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Imaging efficiency measures

Yuanxia Luo, Baoyu Gao, Qinyan Yue, Ruihua Li
Humic acid (HA) influences the aggregation and stability of nanoparticles (NPs), which determine the removal performance of NPs in coagulation. Consequently, in this study, the impact of HA concentration on the simultaneous removal of CuO NPs, Cu2+ , and natural organic matter (NOM) was investigated. Enteromorpha polysaccharides (Ep), as the novel recycling coagulant aid, were integrated with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) to treat composite contaminants in this coagulation process. Removal performance, floc properties, zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FT-IR) were measured and analyzed...
March 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Nathan M Wnuk, Tarik K Alkasab, Daniel I Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Lumbar spine MRI is frequently said to be "overused" in the evaluation of low-back pain, yet data concerning the extent of overuse and on potential harmful effects are lacking. PURPOSE: To determine the proportion of examinations with a detectable impact on patient care (actionable outcomes). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study PATIENT SAMPLE: 5,365 outpatient lumbar spine MR examinations OUTCOME MEASURES: Actionable outcomes included: 1) findings leading to an intervention making use of anatomical information such as surgery; 2) new diagnoses of cancer, infection, or fracture; or 3) following known lumbar spine pathology...
April 18, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Jinwoo Park, Mi Choi, Cheong-Soo Hwang
In this study, water-dispersible manganese (II) ion-doped ZnS nanocrystals (ZnS:Mn NCs) were synthesized by capping the surface with L-glycine molecules at various pH conditions. The UV-Visible and solution photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed broad peaks approximately at 330 and 590 nm, respectively. The calculated relative quantum efficiencies were in the range of 4.9∼5.8%, and the average particle sizes measured from the HR-TEM images were about 8 nm. Moreover, the surface charges of the corresponding ZnS:Mn-Gly NCs were determined by the electrophoretic method as: (-)14...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Kyo-Tae Kim, Joo-Hee Kim, Ye-Ji Heo, Cheol-Ha Baek, Si-Cheol Noh, Yun-Seon Choi, Ki-Jung Ahn, Heung-Lae Cho, Chi-Woong Mun, Sung-Kwang Park
With increasingly strict regulations regarding patient exposure, research on digital radiography technology has recently focused on indirect methods that can produce high-quality images for a low radiation dose. In particular, medical imaging systems based on indirect methods universally use rare-earth metal phosphors, because of their high atomic number and excellent luminescence efficiency. Thus, various studies aiming to improve the luminescence efficiency of phosphors have been conducted. Despite this research, however, the current luminescence efficiencies are insufficient...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ran Li, Xiaomeng Duan, Xu Li, Wei He, Yanling Li
Aimed at a low-energy consumption of Green Internet of Things (IoT), this paper presents an energy-efficient compressive image coding scheme, which provides compressive encoder and real-time decoder according to Compressive Sensing (CS) theory. The compressive encoder adaptively measures each image block based on the block-based gradient field, which models the distribution of block sparse degree, and the real-time decoder linearly reconstructs each image block through a projection matrix, which is learned by Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) criterion...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Shuang Zhao, Xu Qian, Xiangnan Liu, Zhao Xu
Accurately monitoring heavy metal stress in crops is vital for food security and agricultural production. The assimilation of remote sensing images into the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model provides an efficient way to solve this problem. In this study, we aimed at investigating the key periods of the assimilation framework for continuous monitoring of heavy metal stress in rice. The Harris algorithm was used for the leaf area index (LAI) curves to select the key period for an optimized assimilation. To obtain accurate LAI values, the measured dry weight of rice roots (WRT), which have been proven to be the most stress-sensitive indicator of heavy metal stress, were incorporated into the improved WOFOST model...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Shi Yin, Xinge You, Xin Yang, Qinmu Peng, Ziqi Zhu, Xiao-Yuan Jing
PURPOSE: Low signal-to-noise-ratio and limited scan time of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) in current clinical settings impede obtaining images with high spatial and angular resolution (HSAR) for a reliable fiber reconstruction with fine anatomical details. To overcome this problem, we propose a joint space-angle regularization approach to reconstruct HSAR diffusion signals from a single 4D low resolution (LR) dMRI, which is down-sampled in both 3D-space and q-space. METHODS: Different from the existing works which combine multiple 4D LR diffusion images acquired using specific acquisition protocols, the proposed method reconstructs HSAR dMRI from only a single 4D dMRI by exploring and integrating two key priors, that is, the nonlocal self-similarity in the spatial domain as a prior to increase spatial resolution and ridgelet approximations in the diffusion domain as another prior to increase the angular resolution of dMRI...
