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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934809/ct-and-mri-techniques-for-imaging-around-orthopedic-hardware
#1
Thuy Duong Do, Reto Sutter, Stephan Skornitzke, Marc-André Weber
Orthopedic hardware impairs image quality in cross-sectional imaging. With an increasing number of orthopedic implants in an aging population, the need to mitigate metal artifacts in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is becoming increasingly relevant. This review provides an overview of the major artifacts in CT and MRI and state-of-the-art solutions to improve image quality. All steps of image acquisition from device selection, scan preparations and parameters to image post-processing influence the magnitude of metal artifacts...
September 21, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934802/intravertebral-vacuum-cleft-and-its-varied-locations-within-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-effect-on-therapeutic-efficacy
#2
Weibo Yu, Xiaobing Jiang, De Liang, Zhensong Yao, Ting Qiu, Linqiang Ye, Shuncong Zhang, Daxiang Jin
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a high incidence of re-collapse of the augmented vertebrae after percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) with intravertebral vacuum cleft (IVC) during long-term follow-up. Previous IVC might be considered an important predisposing factor for re-collapse, but the prior studies could not find a significant correlation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and distribution characteristics of IVCs and to further assess IVCs in their varied locations...
September 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934683/histological-transformations-of-the-dental-pulp-as-possible-indicator-of-post-mortem-interval-a-pilot-study
#3
Patricio A Carrasco, Claudia I Brizuela, Ismael A Rodriguez, Samuel Muñoz, Marianela E Godoy, Carolina Inostroza
BACKGROUND: The correct estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) can be crucial on the success of a forensic investigation. Diverse methods have been used to estimate PMI, considering physical changes that occur after death, such as mortis algor, livor mortis, among others. Degradation after death of dental pulp is a complex process that has not yet been studied thoroughly. It has been described that pulp RNA degradation could be an indicator of PMI, however this study is limited to 6 days...
September 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933702/the-development-and-preliminary-validity-testing-of-the-healing-progression-rate-tool
#4
Daniel L Young, Nancy Estocado, Du Feng, Joyce Black
Accurate assessment and clear documentation are important aspects of wound care; they provide a basis for appropriate patient care decisions and reimbursement. A descriptive, qualitative study was conducted to develop and provide preliminary evidence of the validity of a new tool to measure wound healing (the Healing Progression Rate [HPR]), a modified version of the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH). Three (3) groups of current and future practitioners participated in the instrument development and evaluation process: 1) 3 wound care experts/authors (2 physical therapists, 1 nurse) with a minimum of 15 years of experience, 2) 6 additional wound care experts (4 nurses and 2 physical therapists) with a minimum of 10 years experience, and 3) 120 participants (77 [64...
September 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933220/elucidation-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-brain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Ahreum Baek, Sung-Rae Cho, Sung Hoon Kim
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms of SCI have been reported to be relevant to central nervous system injury such as brain injury. In this study, gene expression of the brain after SCI was elucidated using transcriptome analysis to characterize the temporal changes in global gene expression patterns in a SCI mouse model. Subjects were randomly classified into 3 groups: sham control, acute (3 h post-injury), and subacute (2 wk post-injury) groups...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933023/to-whistleblow-or-not-to-whistleblow-affective-and-cognitive-differences-in-reporting-peers-and-advisors
#6
Tristan McIntosh, Cory Higgs, Megan Turner, Paul Partlow, Logan Steele, Alexandra E MacDougall, Shane Connelly, Michael D Mumford
Traditional whistleblowing theories have purported that whistleblowers engage in a rational process in determining whether or not to blow the whistle on misconduct. However, stressors inherent to whistleblowing often impede rational thinking and act as a barrier to effective whistleblowing. The negative impact of these stressors on whistleblowing may be made worse depending on who engages in the misconduct: a peer or advisor. In the present study, participants are presented with an ethical scenario where either a peer or advisor engages in misconduct, and positive and the negative consequences of whistleblowing are either directed to the wrongdoer, department, or university...
September 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933002/mepolizumab-for-treating-severe-eosinophilic-asthma-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#7
REVIEW
Iñigo Bermejo, Matt Stevenson, Katy Cooper, Sue Harnan, Jean Hamilton, Mark Clowes, Christopher Carroll, Tim Harrison, Shironjit Saha
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the company (GlaxoSmithKline) that manufactures mepolizumab (Nucala(®)) to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of mepolizumab for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group (ScHARR-TAG) at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent evidence review group (ERG). The ERG produced a review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of mepolizumab as add-on to standard of care (SoC) compared with SoC and omalizumab, based upon the company's submission to NICE...
