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Organisational psychology

Marwan Diab, Yasser Abu Jamei, Ashraf Kagee, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: In the context of violations of human rights and insecurity, the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) provides mental health services and psychosocial interventions that match local cultural and social norms. The GCMHP uses a community mental health approach to promote the psychological wellbeing of the people living in the Gaza Strip and advocate on mental health issues. METHODS: The GCMHP provides preventive and therapeutic care to a broad public health spectrum of Gazan society...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Jasmina Starc
BACKGROUND: Working in nursing is mentally and physically demanding and is one of the most stressful professions. AIM: To determine the basic causes of stress and examine the symptoms of stress among healthcare professionals at the primary and secondary level of health care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was based on the descriptive and causal non-experimental method of empirical research. The independent samples t-test was used. RESULTS: The survey results have shown that those employed in nursing are exposed to stressful situations on a daily basis, most often involving psychological or physical violence in the workplace (M = 4...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Caroline Christie, Simon Wynn-Thomas, Bianca McKinnon
INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, 41% of general practitioners (GPs) intend to retire by 2025. Increasing workforce shortages and other stressors are putting doctors at risk of burnout, which in turn can put patients at risk of harm. Offering a range of resources can signal an organisation's commitment to physician wellness while improving patient safety and organisational stability. AIM To replace the current reactive approach to impaired doctors with a proactive system of monitoring performance with the goal of identifying problems early...
September 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
Linda Rainey, Daniëlle van der Waal, Anna Jervaeus, Yvonne Wengström, D Gareth Evans, Louise S Donnelly, Mireille J M Broeders
BACKGROUND: Increased knowledge of breast cancer risk factors provides opportunities to shift from a one-size-fits-all screening programme to a personalised approach, where screening and prevention is based on a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. However, potential implementation of this new paradigm could present considerable challenges which the present review aims to explore. METHODS: Bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies evaluating potential implications of the implementation of personalised risk-based screening and primary prevention for breast cancer...
March 9, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Megan Rose Stafford, Mick Cooper, Michael Barkham, Jeni Beecham, Peter Bower, Karen Cromarty, Andrew J B Fugard, Charlie Jackson, Peter Pearce, Rebekah Ryder, Cathy Street
BACKGROUND: One in ten children in Britain have been identified as experiencing a diagnosable mental health disorder. School-based humanistic counselling (SBHC) may help young people identify, address, and overcome psychological distress. Data from four pilot trials suggest that SBHC may be clinically effective. However, a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) is needed to provide a robust test of its effectiveness, to assess its cost-effectiveness, and to determine the process of change...
March 9, 2018: Trials
Benjamin Gardner, Kristie-Lee Alfrey, Corneel Vandelanotte, Amanda L Rebar
OBJECTIVES: Fly-in fly-out (FIFO) work involves commuting long distances to the worksite and living in provided accommodation for 1-4 weeks while on shift. While the potentially detrimental impact of FIFO work on the health and well-being of workers has been documented, little attention has been paid to how workers, or their partners, cope with this impact. This study sought to investigate how workers and their partners negotiate the impact of FIFO on their mental health and well-being...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Jan Gerard Hoendervanger, Anja F Ernst, Casper J Albers, Mark P Mobach, Nico W Van Yperen
Satisfaction with activity-based work environments (ABW environments) often falls short of expectations, with striking differences among individual workers. A better understanding of these differences may provide clues for optimising satisfaction with ABW environments and associated organisational outcomes. The current study was designed to examine how specific psychological needs, job characteristics, and demographic variables relate to satisfaction with ABW environments. Survey data collected at seven organizations in the Netherlands (N = 551) were examined using correlation and regression analyses...
2018: PloS One
Mouna Sawan, Yun-Hee Jeon, Timothy F Chen
Psychotropic medicines have limited efficacy in the management of behavioural and psychological disturbances, yet they are commonly used in nursing homes. Organisational culture is an important consideration influencing use of psychotropic medicines. Schein's theory elucidates that organisational culture is underpinned by basic assumptions, which are the taken for granted beliefs driving organisational members' behaviour and practices. By exploring the basic assumptions of culture we are able to find explanations for why psychotropic medicines are prescribed contrary to standards...
February 15, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Carla S Marques, Sandra Valente, Marisa Lages
AIMS: This study sought to contribute to research on entrepreneurial intention by identifying which constructs of the entrepreneurial profile and internal conditions of health care organisations support entrepreneurship and contribute to the entrepreneurial intention of these organisations' employees. BACKGROUND: In addition to psychological attributes, cognitive processes, motivations, sociodemographic and professional characteristics, and entrepreneurial skills, the literature indicates that internal conditions of organisations also contribute to explaining entrepreneurial intention...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Alex Collie, Sharon Newnam, Helen Keleher, Alan Petersen, Agnieszka Kosny, Adam P Vogel, Jason Thompson
Purpose Many industrialised nations have systems of injury compensation and rehabilitation that are designed to support injury recovery and return to work. Despite their intention, there is now substantial evidence that injured people, employers and healthcare providers can experience those systems as difficult to navigate, and that this can affect injury recovery. This study sought to characterise the relationships and interactions occurring between actors in three Australian injury compensation systems, to identify the range of factors that impact on injury recovery, and the interactions and inter-relationships between these factors...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Olena Oleksiyenko, Danuta Życzyńska-Ciołek
In this paper, we aim to analyse selected structural determinants of workforce participation after retirement in Poland. By structural determinants we mean characteristics of one's socio-economic position that (a) result from the interplay of social conditions (mechanisms of power, differentiated access to resources) and individual agency, and (b) restrict or facilitate individuals' choices. We conceptualise workforce participation as engaging in either part- or full-time paid employment despite receiving the old-age pension...
