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adrenal insufficiency in critical ills patients

Amir H Hamrahian, Maria Fleseriu
Definition of normal adrenal function in critically ill patients remains controversial, despite a large body of literature. Furthermore, evaluation of adrenal function in these patients is complex. A decrease in cortisol breakdown rather than an increase in cortisol production has been suggested as the main contributor to elevated cortisol levels in critically ill patients. The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency has multiple pathophysiological flaws and is not supported by current evidence. Patients with septic shock who are pressor-dependent or refractory to fluid resuscitation should receive a short course of hydrocortisone regardless of their serum cortisol levels or their response to a Cosyntropin stimulation test (CST)...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
Gaeun Kim, Ji Hye Huh, Kyong Joo Lee, Moon Young Kim, Kwang Yong Shim, Soon Koo Baik
BACKGROUND: Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) is frequently observed in patients with cirrhosis. We sought to identify evidence in the literature regarding the impact of RAI on clinical outcomes in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) using the Ovid-MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant studies in the literature. RESULTS: Of the 182 studies identified, 16 were eligible according to our inclusion criteria...
April 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Shruti Bhandari, Katrina Agito, Esther I Krug
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH) is a rare complication typically seen in critically ill patients, which can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency and death unless it is recognized promptly and treated appropriately. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with polycythemia vera found to be unresponsive with fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and hypoglycemia. Electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation with elevated troponin, hemoglobin, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. He required aggressive ventilator and vasopressor support...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Ahmet Uçar, Firdevs Baş, Nurçin Saka
BACKGROUND: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a wellknown cause of potentially life-threatening disorders. Defects at each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can impair adrenal function, leading to varying degrees of glucocorticoid (GC) deficiency. Iatrogenic AI induced by exogenous GCs is the most common cause of AI. The criteria for the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic AI, neonatal AI, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) are not clear. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed the recent original publications and classical data from the literature, as well as the clinical, diagnostic and management strategies of pediatric AI...
August 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Maki Yamashita, Kazunori Kageyama, Hiroshi Murakami, Aya Sugiyama, Miyuki Yanagimachi, Eri Sato, Shingo Murasawa, Jun Matsui, Naoki Tamasawa, Makoto Daimon
Adrenal insufficiency may occur in patients with liver cirrhosis. The assessment of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function is important in such patients, but there is no consensus as to how it should be performed. We herein report the results of our evaluation of the adrenal function in two patients with hypocortisolism accompanied by liver cirrhosis. The patients lacked the typical features of hypocortisolism. One was diagnosed with hypocortisolism accompanied by liver cirrhosis while the other had secondary adrenal insufficiency caused by a hypothalamic disorder...
2016: Internal Medicine
Leelavathy Kandaswamy, Rajeev Raghavan, Joseph M Pappachan
Spontaneous hypoglycemia is a puzzling clinical problem and an important reason for referral to endocrinologists. Several clinical conditions such as insulinomas, non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome, insulin autoimmune syndrome, postprandial hypoglycemia (reactive hypoglycemia), non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia, primary adrenal insufficiency, hypopituitarism, and critical illness can be associated with spontaneous hypoglycemia. Rarely, in patients with mental health issues, factious hypoglycemia from extrinsic insulin use or ingestion of oral hypoglycemic agents can obfuscate the clinical picture for clinicians trying to identify an organic cause...
July 2016: Endocrine
Carmen L Soto-Rivera, Michael S D Agus, Jaclyn E Sawyer, Duncan J Macrae
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the current literature on the use of hormone replacement therapies in pediatric cardiac critical care. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched using keywords relevant to the hormonal therapy, with no limits on language but restricting the search to children 0-18 years old. STUDY SELECTION: All clinical studies believed to have relevance were considered. Where studies in children were sparse, additional evidence was sought from adult studies...
March 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Gary Xia Vern Tan, Tom Sutherland
INTRODUCTION: Adrenal hemorrhage is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition, particularly in cases of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage causing primary adrenal insufficiency. It is difficult to diagnose clinically, particularly in critically ill patients, given its non-specific symptoms and signs, which include abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, weakness, hypotension, and altered conscious state. Non-traumatic adrenal hemorrhage has been observed to occur in times of physiological stress, such as post-surgery, sepsis, burns, and hypotension...
February 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Matthew R Dettmer, R Phillip Dellinger
There is continued debate about the clinical ramifications of single-dose etomidate for rapid sequence induction (RSI) in patients with sepsis. This history of this debate includes early studies identifying an association between etomidate infusions and mortality with adrenal suppression as a hypothesized mechanism. More recent data describing the high prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in patients with sepsis has prompted additional investigation as to the clinical effects of single-dose etomidate when utilized as an agent in RSI...
October 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Philippe Yale, Neill K J Adhikari, Vincent Masse, Robert A Fowler, Wei Xiong, Allison McGeer, Darlene Cann, Wallis Rudnick, Karen Green, Maureen O Meade, Louis Valiquette, François Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Survey data suggest that Canadian intensivists administer corticosteroids to critically ill patients primarily in response to airway obstruction, perceived risk for adrenal insufficiency and hemodynamic instability. OBJECTIVE: To describe variables independently associated with systemic corticosteroid therapy during an influenza outbreak. METHODS: The present analysis was retrospective cohort study involving critically ill patients with influenza in two Canadian cities...
September 2015: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Amanda Carmean, James D Fortenberry, Courtney McCracken, Kiran B Hebbar
OBJECTIVE: Although corticosteroid (CS) supplementation for pediatric septic shock (PSS) is recommended by American College of Critical Care Medicine sepsis guidelines, most data are based on adult trials. Standardized protocols for stimulation testing for adrenal insufficiency (AI) and CS treatment in children have been reported, but the current state of CS use and protocols have not been evaluated in pediatric intensive care units in the United States. We surveyed a group of pediatric intensivists to assess current approaches...
