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adrenal insufficiency in critical ills patients

Amy Cutright, Stephen Ducey, Claudia L Barthold, Jeremy Kim
Primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency are underrecognized conditions among emergency department patients, affecting an estimated 10% to 20% of critically ill patients. The signs and symptoms of cortisol deficit can be nonspecific and wide-ranging, and identification and swift treatment with stress-dosing of hydrocortisone is vital to avoid life-threatening adrenal crisis. Laboratory evaluation focuses on identification of electrolyte abnormalities typical of adrenal insufficiency, and while additional testing may depend on the type and severity of symptoms, it should not delay corticosteroid replacement...
September 22, 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
Amy Cutright, Stephen Ducey, Claudia L. Barthold
Primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency are underrecognized conditions among emergency department patients, affecting an estimated 10% to 20% of critically ill patients. The signs and symptoms of cortisol deficit can be nonspecific and wide-ranging, and identification and swift treatment with stress-dosing of hydrocortisone is vital to avoid life-threatening adrenal crisis. Laboratory evaluation focuses on identification of electrolyte abnormalities typical of adrenal insufficiency, and while additional testing may depend on the type and severity of symptoms, it should not delay corticosteroid replacement...
September 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
Ming-Hung Tsai, Hui-Chun Huang, Yun-Shing Peng, Yung-Chang Chen, Ya-Chung Tian, Chih-Wei Yang, Jau-Min Lien, Ji-Tseng Fang, Cheng-Shyong Wu, Sen-Yung Hsieh, Fa-Yauh Lee
BACKGROUND: Cirrhotic patients are susceptible to sepsis and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI). Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a corticotropin-dependent adrenal androgen, which has immunostimulating and antiglucocorticoid effects. Considering the synchronized synthesis of cortisol and DHEAS and their opposing effects to each other, investigators have proposed measuring these two hormones as a ratio. Severe sepsis has been associated with low DHEAS, especially relative to high cortisol...
August 15, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Abdelmoneim Khashana, Engy Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Circulatory collapse is a very common complication of the critical illnesses in neonates including neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy; it can be the end result and cause of death of several conditions. Often, despite treatment with fluid resuscitation and vasopressor agents, circulatory collapse persist, and blood pressure can remain critically low, compromising adequate blood flow to vital organs and brain. Low blood pressure has been associated with increased mortality...
April 12, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Amir H Hamrahian, Maria Fleseriu
OBJECTIVE: The definition of normal adrenal function in critically ill patients remains controversial, despite a large body of literature. We review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients and discuss the authors' personal approach to patient management. METHODS: Extensive literature review, guidelines from professional societies, and personal experience. RESULTS: A decrease in cortisol breakdown rather than an increase in cortisol production has been suggested as the main contributor to elevated cortisol levels in critically ill patients...
June 2017: Endocrine Practice
Gaeun Kim, Ji Hye Huh, Kyong Joo Lee, Moon Young Kim, Kwang Yong Shim, Soon Koo Baik
BACKGROUND: Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) is frequently observed in patients with cirrhosis. We sought to identify evidence in the literature regarding the impact of RAI on clinical outcomes in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) using the Ovid-MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant studies in the literature. RESULTS: Of the 182 studies identified, 16 were eligible according to our inclusion criteria...
April 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Shruti Bhandari, Katrina Agito, Esther I Krug
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH) is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Ahmet Uçar, Firdevs Baş, Nurçin Saka
BACKGROUND: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a wellknown cause of potentially life-threatening disorders. Defects at each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can impair adrenal function, leading to varying degrees of glucocorticoid (GC) deficiency. Iatrogenic AI induced by exogenous GCs is the most common cause of AI. The criteria for the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic AI, neonatal AI, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) are not clear. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed the recent original publications and classical data from the literature, as well as the clinical, diagnostic and management strategies of pediatric AI...
August 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Maki Yamashita, Kazunori Kageyama, Hiroshi Murakami, Aya Sugiyama, Miyuki Yanagimachi, Eri Sato, Shingo Murasawa, Jun Matsui, Naoki Tamasawa, Makoto Daimon
Adrenal insufficiency may occur in patients with liver cirrhosis. The assessment of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function is important in such patients, but there is no consensus as to how it should be performed. We herein report the results of our evaluation of the adrenal function in two patients with hypocortisolism accompanied by liver cirrhosis. The patients lacked the typical features of hypocortisolism. One was diagnosed with hypocortisolism accompanied by liver cirrhosis while the other had secondary adrenal insufficiency caused by a hypothalamic disorder...
2016: Internal Medicine
Leelavathy Kandaswamy, Rajeev Raghavan, Joseph M Pappachan
Spontaneous hypoglycemia is a puzzling clinical problem and an important reason for referral to endocrinologists. Several clinical conditions such as insulinomas, non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome, insulin autoimmune syndrome, postprandial hypoglycemia (reactive hypoglycemia), non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia, primary adrenal insufficiency, hypopituitarism, and critical illness can be associated with spontaneous hypoglycemia. Rarely, in patients with mental health issues, factious hypoglycemia from extrinsic insulin use or ingestion of oral hypoglycemic agents can obfuscate the clinical picture for clinicians trying to identify an organic cause...