2018: Journal of Population Ageing
Jurgen Cornelis, Ansam Barakat, Jack Dekker, Tessy Schut, Sandra Berk, Hans Nusselder, Nikander Ruhl, Jeroen Zoeteman, Rien Van, Aartjan Beekman, Matthijs Blankers
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is a common method to intensify care for patients experiencing a psychiatric crisis. A short-term, specialised, out-patient crisis intervention by a Crisis Resolution Team (CRT) in the Netherlands, called Intensive Home Treatment (IHT), is a viable intervention which may help reduce hospital admission days. However, research on the (cost-)effectiveness of alternatives to hospitalisation such as IHT are scarce. In the study presented in this protocol, IHT will be compared to care-as-usual (CAU) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
February 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Andrew W Young
The fact that the face is a source of diverse social signals allows us to use face and person perception as a model system for asking important psychological questions about how our brains are organised. A key issue concerns whether we rely primarily on some form of generic representation of the common physical source of these social signals (the face) to interpret them, or instead create multiple representations by assigning different aspects of the task to different specialist components. Variants of the specialist components hypothesis have formed the dominant theoretical perspective on face perception for more than three decades, but despite this dominance of formally and informally expressed theories, the underlying principles and extent of any division of labour remain uncertain...
March 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Samantha K Brooks, Rebecca Dunn, Richard Amlôt, Neil Greenberg, G James Rubin
BACKGROUND: When organisations are exposed to traumatic situations, such as disasters, often staff are not prepared for the potential psychological impact which can negatively affect their wellbeing. AIMS: To conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychological interventions aimed at improving staff wellbeing during or after disasters. METHOD: Four electronic literature databases were searched. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
O Pfaar, M Alvaro, V Cardona, E Hamelmann, R Mösges, J Kleine-Tebbe
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a safe, effective treatment for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma. However, AIT's clinical effect is still contested - primarily due to heterogeneity in clinical trial designs, study populations, therapeutic formulations and efficacy criteria. After discussing current concepts and unmet needs, an international panel of experts made several recommendations: (i) explore and validate definitions for [clinical] responders in AIT-trials; (ii) use of well-documented, standardized provocation tests prior to inclusion of subjects with relevant diseases in AIT trials; (iii) monitoring neo-sensitizations and occurrence of new allergy in extended AIT trials, and exclusion of polyallergic participants; (iv) validation of allergen exposure chambers with regard to natural exposure; (v) in studies of seasonal allergies, focus on peak exposure but also consider organising two parallel, geographically distinct but otherwise identical trials; (vi) discuss adaptive trial designs with the regulatory authorities; (vii) use e-health and m-health technologies to capture more information on individual exposure to allergens; (viii) initiate research on potential psychological, biochemical, immune, neural and even genomic markers of the placebo response; (ix) identify trial designs and primary endpoints that will give children with allergies easier, faster access to AIT formulations; and (x) promote and apply standardized methods for reporting systemic and local adverse events...
February 15, 2018: Allergy
Anju Victor, Carolin Elizabeth George, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Gift Norman
Background: In India, roughly one-half of patients undergoing cancer treatment are unaware of their diagnosis or treatment. The intention of this study is to determine the prevalence of collusion and its influence on quality of life (QOL) among patients in palliative care settings. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 palliative care patients to assess the extent of knowledge about their diagnosis and prognosis. The caretakers and the treating doctors were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess if diagnosis was revealed to a patient...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
A T Spijker, J van Zaane, M A Koenders, R Hoekstra, R W Kupka
A fairly large proportion (25-50%) of patients with bipolar disorder (bd) also suffer from comorbid alcohol use disorder (aud). However, little is known how this type of morbidity should be treated. It is also unclear whether the current guidelines on bd have been influenced by aud.<br/> AIM: To provide an overview of recent literature concerning the diagnosis and treatment of comorbid bd and aud.<br/> METHOD: We systematically reviewed studies that have addressed three treatment options for this group of patients: pharmaco-therapy, psychological interventions and self-management techniques...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Samantha Brooks, R Amlôt, G J Rubin, N Greenberg
As disasters become increasingly prevalent, and reported on, a wealth of literature on post-disaster mental health has been published. Most published evidence focuses on symptoms of mental health problems (such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety) and psychosocial factors increasing the risk of such symptoms. However, a recent shift in the literature has moved to exploring resilience and the absence of adverse lasting mental health effects following a disaster. This paper undertakes a qualitative review of the literature to explore factors affecting psychological resilience, as well as the potential positive impact of experiencing a disaster (post-traumatic growth) by examining the literature on employees in disaster-exposed organisations...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Jo Daniels, Mike Osborn, Cara Davis
Introduction: Pain accounts for the majority of attendances to the Emergency Department (ED), with insufficient alleviation of symptoms resulting in repeated attendance. People who frequently attend the ED are typically considered to be psychologically and socially vulnerable in addition to experiencing health difficulties. This service development study was commissioned to identify the defining characteristics and unmet needs of frequent attenders (FAs) in a UK acute district general hospital ED, with a view to developing strategies to meet the needs of this group...
February 2018: British Journal of Pain
Suhathai Tosangwarn, Philip Clissett, Holly Blake
BACKGROUND: Thai culture traditionally abhors elders living in care homes due to the belief that this represents a dereliction of filial piety by their children, thus care homes are stigmatized as the domain of poor older adults with no family. This may impact negatively on psychological wellbeing of residents, although little is known about the key factors influencing depressive symptoms. Therefore, this study explores factors associated with depressive symptoms, internalised stigma, self-esteem, social support and coping strategies among older adults residing in care homes in Thailand...
February 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
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