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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805492/roles-of-rice-phytochrome-interacting-factor-like1-ospil1-in-leaf-senescence
#1
Yasuhito Sakuraba, Eun-Young Kim, Nam-Chon Paek
Rice (Oryza sativa) Phytochrome-Interacting Factor-Like1 (OsPIL1), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays an important role in the elongation of internode cells. Recently, we found that OsPIL1 participates in chlorophyll biosynthesis by directly upregulating several genes encoding components of the photosystem apparatus. Here, we show that OsPIL1 negatively regulates leaf senescence in rice. During dark-induced senescence (DIS), ospil1 mutants senesced earlier than wild type; this is opposite to mutants of Arabidopsis PIF4 and PIF5, the closest homologs of OsPIL1...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805249/a-non-dna-binding-activity-for-the-athb4-transcription-factor-in-the-control-of-vegetation-proximity
#2
Marçal Gallemí, Maria Jose Molina-Contreras, Sandi Paulišić, Mercè Salla-Martret, Céline Sorin, Marta Godoy, Jose Manuel Franco-Zorrilla, Roberto Solano, Jaime F Martínez-García
In plants, perception of vegetation proximity by phytochrome photoreceptors activates a transcriptional network that implements a set of responses to adapt to plant competition, including elongation of stems or hypocotyls. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 4 (ATHB4) regulates this and other responses, such as leaf polarity. To better understand the shade regulatory transcriptional network, we have carried out structure-function analyses of ATHB4 by overexpressing a series of truncated and mutated forms and analyzing three different responses: hypocotyl response to shade, transcriptional activity and leaf polarity...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803909/depletion-of-the-mitotic-kinase-cdc5p-in-candida-albicans-results-in-the-formation-of-elongated-buds-that-switch-to-the-hyphal-fate-over-time-in-a-ume6p-and-hgc1p-dependent-manner
#3
Amandeep Glory, Chloë Triplet van Oostende, Anja Geitmann, Catherine Bachewich
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans differentiates between yeast, hyphae and pseudohyphae in order to enhance survival in the human host. Environmental cues induce hyphal development and expression of hyphal-specific genes. Filaments also result from yeast cell cycle arrest, but the nature of these cells and their mechanisms of formation are less clear. We previously demonstrated that depletion of the mitotic polo-like kinase Cdc5p resulted in the production of filaments under yeast growth conditions that were distinct from hyphae with respect to several criteria, yet expressed hyphal-specific genes at later stages of development...
August 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803779/chromodomain-protein-cdyl-acts-as-a-crotonyl-coa-hydratase-to-regulate-histone-crotonylation-and-spermatogenesis
#4
Shumeng Liu, Huajing Yu, Yongqing Liu, Xinhua Liu, Yu Zhang, Chen Bu, Shuai Yuan, Zhe Chen, Guojia Xie, Wanjin Li, Bosen Xu, Jianguo Yang, Lin He, Tong Jin, Yundong Xiong, Luyang Sun, Xiaohui Liu, Chunsheng Han, Zhongyi Cheng, Jing Liang, Yongfeng Shang
Lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is a newly identified histone modification that is associated with active transcription in mammalian cells. Here we report that the chromodomain Y-like transcription corepressor CDYL negatively regulates histone Kcr by acting as a crotonyl-CoA hydratase to convert crotonyl-CoA to β-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. We showed that the negative regulation of histone Kcr by CDYL is intrinsically linked to its transcription repression activity and functionally implemented in the reactivation of sex chromosome-linked genes in round spermatids and genome-wide histone replacement in elongating spermatids...
July 29, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798901/translational-dysregulation-in-cancer-molecular-insights-and-potential-clinical-applications-in-biomarker-development
#5
REVIEW
Christos Vaklavas, Scott W Blume, William E Grizzle
Although transcript levels have been traditionally used as a surrogate measure of gene expression, it is increasingly recognized that the latter is extensively and dynamically modulated at the level of translation (messenger RNA to protein). Over the recent years, significant progress has been made in dissecting the complex posttranscriptional mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This advancement in knowledge came hand in hand with the progress made in the methodologies to study translation both at gene-specific as well as global genomic level...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797033/a-shh-foxf1-bmp4-signaling-axis-regulating-growth-and-differentiation-of-epithelial-and-mesenchymal-tissues-in-ureter-development
#6
Tobias Bohnenpoll, Anna B Wittern, Tamrat M Mamo, Anna-Carina Weiss, Carsten Rudat, Marc-Jens Kleppa, Karin Schuster-Gossler, Irina Wojahn, Timo H-W Lüdtke, Mark-Oliver Trowe, Andreas Kispert
The differentiated cell types of the epithelial and mesenchymal tissue compartments of the mature ureter of the mouse arise in a precise temporal and spatial sequence from uncommitted precursor cells of the distal ureteric bud epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme. Previous genetic efforts identified a member of the Hedgehog (HH) family of secreted proteins, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) as a crucial epithelial signal for growth and differentiation of the ureteric mesenchyme. Here, we used conditional loss- and gain-of-function experiments of the unique HH signal transducer Smoothened (SMO) to further characterize the cellular functions and unravel the effector genes of HH signaling in ureter development...
