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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919644/heterogeneous-catalytic-oxidation-of-simple-alcohols-by-transition-metals
#1
Leon Jacobse, Sebastiaan O Vink, Sven Wijngaarden, Ludo B F Juurlink
The "exploding" flask demonstration presents a well-known illustration of heterogeneous catalyzed methanol oxidation. We find that for the same vapor pressure, the demonstration also works for all primary and secondary alcohols up to butanol but not for a tertiary alcohol. Also, we show that the demonstration works for a large range of transition metal catalysts. Hence, this demonstration, which is often applied for the repetitive explosions when methanol is used, may also be used to argue the requirement of initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol to an aldehyde in the catalytic reaction mechanism to support the general insensitivity to reactant molecules in heterogeneous catalysis in contrast to biological catalysis and to provide proof for activity trends as often depicted by volcano plots...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919643/misconceptions-in-the-exploding-flask-demonstration-resolved-through-students-critical-thinking
#2
Rick Spierenburg, Leon Jacobse, Iris de Bruin, Daan J van den Bos, Dominique M Vis, Ludo B F Juurlink
As it connects to a large set of important fundamental ideas in chemistry and analytical techniques discussed in high school chemistry curricula, we review the exploding flask demonstration. In this demonstration, methanol vapor is catalytically oxidized by a Pt wire catalyst in an open container. The exothermicity of reactions occurring at the catalytic surface heats the metal to the extent that it glows. When restricting reactant and product gas flow, conditions may favor repetitive occurrence of a small explosion...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867560/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-opioid-related-deaths-involving-alcohol-in-ontario-canada
#3
Tara Gomes, David N Juurlink, Muhammad M Mamdani, J Michael Paterson, Wim van den Brink
BACKGROUND: While it is well known that patients receiving opioids should refrain from alcohol consumption, little is known about the involvement of alcohol in opioid-related deaths. METHODS: We conducted a population-based analysis of opioid-related deaths in Ontario with and without alcohol involvement between 1993 and 2013, and reported rates overall and stratified by manner of death. We compared the characteristics of individuals who died of an opioid overdose based on the presence or absence of alcohol involvement...
August 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750272/medication-use-and-kidney-cancer-risk-a%C3%A2-population-based-study
#4
Madhur Nayan, David N Juurlink, Peter C Austin, Erin M Macdonald, Antonio Finelli, Girish S Kulkarni, Robert J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Exposure to commonly prescribed medications may be associated with cancer risk. However, there is limited data in kidney cancer. Furthermore, methods of classifying cumulative medication exposure in previous studies may be prone to bias. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 10,377 incident kidney cancer cases aged ≥66 years matched with 35,939 controls on age, sex, history of hypertension, comorbidity score, and geographic location...
September 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652873/the-value-of-complementing-administrative-data-with-abstracted-information-on-smoking-and-obesity-a-study-in-kidney-cancer
#5
Madhur Nayan, Robert J Hamilton, Antonio Finelli, Peter C Austin, Girish S Kulkarni, David N Juurlink
INTRODUCTION: Variables, such as smoking and obesity, are rarely available in administrative databases. We explored the added value of including these data in an administrative database study evaluating the association of statin use with survival in kidney cancer. METHODS: We linked administrative data with chart-abstracted data on smoking and obesity for 808 patients undergoing nephrectomy for kidney cancer. Base models consisted of variables from administrative databases (age, sex, year of surgery, and different measures of comorbidity [to compare their sensitivity to smoking and obesity data]); extended models added chart-abstracted data...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620909/pregabalin-and-heart-failure-a-population-based-study
#6
Joanne M-W Ho, Erin M Macdonald, Jin Luo, Tara Gomes, Tony Antoniou, Muhammad M Mamdani, David N Juurlink
PURPOSE: The anticonvulsant pregabalin is increasingly prescribed for pain, seizures, and psychiatric disorders. Although evidence suggests pregabalin can cause edema and heart failure, its cardiac safety profile in clinical practice is unknown. We sought to examine the risk of heart failure among older patients receiving pregabalin compared to those receiving gabapentin. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of Ontarians aged 66 and older with a history of seizure who received pregabalin or gabapentin between April 2013 and March 2014...
September 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620871/lipophilic-statins-and-the-risk-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-following-ischemic-stroke-a-population-based-study
#7
Kieran L Quinn, Erin M Macdonald, Muhammad M Mamdani, Christina Diong, David N Juurlink
BACKGROUND: Statins are commonly prescribed for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, but there is conflicting evidence as to whether they increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Lipophilic statins cross the blood-brain barrier more freely than hydrophilic statins and may therefore increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, in older patients following ischemic stroke, receipt of lipophilic statins was associated with differences in the risk of intracranial hemorrhage...
June 15, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608364/a-critical-appraisal-of-the-application-of-propensity-score-methods-in-the-urology-literature
#8
Madhur Nayan, Robert J Hamilton, David N Juurlink, Antonio Finelli, Girish S Kulkarni, Peter C Austin
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether studies that used propensity score (PS) methods in the urology literature provided sufficient detail to allow scientific reproducibility and whether appropriate statistical tests were used to obtain valid measures of effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched OVID Medline and the Science Citation Index from inception to November 2016 to identify studies that used PS methods from 5 general urology journals. From each included article, we extracted pertinent information related to the PS methodology such as estimation of the PS, whether balance diagnostics were performed, and the statistical analysis performed...
