ke, Yi Zhang, Chun-Lu Tan, Bo-Le Tian, Xu-Bao Liu, Wei Huang, Quentin Nunes, Robert Sutton
Background: There are currently 2 Tumour-Node-Metastasis (TNM) staging systems for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (p-NETs) - European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). P-NETs being heterogeneous, we investigated the prognostic value of the 2 systems in p-NETs, as a whole, and more interestingly in functional and non-functional sub-groups separately, with a view to ascertaining any potential clinical benefits of using one system over the other...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136403/high-grade-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-in-human-papillomavirus-self-sampling-of-screening-non-attenders
#16
J U H Lam, K M Elfström, D M Ejegod, H Pedersen, C Rygaard, M Rebolj, E Lynge, K E Juul, S K Kjær, J Dillner, J Bonde
BACKGROUND: Self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) offered to women who do not participate in cervical cancer screening is an increasingly popular method to increase screening coverage. The rationale behind self-sampling is that unscreened women harbour a high proportion of undetected precancer lesions. Here, we compare the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (⩾CIN2) detection rate between non-attenders who participated in self-sampling and women attending routine screening...
November 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136035/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-antibiotics-used-to-treat-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-results-of-a-network-meta-analysis
#17
Julian F Guest, Jaime Esteban, Anton G Manganelli, Andrea Novelli, Giuliano Rizzardini, Miquel Serra
OBJECTIVE: This NMA compared the efficacy and safety between IV antibiotics that are used in the current standard of care for managing adult patients (≥18 years of age) with ABSSSI. METHODS: Comparators were chosen on the basis that both direct and indirect comparisons between the interventions of interest could be performed. Outcomes of the analysis were selected on the basis that they are frequently measured and reported in trials involving ABSSSI patients, and only published randomised control trials of any size and duration and with any blinding status were eligible for inclusion in the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134431/impact-of-domain-knowledge-on-blinded-predictions-of-binding-energies-by-alchemical-free-energy-calculations
#18
Antonia S J S Mey, Jordi Juárez Jiménez, Julien Michel
The Drug Design Data Resource (D3R) consortium organises blinded challenges to address the latest advances in computational methods for ligand pose prediction, affinity ranking, and free energy calculations. Within the context of the second D3R Grand Challenge several blinded binding free energies predictions were made for two congeneric series of Farsenoid X Receptor (FXR) inhibitors with a semi-automated alchemical free energy calculation workflow featuring FESetup and SOMD software tools. Reasonable performance was observed in retrospective analyses of literature datasets...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134178/wheelchair-services-and-use-outcomes-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-kenya-and-the-philippines
#19
Eva S Bazant, Elizabeth J Himelfarb Hurwitz, Brenda N Onguti, Emma K Williams, Jamie H Noon, Cheryl A Xavier, Ferdiliza D S Garcia, Anthony Gichangi, Mohammed Gabbow, Peter Musakhi, R Lee Kirby
Background: The World Health Organisation recommends that services accompany wheelchair distribution. This study examined the relationship of wheelchair service provision in Kenya and the Philippines and wheelchair-use-related outcomes. Method: We surveyed 852 adult basic manual wheelchair users. Participants who had received services and those who had not were sought in equal numbers from wheelchair-distribution entities. Outcomes assessed were daily wheelchair use, falls, unassisted outdoor use and performance of activities of daily living (ADL)...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133704/survival-trends-in-glioma-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-centre
#20
Ratnadip Bose, Karanjit S Narang, Deepak Bhangale, Rishabh Kedia, Vikas Sharma, Ajaya N Jha
BACKGROUND: Even after decades of research in the field of gliomas, the overall prognosis is still quite dismal. Several factors have been proposed that affect the outcome and survival length of patients with a glioma. Here, we present a series of 471 patients, who underwent surgical resection of their glioma at a tertiary level neurosurgical centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We noted retrospective data of patients' age, histological tumor grade, and whether or not intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used, and assessed the survival length of these patients from the day of surgery...
November 2017: Neurology India
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