April 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Maxime Huet, Myriam Cubizolles, Arnaud Buhot
Pre-transfusion bedside compatibility test is mandatory to check that the donor and the recipient present compatible groups before any transfusion is performed. Although blood typing devices are present on the market, they still suffer from various drawbacks, like results that are based on naked-eye observation or difficulties in blood handling and process automation. In this study, we addressed the development of a red blood cells (RBC) agglutination assay for point-of-care blood typing. An injection molded microfluidic chip that is designed to enhance capillary flow contained anti-A or anti-B dried reagents inside its microchannel...
April 19, 2018: High-throughput
Ville Heikkinen
This paper explores hyperspectral reflectance factor estimation using Gaussian process regression with multispectral- and trichromatic measurements. Estimations are performed in visible- (400-700 nm) or visible-near infrared (400-980 nm) wavelength ranges using the learning-based approach, where sensor and light spectral characteristics are not required. We first construct new estimation models via Gaussian processes, show connection to previous kernel-based models, and then evaluate new models by using marginal likelihood optimization within the probabilistic interpretation...
July 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Esia Belbachir, Ehsan Golkar, Bernard Bayle, Caroline Essert
PURPOSE: Percutaneous procedures allow interventional radiologists to perform diagnoses or treatments guided by an imaging device, typically a computed tomography (CT) scanner with a high spatial resolution. To reduce exposure to radiations and improve accuracy, robotic assistance to needle insertion is considered in the case of X-ray guided procedures. We introduce a planning algorithm that computes a needle placement compatible with both the patient's anatomy and the accessibility of the robot within the scanner gantry...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
John G Swales, Alex Dexter, Gregory Hamm, Anna Nilsson, Nicole Strittmatter, Filippos Michopoulos, Christopher Hardy, Pablo Morentin-Gutierrez, Martine Mellor, Per E Andren, Malcolm R Clench, Josephine Bunch, Susan E Critchlow, Richard J A Goodwin
Described is quantitative mass spectrometry imaging (qMSI) methodology for the analysis of lactate and glutamate distributions to delineate heterogeneity between mouse tumor models used to support drug discovery efficacy testing. We evaluate and report on the pre-analysis stabilization methods aimed at improving reproducibility and efficiency of quantitative assessment of endogenous molecules in tissues. Stability experiments demonstrate that optimum stabilization protocols consists of frozen tissue embedding, post tissue-sectioning desiccation and storage of tissue sections at -80°C sealed in vacuum tight containers...
April 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Michel Defrise, Ahmadreza Rezaei, Johan Nuyts
This paper presents new data driven methods for the time of flight (TOF) calibration of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. 
 These methods are derived from the consistency condition for TOF PET, they can be applied to data measured with an arbitrary tracer distribution and are numerically efficient because they do not require a preliminary image reconstruction from the non-TOF data. 
 Two-dimensional simulations are presented for one of the methods, which only involves the two first moments of the data with respect to the TOF variable...