September 20, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932994/investigation-of-shape-with-patients-suffering-from-unilateral-lymphoedema
#8
Kevork Karakashian, Lawrence Shaban, Cheryl Pike, Raoul van Loon
This study investigates the use of a 3D depth sensing camera for analysing the shape of lymphoedematous arms, and seeks to identify suitable metrics for monitoring lymphoedema clinically. A fast, simple protocol was developed for scanning upper limb lymphoedema, after which a robust data pre- and post-processing framework was built that consistently and quickly identifies arm shape and volume. The framework was then tested on 24 patients with mild unilateral lymphoedema, who were also assessed using tape measurements...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932993/oxygen-therapy-with-high-flow-nasal-cannula-as-an-effective-treatment-for-perioperative-pneumocephalus-case-illustrations-and-pathophysiological-review
#9
Jason L Siegel, Karen Hampton, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Diane McLaughlin, Jose L Diaz-Gomez
Pneumocephalus (PNC) is a condition in which when air is trapped inside the intracranial vault. The causes are varied, but include trauma and intracranial surgery. Treatment of PNC typically consists of augmenting patient oxygenation with the attempt of washing out pulmonary nitrogen, creating a gradient in which nitrogen in the intracranial air bubble diffuses out of the lungs via the blood. Though several high flow methods have been tested, the ideal mode of oxygenation has not fully been investigated. Here we present 3 cases of post-operative PNC who we felt were symptomatic from PNC...
September 20, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932946/ready-to-go-home-patients-experiences-of-the-discharge-process-in-an-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-eras-program-for-colorectal-surgery
#10
D Jones, R Musselman, E Pearsall, M McKenzie, H Huang, Robin S McLeod
BACKGROUND: With the adoption of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs, patients are being discharged earlier and require more post-discharge teaching, educational materials, and information. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction, discharge needs, and follow-up concerns of patients within an ERAS implementation program (iERAS). METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, the iERAS program was undertaken at an academic hospital where 554 patients having elective colorectal surgery were enrolled...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932910/a-histone-deacetylase-gene-slhda3-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-of-fruit-ripening-and-carotenoid-accumulation
#11
Jun-E Guo, Zongli Hu, Xiaohui Yu, Anzhou Li, Fenfen Li, Yunshu Wang, Shibing Tian, Guoping Chen
SlHDA3 functions as an inhibitor and regulates tomato fruit ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Post-translational modifications, including histones acetylation, play a pivotal role in the changes of chromatin structure dynamic modulation and gene activity. The regulation of histone acetylation is achieved by the action of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, which play crucial roles in the regulation of transcription activation. There is an increasing research focus on histone deacetylation in crops, but the role of histone deacetylase genes (HDACs) in tomato has not been elucidated...
September 20, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932758/iterative-image-processing-for-early-diagnostic-of-beta-amyloid-plaque-deposition-in-pre-clinical-alzheimer-s-disease-studies
#12
Nikolai V Slavine, Padmakar V Kulkarni, Roderick W McColl
PURPOSE: To test and evaluate an efficient iterative image processing strategy to improve the quality of sub-optimal pre-clinical PET images. A novel iterative resolution subsets-based method to reduce noise and enhance resolution (RSEMD) has been demonstrated on examples of PET imaging studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) plaques deposition in mice brains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The RSEMD method was applied to imaging studies of non-invasive detection of beta-amyloid plaque in transgenic mouse models of AD...
August 2017: Journal of Applied Bioinformatics & Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932688/alg9-cdg-new-clinical-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Kellie Davis, Duncan Webster, Chris Smith, Sheryl Jackson, David Sinasac, Lorne Seargeant, Xing-Chang Wei, Patrick Ferreira, Julian Midgley, Yolanda Foster, Xueli Li, Miao He, Walla Al-Hertani
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of metabolic diseases resulting from defects in glycan synthesis or processing. The number of subgroups and their phenotypic spectrums continue to expand with most related to deficiencies of N-glycosylation. ALG9-CDG (previously CDG-IL) is the result of a mutation in ALG9. This gene encodes the enzyme alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase. To date, a total of 10 patients from 6 different families have been reported with one of four ALG9 mutations. Seven of these patients had a similar phenotype with failure to thrive, dysmorphic features, seizures, hepatic and/or renal cysts; the other three patients died in utero from a lethal skeletal dysplasia...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932579/patient-reported-outcomes-following-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-vats-resection-or-stereotactic-ablative-body-radiotherapy-sabr-for-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-protocol-for-an-observational-pilot-study-lilac
#14
Cecilia Pompili, Kevin N Franks, Alessandro Brunelli, Yusuf S Hussain, Patricia Holch, Matthew E Callister, Jonathan M Robson, Kostas Papagiannopoulos, Galina Velikova
