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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821805/transmission-zone-plates-as-analyzers-for-efficient-parallel-2d-rixs-mapping
#1
Felix Marschall, Zhong Yin, Jens Rehanek, Martin Beye, Florian Döring, Katharina Kubiček, Dirk Raiser, Sreevidya Thekku Veedu, Jens Buck, André Rothkirch, Benedikt Rösner, Vitaliy A Guzenko, Jens Viefhaus, Christian David, Simone Techert
We have implemented and successfully tested an off-axis transmission Fresnel zone plate as spectral analyzer for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). The imaging capabilities of zone plates allow for advanced two-dimensional (2D) mapping applications. By varying the photon energy along a line focus on the sample, we were able to simultaneously record the emission spectra over a range of excitation energies. Moreover, by scanning a line focus across the sample in one dimension, we efficiently recorded RIXS spectra spatially resolved in 2D, increasing the throughput by two orders of magnitude...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820988/integrating-printed-microfluidics-with-silicon-photomultipliers-for-miniaturised-and-highly-sensitive-atp-bioluminescence-detection
#2
M F Santangelo, S Libertino, A P F Turner, D Filippini, W C Mak
Bioluminescence has been widely used for important biosensing applications such as the measurement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy unit in biological systems and an indicator of vital processes. The current technology for detection is mainly based on large equipment such as readers and imaging systems, which require intensive and time-consuming procedures. A miniaturised bioluminescence sensing system, which would allow sensitive and continuous monitoring of ATP, with an integrated and low-cost disposable microfluidic chamber for handling of biological samples, is highly desirable...
July 27, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819203/differential-diagnostic-performance-of-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-in-small-%C3%A2-20%C3%A2-mm-breast-cancers-is-it-valuable
#3
Si-Da Wang, Lei Wang, Zhi-Xian Li, Kang-Lai Wei, Xin-Hong Liao, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Xue Huang
To evaluate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) inthe differential diagnosis of small (≤20 mm) solid breast lesions and identify the most efficient ARFI parameters. Conventional ultrasonography and ARFIwere performed in 120 patients with 121 small solid breast lesions. The area ratios (ARs) of the lesion on virtual touch tissue compared to B-mode were calculated. The shear wave velocity of the inner (SWVi) and boundary (SWVb) of the lesions and surrounding fatty tissue (SWVf) was measured. The ratio of SWVi to SWVf (SWVrat) was calculated...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817700/the-loss-and-recovery-of-vertebrate-vision-examined-in-microplates
#4
Robert J Thorn, Danielle E Clift, Oladele Ojo, Ruth M Colwill, Robbert Creton
Regenerative medicine offers potentially ground-breaking treatments of blindness and low vision. However, as new methodologies are developed, a critical question will need to be addressed: how do we monitor in vivo for functional success? In the present study, we developed novel behavioral assays to examine vision in a vertebrate model system. In the assays, zebrafish larvae are imaged in multiwell or multilane plates while various red, green, blue, yellow or cyan objects are presented to the larvae on a computer screen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816669/nonlocally-multi-morphological-representation-for-image-reconstruction-from-compressive-measurements
#5
Jiao Wu, Feilong Cao, Juncheng Yin
A novel multi-morphological representation model for solving the nonlocal similarity-based image reconstruction from compressed measurements is introduced in this paper. Under the probabilistic framework, the proposed approach provides the nonlocal similarity clustering for image patches by using the Gaussian mixture models, and endows a multimorphological representation for image patches in each cluster by using the Gaussians that represent the different features to model the morphological components. Using the simple alternating iteration, the developed piecewise morphological diversity estimation (PMDE) algorithm can effectively estimate the MAP of morphological components, thus resulting in the nonlinear estimation for image patches...