July 2016: Endocrine
Carmen L Soto-Rivera, Michael S D Agus, Jaclyn E Sawyer, Duncan J Macrae
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the current literature on the use of hormone replacement therapies in pediatric cardiac critical care. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched using keywords relevant to the hormonal therapy, with no limits on language but restricting the search to children 0-18 years old. STUDY SELECTION: All clinical studies believed to have relevance were considered. Where studies in children were sparse, additional evidence was sought from adult studies...
March 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Gary Xia Vern Tan, Tom Sutherland
INTRODUCTION: Adrenal hemorrhage is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition, particularly in cases of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage causing primary adrenal insufficiency. It is difficult to diagnose clinically, particularly in critically ill patients, given its non-specific symptoms and signs, which include abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, weakness, hypotension, and altered conscious state. Non-traumatic adrenal hemorrhage has been observed to occur in times of physiological stress, such as post-surgery, sepsis, burns, and hypotension...
February 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Matthew R Dettmer, R Phillip Dellinger
There is continued debate about the clinical ramifications of single-dose etomidate for rapid sequence induction (RSI) in patients with sepsis. This history of this debate includes early studies identifying an association between etomidate infusions and mortality with adrenal suppression as a hypothesized mechanism. More recent data describing the high prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in patients with sepsis has prompted additional investigation as to the clinical effects of single-dose etomidate when utilized as an agent in RSI...
October 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Philippe Yale, Neill K J Adhikari, Vincent Masse, Robert A Fowler, Wei Xiong, Allison McGeer, Darlene Cann, Wallis Rudnick, Karen Green, Maureen O Meade, Louis Valiquette, François Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Survey data suggest that Canadian intensivists administer corticosteroids to critically ill patients primarily in response to airway obstruction, perceived risk for adrenal insufficiency and hemodynamic instability. OBJECTIVE: To describe variables independently associated with systemic corticosteroid therapy during an influenza outbreak. METHODS: The present analysis was retrospective cohort study involving critically ill patients with influenza in two Canadian cities...
September 2015: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Amanda Carmean, James D Fortenberry, Courtney McCracken, Kiran B Hebbar
OBJECTIVE: Although corticosteroid (CS) supplementation for pediatric septic shock (PSS) is recommended by American College of Critical Care Medicine sepsis guidelines, most data are based on adult trials. Standardized protocols for stimulation testing for adrenal insufficiency (AI) and CS treatment in children have been reported, but the current state of CS use and protocols have not been evaluated in pediatric intensive care units in the United States. We surveyed a group of pediatric intensivists to assess current approaches...
October 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Stephanie G Yi, Archana R Sadhu, Stephen L Jones, Krista Turner, Howard Monsour, Kevin Donahue, Xuefeng Xia, A Osama Gaber, R Mark Ghobrial, Sherilyn Gordon Burroughs
BACKGROUND: The effect of adrenal replacement therapy (ART) with hydrocortisone on critical endpoints such as infection and mortality in critically ill patients with cirrhosis remains unclear. We evaluated our indications for ART in patients with cirrhosis with clinical symptoms of adrenal insufficiency (AI), and examined the rate of peri-transplant fungal colonization and mortality associated with ART. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients with cirrhosis admitted to our institution's surgical intensive care unit (ICU) over a 4-year period met criteria for AI by vasopressor requirement and baseline cortisol levels...
September 2013: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Angela S Lee, Stephen M Twigg
UNLABELLED: Adrenal insufficiency is a rare cause of hypercalcaemia and should be considered when more common causes such as primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are excluded. Opioid therapy as a cause of adrenal insufficiency is a possibly under-recognised endocrinopathy with potentially life-threatening adverse effects. We report on a case of opioid-induced secondary adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcaemia. The patient was a 25-year-old man who developed hypercalcaemia during the recovery stage after a period of critical illness...
2015: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Eva Boonen, Stefan R Bornstein, Greet Van den Berghe
Critical illness represents a life-threatening disorder necessitating recruitment of defence mechanisms for survival. Herein, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is essential. However, the relevance of a relative insufficiency of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness, which is diagnosed by a suppressed cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) irrespective of the plasma cortisol concentration, is controversial. Findings from several studies have provided insights that clarify at least part of this controversy...
October 2015: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Apostolos Ka Karagiannis, Theodora Nakouti, Chrysoula Pipili, Evangelos Cholongitas
Adrenal reserve depletion and overstimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are causes for adrenal insufficiency (AI) in critically ill individuals. Cirrhosis is a predisposing condition for AI in cirrhotics as well. Both stable cirrhotics and liver transplant patients (early and later after transplantation) have been reported to present AI. The mechanisms leading to reduced cortisol production in cirrhotics are the combination of low cholesterol levels (the primary source of cortisol), the increased cytokines production that overstimulate and exhaust HPA axis and the destruction of adrenal glands due to coagulopathy...
May 18, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf Soliman, Mohamed Yassin, Piernicola Garofalo
Evaluating children or adolescents with central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is a difficult task in clinical practice, especially in subjects with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases and partial ACTH deficiency, or in those with recent pituitary surgery or brain irradiation when the adrenal cortex may still be responsive to stress. In 2008, a meta-analysis reported a three-step approach for evaluating patients at risk for CAI with no acute illness. In particular, the authors recommended the evaluation of morning cortisol, a low dose ACTH test (LDST) and the "gold standard" insulin tolerance test or metyrapone test if the low LDCT was not diagnostic...
March 2015: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
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