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is increasingly a disease of the elderly and frail population with a median age of 70 years at diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of the impact of interventions on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and not only absolute survival is especially important. For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been gaining popularity over the last few decades, replacing traditional open lobectomies. For high-risk patients who are not deemed suitable for surgery, stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) provides a potentially curative alternative...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932234/stunted-growth-caused-by-blast-disease-in-rice-seedlings-is-associated-with-changes-in-phytohormone-signaling-pathways
#15
Chang-Jie Jiang, Xiao-Long Liu, Xin-Qiong Liu, Hui Zhang, Ying-Jie Yu, Zheng-Wei Liang
In response to pathogen attack, plants prioritize defense reactions generally at the expense of plant growth. In this work, we report that changes in phytohormone signaling pathways are associated with the stunted plant growth caused by blast disease in rice seedlings. Infection of rice seedlings with blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (race 007.0) at the four-leaf stage (three true leaves) resulted in considerable inhibition of the growth of the upper uninfected distal leaves; the length of leaf blade and leaf sheath of the sixth and seventh leaf was reduced by 27 and 82%, and 88 and 72%, respectively, compared to that in the uninoculated plant control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932213/petri-net-based-model-of-helicobacter-pylori-mediated-disruption-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-stomach-lining-during-gastric-carcinoma
#16
Anam Naz, Ayesha Obaid, Faryal M Awan, Aqsa Ikram, Jamil Ahmad, Amjad Ali
Tight junctions help prevent the passage of digestive enzymes and microorganisms through the space between adjacent epithelial cells lining. However, Helicobacter pylori encoded virulence factors negatively regulate these tight junctions and contribute to dysfunction of gastric mucosa. Here, we have predicted the regulation of important tight junction proteins, such as Zonula occludens-1, Claudin-2 and Connexin32 in the presence of pathogenic proteins. Molecular events such as post translational modifications and crosstalk between phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, palmitoylation and methylation are explored which may compromise the integrity of these tight junction proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932194/h2s-induced-sulfhydration-biological-function-and-detection-methodology
#17
REVIEW
Da Zhang, Junbao Du, Chaoshu Tang, Yaqian Huang, Hongfang Jin
At appropriate concentrations, hydrogen sulfide, a well-known gasotransmitter, plays important roles in both physiology and pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests that modifying thiol groups of specific cysteines in target proteins via sulfhydration or persulfidation is one of the important mechanisms responsible for the biological functions of hydrogen sulfide. A variety of key proteins of different cellular pathways in mammals have been reported to be sulfhydrated by hydrogen sulfide to participate and regulate the processes of cell survival/death, cell differentiation, cell proliferation/hypertrophy, cellular metabolism, mitochondrial bioenergetics/biogenesis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, vasorelaxtion, inflammation, oxidative stress, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931944/errant-gardeners-glial-cell-dependent-synaptic-pruning-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Urte Neniskyte, Cornelius T Gross
The final stage of brain development is associated with the generation and maturation of neuronal synapses. However, the same period is also associated with a peak in synapse elimination - a process known as synaptic pruning - that has been proposed to be crucial for the maturation of remaining synaptic connections. Recent studies have pointed to a key role for glial cells in synaptic pruning in various parts of the nervous system and have identified a set of critical signalling pathways between glia and neurons...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931866/ion-channel-aligned-gas-blocking-membrane-for-lithium-air-batteries
#19
Wonsung Choi, Mokwon Kim, Jung Ock Park, Joon-Hee Kim, Kyunghwan Choi, Yong Su Kim, Tae Young Kim, Ken Ogata, Dongmin Im, Seok-Gwang Doo, Yunil Hwang
Lithium-metal-based batteries, owing to the extremely high specific energy, have been attracting intense interests as post-Li-ion batteries. However, their main drawback is that consumption/de-activation of lithium metal can be accelerated when O2 or S used in the cathode crosses over to the metal, reducing the lifetime of the batteries. In use of ceramic solid state electrolyte (SSE) separator, despite the capability of gas blocking, thick and heavy plates (~0.3 mm) are necessitated to compensate its mechanical fragility, which ruin the high specific energy of the batteries...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931431/fasciclin-calcareous-corpuscle-binary-complex-mediated-protein-protein-interactions-in-taenia-solium-metacestode
#20
Chun-Seob Ahn, Jeong-Geun Kim, Young-An Bae, Seon-Hee Kim, Joo-Ho Shin, Yichao Yang, Insug Kang, Yoon Kong
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium metacestode (TsM) is a serious neurological disease of global concern. Diverse bioactive molecules involved in the long-term survival of TsM might contribute to disease progression. Fasciclin (Fas) is an extracellular protein that mediates adhesion, migration and differentiation of cells by interacting with other molecules. We hypothesized that TsMFas might bind to calcareous corpuscle (CC) through its adhesive property and participate in crucial protein-protein interactions, thus contributing to the creation of a symbiotic interactome network...
September 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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