August 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816661/a-3d-reconstruction-strategy-of-vehicle-outline-based-on-single-pass-single-polarization-csar-data
#6
Leping Chen, Daoxiang An, Xiaotao Huang, Zhimin Zhou
In the last few years, interest in circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR) acquisitions has arisen as a consequence of the potential achievement of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions over 360° azimuth angle variation. In real-world scenarios full 3D reconstructions of arbitrary targets need multi-pass data, which makes the processing complex, money-consuming and time-expending. In this paper, we propose a processing strategy for the 3D reconstruction of vehicle, which can avoid using multi-pass data by introducing a priori information of vehicle's shape...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815766/preparation-of-robust-metal-free-magnetic-nanoemulsions-encapsulating-low-molecular-weight-nitroxide-radicals-and-hydrophobic-drugs-directed-toward-mri-visible-targeted-delivery
#7
Rui Tamura, Kota Nagura, Yusa Takemoto, Satori Moronaga, Yoshiaki Uchida, Satoshi Shimono, Akihiko Shiino, Kenji Tanigaki, Tsukuru Amano, Fumi Yoshino, Yohei Noda, Satoshi Koizumi, Naoki Komatsu, Tatsuhisa Kato, Jun Yamauchi
With a view to developing a theranostic nanomedicine for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-visible targeted drug delivery system, robust metal-free magnetic nanoemulsions (mean particle sizes of less than 20 nm) consisting of the biocompatible surfactant 1 and the incorporated hydrophobic low-molecular-weight 2,2,5-trimethyl-5-(4-alkoxy)phenylpyrrolidine-N-oxyl radicals [(±)-2] have been prepared in pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline. The structure of the nanoemulsions has been characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering measurements...
August 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812895/correlating-free-volume-hole-distribution-to-the-glass-transition-temperature-of-epoxy-polymers
#8
Amin Aramoon, Timothy D Breitzman, Christopher F Woodward, Jaafar A El-Awady
A new algorithm is developed to quantify the free-volume hole distribution and its evolution in coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of polymeric networks. This is achieved by analyzing the geometry of the network rather than a voxelized image of the structure to accurately and efficiently find and quantify free-volume hole distributions within large scale simulations of polymer networks. The free-volume holes are quantified by fitting the largest ellipsoids and spheres in the free-volumes between polymer chains...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812246/dna-tetrahedron-delivery-enhances-doxorubicin-induced-apoptosis-of-ht-29-colon-cancer-cells
#9
Guiyu Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Junen Yang
As a nano-sized drug carrier with the advantage of modifiability and proper biocompatibility, DNA tetrahedron (DNA tetra) delivery is hopeful to enhance the inhibitory efficiency of nontargeted anticancer drugs. In this investigation, doxorubicin (Dox) was assembled to a folic acid-modified DNA tetra via click chemistry to prepare a targeted antitumor agent. Cellular uptake efficiency was measured via fluorescent imaging. Cytotoxicity, inhibition efficiency, and corresponding mechanism on colon cancer cell line HT-29 were evaluated by MTT assay, cell proliferation curve, western blot, and flow cytometry...
