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Image process

Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Rola Farah, Mark DiFrancesco, Jennifer Vannest
Story listening in children relies on brain regions supporting speech perception, auditory word recognition, syntax, semantics, and discourse abilities, along with the ability to attend and process information (part of executive functions). Speed-of-processing is an early-developed executive function. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the relationship between story listening and speed-of-processing in preschool-age children. Eighteen participants performed story-listening tasks during MRI scans...
October 21, 2016: Neuropediatrics
Łukasz Jeleń, Adam Krzyżak, Thomas Fevens, Michał Jeleń
Grading of breast cancer malignancy is a key step in its diagnosis, which in turn helps to determine its prognosis and a course of treatment. In this paper, we consider the application of pattern recognition and image processing techniques to perform computer-assisted automatic breast cancer malignancy grading from cytological slides of fine needle aspiration biopsies. To determine a classification of the malignancy of the slide, a feature set is first determined from imagery of the slides. In this paper we investigated the nature of a wide set of features extracted from biopsy images to determine their discriminatory power and cross-correlation...
October 13, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Daniela Rupp, Leonie Flückiger, Marcus Adolph, Tais Gorkhover, Maria Krikunova, Jan Philippe Müller, Maria Müller, Tim Oelze, Yevheniy Ovcharenko, Benjamin Röben, Mario Sauppe, Sebastian Schorb, David Wolter, Rolf Mitzner, Michael Wöstmann, Sebastian Roling, Marion Harmand, Rolf Treusch, Mathias Arbeiter, Thomas Fennel, Christoph Bostedt, Thomas Möller
We studied the nanoplasma formation and explosion dynamics of single large xenon clusters in ultrashort, intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses via ion spectroscopy. The simultaneous measurement of single-shot diffraction images enabled a single-cluster analysis that is free from any averaging over the cluster size and laser intensity distributions. The measured charge state-resolved ion energy spectra show narrow distributions with peak positions that scale linearly with final ion charge state. These two distinct signatures are attributed to highly efficient recombination that eventually leads to the dominant formation of neutral atoms in the cluster...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Bavand Keshavarz, Eric C Houze, John R Moore, Michael R Koerner, Gareth H McKinley
The breakup and atomization of complex fluids can be markedly different than the analogous processes in a simple Newtonian fluid. Atomization of paint, combustion of fuels containing antimisting agents, as well as physiological processes such as sneezing are common examples in which the atomized liquid contains synthetic or biological macromolecules that result in viscoelastic fluid characteristics. Here, we investigate the ligament-mediated fragmentation dynamics of viscoelastic fluids in three different canonical flows...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jing Wei, Xiuling Jiao, Ting Wang, Dairong Chen
Ink-free rewritable media has attracted great attention as a potential alternative to current paper prints, owing to its benefits to reducing paper production and consumption for environmental protection. It is desirable to develop rewritable media based on cheap, robust, and fast-response photochromic systems. Herein, we report the design and fabrication of flexible and photorewritable PVP/a-WO3 hybrid membranes through electrospinning, on which images with high resolution can be photoprinted and heat-erased for over 40 cycles...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Satoshi Habuchi, Takuya Yamamoto, Yasuyuki Tezuka
We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of cyclic polymers and a protocol for characterizing their diffusive motion in a melt state at the single molecule level. An electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA-CF) process is used for the synthesis of the cyclic poly(tetrahydrofuran) (poly(THF)). The diffusive motion of individual cyclic polymer chains in a melt state is visualized using single molecule fluorescence imaging by incorporating a fluorophore unit in the cyclic chains. The diffusive motion of the chains is quantitatively characterized by means of a combination of mean-squared displacement (MSD) analysis and a cumulative distribution function (CDF) analysis...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Juliane Mundorf, Mirka Uhlirova
Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful experimental system for functional and mechanistic studies of tumor development and progression in the context of a whole organism. Sophisticated techniques to generate genetic mosaics facilitate induction of visually marked, genetically defined clones surrounded by normal tissue. The clones can be analyzed through diverse molecular, cellular and omics approaches. This study describes how to generate fluorescently labeled clonal tumors of varying malignancy in the eye/antennal imaginal discs (EAD) of Drosophila larvae using the Mosaic Analysis with a Repressible Cell Marker (MARCM) technique...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Amanda M West, Paul H Evangelista, Catherine S Jarnevich, Nicholas E Young, Thomas J Stohlgren, Colin Talbert, Marian Talbert, Jeffrey Morisette, Ryan Anderson
Early detection of invasive plant species is vital for the management of natural resources and protection of ecosystem processes. The use of satellite remote sensing for mapping the distribution of invasive plants is becoming more common, however conventional imaging software and classification methods have been shown to be unreliable. In this study, we test and evaluate the use of five species distribution model techniques fit with satellite remote sensing data to map invasive tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) along the Arkansas River in Southeastern Colorado...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Carolina Rodriguez-Tirado, Takanori Kitamura, Yu Kato, Jeffery W Pollard, John S Condeelis, David Entenberg