October 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
Stephanie G Yi, Archana R Sadhu, Stephen L Jones, Krista Turner, Howard Monsour, Kevin Donahue, Xuefeng Xia, A Osama Gaber, R Mark Ghobrial, Sherilyn Gordon Burroughs
BACKGROUND: The effect of adrenal replacement therapy (ART) with hydrocortisone on critical endpoints such as infection and mortality in critically ill patients with cirrhosis remains unclear. We evaluated our indications for ART in patients with cirrhosis with clinical symptoms of adrenal insufficiency (AI), and examined the rate of peri-transplant fungal colonization and mortality associated with ART. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients with cirrhosis admitted to our institution's surgical intensive care unit (ICU) over a 4-year period met criteria for AI by vasopressor requirement and baseline cortisol levels...
September 2013: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Angela S Lee, Stephen M Twigg
UNLABELLED: Adrenal insufficiency is a rare cause of hypercalcaemia and should be considered when more common causes such as primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are excluded. Opioid therapy as a cause of adrenal insufficiency is a possibly under-recognised endocrinopathy with potentially life-threatening adverse effects. We report on a case of opioid-induced secondary adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcaemia. The patient was a 25-year-old man who developed hypercalcaemia during the recovery stage after a period of critical illness...
2015: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Eva Boonen, Stefan R Bornstein, Greet Van den Berghe
Critical illness represents a life-threatening disorder necessitating recruitment of defence mechanisms for survival. Herein, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is essential. However, the relevance of a relative insufficiency of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness, which is diagnosed by a suppressed cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) irrespective of the plasma cortisol concentration, is controversial. Findings from several studies have provided insights that clarify at least part of this controversy...
October 2015: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Apostolos Ka Karagiannis, Theodora Nakouti, Chrysoula Pipili, Evangelos Cholongitas
Adrenal reserve depletion and overstimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are causes for adrenal insufficiency (AI) in critically ill individuals. Cirrhosis is a predisposing condition for AI in cirrhotics as well. Both stable cirrhotics and liver transplant patients (early and later after transplantation) have been reported to present AI. The mechanisms leading to reduced cortisol production in cirrhotics are the combination of low cholesterol levels (the primary source of cortisol), the increased cytokines production that overstimulate and exhaust HPA axis and the destruction of adrenal glands due to coagulopathy...
May 18, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf Soliman, Mohamed Yassin, Piernicola Garofalo
Evaluating children or adolescents with central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is a difficult task in clinical practice, especially in subjects with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases and partial ACTH deficiency, or in those with recent pituitary surgery or brain irradiation when the adrenal cortex may still be responsive to stress. In 2008, a meta-analysis reported a three-step approach for evaluating patients at risk for CAI with no acute illness. In particular, the authors recommended the evaluation of morning cortisol, a low dose ACTH test (LDST) and the "gold standard" insulin tolerance test or metyrapone test if the low LDCT was not diagnostic...
March 2015: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Manassawee Korwutthikulrangsri, Pat Mahachoklertwattana, Rojjanee Lertbunrian, La-Or Chailurkit, Preamrudee Poomthavorn
BACKGROUND: Data on interrelationship between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and adrenal insufficiency in critically ill children are limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine vitamin D status in critically ill children and its relationship with adrenal function. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Thirty-two patients and 36 controls were included. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels were measured. Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score, outcome and adrenal function assessed by 1-microgram adrenocorticotropic hormone test were collected...
April 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Philippe Meersseman, Eva Boonen, Bram Peeters, Sarah Vander Perre, Pieter J Wouters, Lies Langouche, Greet Van den Berghe
BACKGROUND: Nutrition can affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We hypothesized that early administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) during critical illness reduces plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations and thereby increases the use of corticosteroids. METHODS: This is a preplanned substudy of a randomized controlled trial (EPaNIC) that compared early PN with late PN in 4640 critically ill patients. We investigated the effect of early vs late PN on any steroid treatment and on treatment for ≥ 5 days to capture patients with clinical suspicion of adrenal insufficiency, and assessed whether this was related to an effect on septic shock...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nathan J Smischney, Sumedh S Hoskote, Alice Gallo de Moraes, Carlos J Racedo Africano, Perliveh M Carrera, Rudy Tedja, Jasleen K Pannu, Elizabeth C Hassebroek, Dereddi Raja S Reddy, Richard F Hinds, Lokendra Thakur
BACKGROUND: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is commonly performed as a life-saving procedure in the intensive care unit (ICU). It is often associated with significant hemodynamic perturbations and can severely impact the outcome of ICU patients. Etomidate is often chosen by many critical care providers for the patients who are hypotensive because of its superior hemodynamic profile compared to other induction medications. However, recent evidence has raised concerns about the increased incidence of adrenal insufficiency and mortality associated with etomidate use...
April 21, 2015: Trials
Norasyikin A Wahab, Nani Zalinda Abdul Razak, Norlela Sukor, Suehazlyn Zainudin, Amiliyaton Mohd Razali, Norlaila Mustafa, Wan Nur Nafisah Wan Yahya, Nor Azmi Kamaruddin
INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke is a stressful condition where there is marked increase in the production of cortisol. In the past, adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients had been shown to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To date, there have been no studies performed to determine its prevalence among patients with acute ischemic stroke.  OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of relative adrenal insufficiency in acute ischemic stroke by utilizing low dose (LD) and standard dose (SD) synacthen tests and to correlate it with inpatient hospital morbidity and mortality...
February 2015: Archives of Iranian Medicine
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