June 13, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606977/loperamide-abuse
#9
Tony Antoniou, David N Juurlink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564561/a-1980-letter-on-the-risk-of-opioid-addiction
#10
LETTER
Pamela T M Leung, Erin M Macdonald, Matthew B Stanbrook, Irfan A Dhalla, David N Juurlink
To the Editor: The prescribing of strong opioids such as oxycodone has increased dramatically in the United States and Canada over the past two decades. From 1999 through 2015, more than 183,000 deaths from prescription opioids were reported in the United States, and millions of Americans are now..
June 1, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506439/clinical-review-loperamide-toxicity
#11
REVIEW
Peter E Wu, David N Juurlink
Loperamide is a nonprescription opioid widely used for the treatment of diarrhea. Although it is relatively safe at therapeutic doses, increasing reports describe its misuse and abuse at very high doses either for euphoric effects or to attenuate symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Life-threatening loperamide toxicity can result from the relatively new clinical syndrome of loperamide-induced cardiac toxicity. These patients are often young and may present in cardiac arrest or with unheralded, recurrent syncope in conjunction with ECG abnormalities, including marked QT-interval prolongation, QRS-interval widening, and ventricular dysrhythmias...
August 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495030/intubation-and-salicylate-overdose
#12
LETTER
Sophie Gosselin, Josh J Wang, Eric Villeneuve, David Juurlink, Robert S Hoffman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489463/comment-on-shively-et%C3%A2-al-acute-salicylate-poisoning-risk-factors-for-severe-outcome
#13
Jonathan Zipursky, David N Juurlink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489462/response-to-juurlink-letter-comment-on-shively-et%C3%A2-al-acute-salicylate-poisoning-risk-factors-for-severe-outcome
#14
Rachel M Shively, Robert S Hoffman, Alex F Manini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483845/guideline-for-opioid-therapy-and-chronic-noncancer-pain
#15
Jason W Busse, Samantha Craigie, David N Juurlink, D Norman Buckley, Li Wang, Rachel J Couban, Thomas Agoritsas, Elie A Akl, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Lynn Cooper, Chris Cull, Bruno R da Costa, Joseph W Frank, Gus Grant, Alfonso Iorio, Navindra Persaud, Sol Stern, Peter Tugwell, Per Olav Vandvik, Gordon H Guyatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421551/macrolides-digoxin-toxicity-and-the-risk-of-sudden-death-a-population-based-study
#16
Kieran L Quinn, Erin M Macdonald, Tara Gomes, Muhammad M Mamdani, Anjie Huang, David N Juurlink
INTRODUCTION: Digoxin is commonly prescribed to elderly patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation, and macrolide antibiotics markedly increase the risk of digoxin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether, in older patients receiving digoxin, macrolide antibiotics are associated with sudden death. METHODS: We used a population-based, nested, case-control design from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2012 in a cohort of Ontario residents aged 66 years or older prescribed digoxin...
April 18, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340102/impact-of-unrestricted-access-to-pregabalin-on-the-use-of-opioids-and-other-cns-active-medications-a-cross-sectional-time-series-analysis
#17
Herman Kwok, Wayne Khuu, Kimberly Fernandes, Diana Martins, Mina Tadrous, Samantha Singh, David N Juurlink, Tara Gomes
Objective.:  Access to pregabalin via Ontario's public drug insurance program was expanded to an unrestricted model on April 1, 2013, from a prior authorization model. This study aims to identify the effect of expanded access on the rate of pregabalin use by publicly insured persons and to assess the characteristics of new patients initiating pregabalin following this expanded access. Methods.:  We conducted a cross-sectional time series analysis using the linked health administrative records of residents of Ontario, Canada, with public drug coverage who were dispensed a prescription for pregabalin between April 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014...
June 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338548/lipophilic-%C3%AE-blockers-and-suicide-in-the-elderly
#18
Jonathan S Zipursky, Erin M Macdonald, Jin Luo, Tara Gomes, Muhammad M Mamdani, J Michael Paterson, David N Juurlink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323632/exposure-of-pt-5%C3%A2-5%C3%A2-3-and-rh-1%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-1-to-atomic-and-molecular-oxygen-do-defects-enhance-subsurface-oxygen-formation
#19
Rachael G Farber, Marie E Turano, Eleanor C N Oskorep, Noelle T Wands, Ludo B F Juurlink, Daniel R Killelea
Subsurface oxygen is known to form in transition metals, and is thought to be an important aspect of their ability to catalyze chemical reactions. The formation of subsurface oxygen is not, however, equivalent across all catalytically relevant metals. As a result, it is difficult to predict the stability and ease of the formation of subsurface oxygen in metals, as well as how the absorbed oxygen affects the chemical and physical properties of the metal. In comparing how a stepped platinum surface, Pt(5 5 3), responds to exposure to gas-phase oxygen atoms under ultra-high vacuum conditions to planar Rh(1 1 1), we are able to determine what role, if any, steps have on the capacity of a metal for subsurface oxygen formation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248145/better-studies-are-needed-to-guide-treatment-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#20
David N Juurlink, Nicholas A Buckley, Michael Eddleston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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