April 17, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Li Zhang, Jun Ding, Hanyu Zheng, Sensong An, Hongtao Lin, Bowen Zheng, Qingyang Du, Gufan Yin, Jerome Michon, Yifei Zhang, Zhuoran Fang, Mikhail Y Shalaginov, Longjiang Deng, Tian Gu, Hualiang Zhang, Juejun Hu
The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is a strategically important band for numerous applications ranging from night vision to biochemical sensing. Here we theoretically analyzed and experimentally realized a Huygens metasurface platform capable of fulfilling a diverse cross-section of optical functions in the mid-IR. The meta-optical elements were constructed using high-index chalcogenide films deposited on fluoride substrates: the choices of wide-band transparent materials allow the design to be scaled across a broad infrared spectrum...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Timothy A Karthas, Jeremy J Cook, Michael R Matthews, Michael L Sganga, Daniel D Hansen, Byron Collier, Philip Basile, Emily A Cook
Reliable evaluation of osseous consolidation after pedal arthrodesis can be difficult, and the presence or absence of radiographic healing often dictates care. Plain radiographs remain the mainstay imaging tool owing to their cost, efficiency, and low radiation exposure. Applying radiographic parameters that can reliably determine osseous healing is essential. However, currently, no reliable or validated measures are available to determine osseous union of any joint in the foot or ankle. The purpose of the present study was to develop a radiographic healing scoring system that would enhance the diagnostic healing assessment after joint arthrodesis of the foot or ankle...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Norhashila Hashim, Daniel I Onwude, Muhamad Syafiq Osman
Commodities originating from tropical and subtropical climes are prone to chilling injury (CI). This injury could affect the quality and marketing potential of mango after harvest. This will later affect the quality of the produce and subsequent consumer acceptance. In this study, the appearance of CI symptoms in mango was evaluated non-destructively using multispectral imaging. The fruit were stored at 4 °C to induce CI and 12 °C to preserve the quality of the control samples for 4 days before they were taken out and stored at ambient temperature for 24 hr...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Xiao Yang, Xiaobo Chen, Juntong Xi
Digital image correlation (DIC)-based stereo 3D shape measurement is a kind of single-shot method, which can achieve high precision and is robust to vibration as well as environment noise. The efficiency of DIC has been greatly improved with the proposal of inverse compositional Gauss-Newton (IC-GN) operators for both first-order and second-order warp functions. Without the algorithm itself, both the registration accuracy and efficiency of DIC-based stereo matching for shapes with different complexities are closely related to the selection of warp function, subset size, and convergence criteria...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
Kyungho Yoon, Wonhye Lee, Phillip Croce, Amanda Cammalleri, Seung-Schik Yoo
Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is emerging as a non-invasive brain stimulation modality. Complicated interactions between acoustic pressure waves and osseous tissue introduce many challenges in the accurate targeting of an acoustic focus through the cranium. Image-guidance accompanied by a numerical simulation is desired to predict the intracranial acoustic propagation through the skull; however, such simulations typically demand sophisticated computation, which warrants an expedited processing method to provide on-site feedback for the user in guiding the acoustic focus to a particular brain region...
April 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Daigo Terutsuki, Hidefumi Mitsuno, Takeshi Sakurai, Yuki Okamoto, Agnès Tixier-Mita, Hiroshi Toshiyoshi, Yoshio Mita, Ryohei Kanzaki
Field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors have a wide range of applications, and a bio-FET odorant sensor, based on insect (Sf21) cells expressing insect odorant receptors (ORs) with sensitivity and selectivity, has emerged. To fully realize the practical application of bio-FET odorant sensors, knowledge of the cell-device interface for efficient signal transfer, and a reliable and low-cost measurement system using the commercial complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) foundry process, will be indispensable...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Meena Siddiqui, Ahhyun S Nam, Serhat Tozburun, Norman Lippok, Cedric Blatter, Benjamin J Vakoc
Existing three-dimensional optical imaging methods excel in controlled environments but are difficult to deploy over large, irregular and dynamic fields. This has limited imaging in areas such as material inspection and medicine. To better address these applications, we developed methods in optical coherence tomography (OCT) to efficiently interrogate sparse scattering fields, i.e., those in which most locations (voxels) do not generate meaningful signal. Frequency comb sources are used to superimpose reflected signals from equispaced locations through optical subsampling...
2018: Nature Photonics
Joao Filipe Fernandes, James M Hammel, Jia Zhou, Yunbin Xiao, Manuela Chen, Rita Alves, John Lof, Stuart M Grieve, Andreas Schuster, Titus Kuehne, Shelby Kutty
OBJECTIVE: We investigated a full energetic profile of pressure and volume loaded right ventricle (RV) in porcine models by evaluating kinetic energy (KE), stroke power, power output and power loss across pulmonary valves with stenosis (PS) or with regurgitation (PR). METHODS: Fifteen pigs (6 PS and 6 PR, 3 unoperated controls) were studied. Phase-contrast 4D-flow MRI was performed in models of PS and PR at baseline and at 10-12 weeks, in conjunction with cardiac catheterization...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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