August 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795863/a-new-era-of-studying-p53-mediated-transcription-activation
#7
Wei-Li Liu, Robert A Coleman, Sameer K Singh
To prevent tumorigenesis, p53 stimulates transcription by facilitating the recruitment of the transcription machinery on target gene promoters. Cryo-Electron Microscopy studies on p53-bound RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) reveal that p53 structurally regulates Pol II to affect its DNA binding and elongation, providing new insights into p53-mediated transcriptional regulation.
August 10, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792005/splicing-and-transcription-touch-base-co-transcriptional-spliceosome-assembly-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Lydia Herzel, Diana S M Ottoz, Tara Alpert, Karla M Neugebauer
Several macromolecular machines collaborate to produce eukaryotic messenger RNA. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) translocates along genes that are up to millions of base pairs in length and generates a flexible RNA copy of the DNA template. This nascent RNA harbours introns that are removed by the spliceosome, which is a megadalton ribonucleoprotein complex that positions the distant ends of the intron into its catalytic centre. Emerging evidence that the catalytic spliceosome is physically close to Pol II in vivo implies that transcription and splicing occur on similar timescales and that the transcription and splicing machineries may be spatially constrained...
August 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791558/zar1-knockdown-promotes-the-differentiation-of-human-neuroblastoma-cells-by-suppression-of-mycn-expression
#9
Yosuke Watanabe, Yoshiaki Ishizuka, Takayuki Hirano, Eri Nagasaki-Maeoka, Reina Hoshi, Shinsuke Yoshizawa, Shota Uekusa, Hiroyuki Kawashima, Kiminobu Sugito, Kenichi Shinohara, Noboru Fukuda, Hiroki Nagase, Masayoshi Soma, Tsugumichi Koshinaga, Kyoko Fujiwara
Although DNA hypermethylation at non-promoter region of the Zygote arrest 1 (ZAR1) gene has been observed in many types of tumor, including neuroblastoma (NB), the role of this gene in tumor development and/or progression is unclear. One reason is that knowledge about the function of ZAR1 protein is limited. Although it has been reported that ZAR1 plays a crucial role in early embryogenesis and may act as a transcriptional repressor for some transcripts, the detailed mechanism is still elusive. In the present study, we analyzed public data of NB patients and found that higher expression levels of ZAR1 were significantly associated with a shorter survival period...
August 8, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791475/regulation-and-function-of-odd-paired-in-tribolium-segmentation
#10
Chong Pyo Choe, Frank Stellabotte, Susan J Brown
The pair-rule gene odd-paired (opa) is required for the patterning of alternate segment boundaries in the early Drosophila embryo. Mutant phenotypes of opa display a typical pair-rule phenotype in which most of each odd-numbered denticle belt is eliminated. However, among the nine Drosophila pair-rule genes, opa is the only gene that is not expressed in stripes with double segmental periodicity; its transcript and protein are expressed in a broad domain within segmenting embryos. While expression patterns of orthologs of opa have been analyzed in several arthropod species, their regulation and function in segmentation were largely unknown...
August 8, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791042/pif4-promotes-expression-of-lng1-and-lng2-to-induce-thermomorphogenic-growth-in-arabidopsis
#11
Geonhee Hwang, Jia-Ying Zhu, Young K Lee, Sara Kim, Thom T Nguyen, Jungmook Kim, Eunkyoo Oh
Arabidopsis plants adapt to high ambient temperature by a suite of morphological changes including elongation of hypocotyls and petioles and leaf hyponastic growth. These morphological changes are collectively called thermomorphogenesis and are believed to increase leaf cooling capacity by enhancing transpiration efficiency, thereby increasing tolerance to heat stress. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been identified as a major regulator of thermomorphogenic growth. Here, we show that PIF4 promotes the expression of two homologous genes LONGIFOLIA1 (LNG1) and LONGIFOLIA2 (LNG2) that have been reported to regulate leaf morphology...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790157/sirt7-and-the-dead-box-helicase-ddx21-cooperate-to-resolve-genomic-r-loops-and-safeguard-genome-stability
#12
Chenlin Song, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Renate Voit, Ingrid Grummt
R loops are three-stranded nucleic acid structures consisting of an RNA:DNA heteroduplex and a "looped-out" nontemplate strand. As aberrant formation and persistence of R loops block transcription elongation and cause DNA damage, mechanisms that resolve R loops are essential for genome stability. Here we show that the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box RNA helicase DDX21 efficiently unwinds R loops and that depletion of DDX21 leads to accumulation of cellular R loops and DNA damage. Significantly, the activity of DDX21 is regulated by acetylation...