Metastasis to secondary sites such as the lung, liver and bone is a traumatic event with a mortality rate of approximately 90% (1). Of these sites, the lung is the most difficult to assess using intravital optical imaging due to its enclosed position within the body, delicate nature and vital role in sustaining proper physiology. While clinical modalities (positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT)) are capable of providing noninvasive images of this tissue, they lack the resolution necessary to visualize the earliest seeding events, with a single pixel consisting of nearly a thousand cells...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Cuijuan Yu, Hai Wang, Aaron Muscarella, Amit Goldstein, Huan-Chang Zeng, Yangjin Bae, Brendan H I Lee, Xiang H-F Zhang
Intra-iliac artery (IIA) injection is an efficient approach to introduce metastatic lesions of various cancer cells in animals. Compared to the widely used intra-cardiac and intra-tibial injections, IIA injection brings several advantages. First, it can deliver a large quantity of cancer cells specifically to hind limb bones, thereby providing spatiotemporally synchronized early-stage colonization events and allowing robust quantification and swift detection of disseminated tumor cells. Second, it injects cancer cells into the circulation without damaging the local tissues, thereby avoiding inflammatory and wound-healing processes that confound the bone colonization process...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Dong-Eog Kim, Jeong-Yeon Kim, Su-Kyoung Lee, Ju Hee Ryu, Ick Chan Kwon, Cheol-Hee Ahn, Kwangmeyung Kim, Dawid Schellingerhout
Direct thrombus imaging visualizes the root cause of thromboembolic infarction. Being able to image thrombus directly allows far better investigation of stroke than relying on indirect measurements, and will be a potent and robust vascular research tool. We use an optical imaging approach that labels thrombi with a molecular imaging thrombus marker - a Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probe that is covalently linked to the fibrin strands of the thrombus by the fibrin-crosslinking enzymatic action of activated coagulation factor XIIIa during the process of clot maturation...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Justin Chamberland, Annie Roy-Charland, Melanie Perron, Joël Dickinson
The perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis posits that the confusion between emotional facial expressions of fear and surprise may be due to their visual similarity, with shared muscle movements. In Experiment 1 full face images of fear and surprise varying as a function of distinctiveness (mouth index, brow index or both indices) were displayed in a gender oddball task. Experiment 2, in a similar task, directed attention towards the eye or mouth region with a blurring technique. The current two studies used response time and event-related potentials (ERP) to test the perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis...
October 21, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Gil Henkin, Daniel Berard, Francis Stabile, Marjan Shayegan, Jason S Leith, Sabrina R Leslie
We present a dynamically adjustable nanofluidic platform for formatting the conformations of and visualizing the interaction kinetics between biomolecules in solution, offering new time resolution and control of the reaction processes. This platform extends Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC), a technique for imaging molecules under confinement, by introducing a system for in-situ modification of the chemical environment; this system uses a deep microchannel to diffusively exchange reagents within the nanoscale imaging region, whose height is fixed by a nanopost array...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Lars Marstaller, Hana Burianová, David C Reutens
Safety learning describes the ability to learn that certain cues predict the absence of a dangerous or threatening event. Although incidental observations of activity within the default mode network (DMN) during the processing of safety cues have been reported previously, there is as yet no evidence demonstrating that the DMN plays a functional rather than a corollary role in safety learning. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, we investigated the neural correlates of danger and safety learning...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Hao Zhu, Jiangli Fan, Huiying Mu, Tao Zhu, Zhen Zhang, Jianjun Du, Xiaojun Peng
Polarity-sensitive fluorescent probes are powerful chemical tools for studying biomolecular structures and activities both in vitro and in vivo. However, the lack of "off-on" polarity-sensing probes has limited the accurate monitoring of biological processes that involve an increase in local hydrophilicity. Here, we design and synthesize a series of "off-on" polarity-sensitive fluorescent probes BP series consisting of the difluoroboron dippyomethene (BODIPY) fluorophore connected to a quaternary ammonium moiety via different carbon linkers...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel Jaeger, Christian Pilger, Henning Hachmeister, Elina Oberländer, Robin Wördenweber, Julian Wichmann, Jan H Mussgnug, Thomas Huser, Olaf Kruse
Oleaginous photosynthetic microalgae hold great promise as non-food feedstocks for the sustainable production of bio-commodities. The algal lipid quality can be analysed by Raman micro-spectroscopy, and the lipid content can be imaged in vivo in a label-free and non-destructive manner by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. In this study, both techniques were applied to the oleaginous microalga Monoraphidium neglectum, a biotechnologically promising microalga resistant to commonly applied lipid staining techniques...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Sertan Kaya, Mustafa Bayraktar, Sinan Kockara, Mutlu Mete, Tansel Halic, Halle E Field, Henry K Wong
BACKGROUND: Automated skin lesion border examination and analysis techniques have become an important field of research for distinguishing malignant pigmented lesions from benign lesions. An abrupt pigment pattern cutoff at the periphery of a skin lesion is one of the most important dermoscopic features for detection of neoplastic behavior. In current clinical setting, the lesion is divided into a virtual pie with eight sections. Each section is examined by a dermatologist for abrupt cutoff and scored accordingly, which can be tedious and subjective...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
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