August 8, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782042/polycomb-repressive-complex-1-modifies-transcription-of-active-genes
#13
Michelle Pherson, Ziva Misulovin, Maria Gause, Kathie Mihindukulasuriya, Amanda Swain, Dale Dorsett
This study examines the role of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) at active genes. The PRC1 and PRC2 complexes are crucial for epigenetic silencing during development of an organism. They are recruited to Polycomb response elements (PREs) and establish silenced domains over several kilobases. Recent studies show that PRC1 is also directly recruited to active genes by the cohesin complex. Cohesin participates broadly in control of gene transcription, but it is unknown whether cohesin-recruited PRC1 also plays a role in transcriptional control of active genes...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780960/expression-of-glucose-transporter-8-glut8-in-spermatogenesis-of-adult-boar-testes
#14
Huaming Xi, Zhen Zhang, Rui Ji, Hui Shen, Xiaorui Fan, Qinghong Li, Xiyun Bai, Zhixue Cheng, Junping He
The present study was designed to investigate the glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) expression and localization in adult boar testis. Localization and expression of GLUT8 were conducted with Western Blotting, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods GLUT8 protein and mRNA were expressed in the boar testes. The results of Western Blotting analysis showed specificity of the antibody for protein of boar testes. The immunohistochemistry results showed that GLUT8 protein mainly localized in spermatocytes, round spermatids and elongated spermatids of the seminiferous tubules in the adult boar testes...
August 3, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780645/the-mediator-genes-med12-and-med13-control-arabidopsis-root-system-configuration-influencing-sugar-and-auxin-responses
#15
Javier Raya-González, Jesús Salvador López-Bucio, José Carlos Prado-Rodríguez, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, Ángel Arturo Guevara-García, José López-Bucio
Arabidopsis med12 and med13 mutants exhibit shoot and root phenotypes related to an altered auxin homeostasis. Sucrose supplementation reactivates both cell division and elongation in primary roots as well as auxin-responsive and stem cell niche gene expression in these mutants. An analysis of primary root growth of WT, med12, aux1-7 and med12 aux1 single and double mutants in response to sucrose and/or N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) placed MED12 upstream of auxin transport for the sugar modulation of root growth...
August 5, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777948/hexim1-has-different-functions-within-different-rna-protein-complexes
#16
Olivier Bensaude
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Morchikh et al. (2017) describe a new ribonuclear complex built around HEXIM1 and the long non-coding RNA NEAT1. This complex regulates the innate immune response to DNA viruses and is distinct from the HEXIM1-7SK RNA complex that regulates transcription elongation.
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775211/structure-of-the-complete-elongation-complex-of-rna-polymerase-ii-with-basal-factors
#17
Haruhiko Ehara, Takeshi Yokoyama, Hideki Shigematsu, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Mikako Shirouzu, Shun-Ichi Sekine
In the early stage of transcription, eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) exchanges initiation factors with elongation factors to form an elongation complex (EC) for processive transcription. Here, we report the structure of the Pol II EC bound with the basal elongation factors Spt4/5, Elf1, and TFIIS. Spt4/5 (the Spt4/Spt5 complex) and Elf1 modify a wide area of the Pol II surface. Elf1 bridges the Pol II central cleft, completing the "DNA entry tunnel" for downstream DNA. Spt4 and the Spt5 NGN and KOW1 domains encircle the upstream DNA, constituting a "DNA exit tunnel"...
August 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774551/24-epibrassinolide-alleviates-organic-pollutants-retarded-root-elongation-by-promoting-redox-homeostasis-and-secondary-metabolism-in-cucumis-sativus-l
#18
Golam Jalal Ahammed, Bei-Bei He, Xiang-Jie Qian, Yan-Hong Zhou, Kai Shi, Jie Zhou, Jing-Quan Yu, Xiao-Jian Xia
Environmental pollution by organic pollutants (OPs) has become a global concern due to its detrimental effects on the environment and human health. As plants are used to remediate contaminated sites, understanding the responses of plants to various OPs and fortification of plant tolerance are of great significance. In this work, we studied the biochemical and molecular responses of cucumber plants to three well-known OPs, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, chlorpyrifos and oxytetracycline in the absence or presence of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a potent regulator of plant growth and stress tolerance...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771873/nitrate-induction-of-root-hair-density-is-mediated-by-tga1-tga4-and-cpc-transcription-factors-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Javier Canales, Orlando Contreras-López, José M Álvarez, Rodrigo A Gutiérrez
Root hairs are specialized cells important for nutrient uptake. It is well established that nutrients such as phosphate have great influence on root hair development in many plant species. Here, we investigated the role of nitrate on root hair development at a physiological and molecular level. We showed nitrate increase root hair density in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found two different root hair defective mutants have significantly less nitrate than wild type plants, suggesting root hairs have an important role in nitrate acquisition capacity in A...
August 3, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771755/pickle-chromatin-remodeling-factor-controls-thermosensory-hypocotyl-growth-of-arabidopsis
#20
Ping Zha, Yanjun Jing, Gang Xu, Rongcheng Lin
Temperature is a major signal that governs plant distribution and shapes plant growth. High ambient temperature promotes plant thermomorphogenesis without significant induction of heat-stress responses. Although much progress of warm temperature-mediated plant growth have been made during recent years, the thermomorphogenic signaling pathway is not well understood. We previously revealed that PICKLE (PKL), an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor, negatively controls photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana...
August 2, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
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