August 15, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811886/comparison-of-photo-matching-algorithms-commonly-used-for-photographic-capture-recapture-studies
#10
Maximilian Matthé, Marco Sannolo, Kristopher Winiarski, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Daniel Goedbloed, Sebastian Steinfartz, Ulrich Stachow
Photographic capture-recapture is a valuable tool for obtaining demographic information on wildlife populations due to its noninvasive nature and cost-effectiveness. Recently, several computer-aided photo-matching algorithms have been developed to more efficiently match images of unique individuals in databases with thousands of images. However, the identification accuracy of these algorithms can severely bias estimates of vital rates and population size. Therefore, it is important to understand the performance and limitations of state-of-the-art photo-matching algorithms prior to implementation in capture-recapture studies involving possibly thousands of images...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811485/direct-detection-electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy-a-method-to-push-the-limits-of-resolution-and-sensitivity
#11
James L Hart, Andrew C Lang, Asher C Leff, Paolo Longo, Colin Trevor, Ray D Twesten, Mitra L Taheri
In many cases, electron counting with direct detection sensors offers improved resolution, lower noise, and higher pixel density compared to conventional, indirect detection sensors for electron microscopy applications. Direct detection technology has previously been utilized, with great success, for imaging and diffraction, but potential advantages for spectroscopy remain unexplored. Here we compare the performance of a direct detection sensor operated in counting mode and an indirect detection sensor (scintillator/fiber-optic/CCD) for electron energy-loss spectroscopy...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809906/efficient-method-for-the-measurement-of-lifetime-optical-damage-performance-of-thin-film-coatings-from-laser-damage-size-analysis
#12
Selim Elhadj, Jae Hyuck Yoo
A laser damage test method based on damage size analysis (DSA) is described that simplifies the derivation of the lifetime optical damage threshold of film materials critical in the design of devices used in high-repetition-rate, high-power laser systems. The DSA method presented here is solely based on imaging to measure the damage site size produced from exposure to a known Gaussian-shaped beam with a fixed, systematically selected fluence well above the ablation threshold. The method locates the damage boundary produced from repeated exposures, using images with a high contrast, and maps it to the beam profile to extract a lifetime laser damage fluence threshold value...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809758/optimizing-timing-performance-of-cdte-detectors-for-pet
#13
Mohammad Nakhostin
Despite several attractive properties, the poor timing performance of compound semiconductor detectors such as CdTe and CdZnTe has hindered their use in commercial PET imaging systems. The standard method of pulse timing with such detectors is to employ a constant-fraction discriminator (CFD) at the output of a timing filter which is fed by the pulses from a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The method has led to a time resolution of about 10 ns at full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with 1 mm thick CdTe detectors...
August 15, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808726/polarization-transfer-efficiency-in-phip-experiments
#14
M Emondts, J F P Colell, B Blümich, P P M Schleker
Parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a hyperpolarization method for NMR signal enhancement with applications in spectroscopy and imaging. Although parahydrogen can be easily enriched up to nearly 95%, the polarization detected on the hydrogenated substrate is substantially lower, where numerous loss mechanisms between the start of the hydrogenation reaction and detection affect polarization levels. The quality of PHIP systems is commonly determined by stating either the polarization degree or the enhancement factor of the product at the time of detection...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807409/a-decade-of-imaging-surgeons-brain-function-part-i-terminology-techniques-and-clinical-translation
#15
REVIEW
Hemel Narendra Modi, Harsimrat Singh, Guang-Zhong Yang, Ara Darzi, Daniel Richard Leff
BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging has the potential to deepen our understanding of technical and nontechnical skill acquisition in surgeons, particularly as established assessment tools leave unanswered questions about inter-operator differences in ability that seem independent of experience. METHODS: In this first of a 2-part article, we aim to utilize our experience in neuroimaging surgeons to orientate the nonspecialist reader to the principles of brain imaging...
August 11, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804244/development-of-new-contrast-agents-for-imaging-function-and-metabolism-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Alexandra Carvalho, M Clara Gonçalves, M Luísa Corvo, M Bárbara F Martins
Liposomes are interesting nanosystems with a wide range of medical application. One particular application is their ability to enhance contrast in magnetic resonance images; when properly loaded with magnetic/superparamagnetic nanoparticles, this means to act as contrast agents. The design of liposomes loaded with magnetic particles, magnetoliposomes, presents a large number of possibilities depending on the application from image function to metabolism. More interesting is its double function application as theranostics (diagnostics and therapy)...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801918/motion-compensation-in-the-region-of-the-coronary-arteries-based-on-partial-angle-reconstructions-from-short-scan-ct-data
#17
Juliane Hahn, Herbert Bruder, Christopher Rohkohl, Thomas Allmendinger, Karl Stierstorfer, Thomas Flohr, Marc Kachelrieß
PURPOSE: In order to mitigate motion-induced artifacts, several motion compensation (MoCo) methods have been developed, which are either able to a) compensate for severe artifacts, but utilize the data for the reconstruction of several cardiac phases, or b) improve image quality of a single reconstruction with only moderate motion artifacts. We propose a method combining both benefits: dose efficiency by utilizing only the data needed for a single short-scan reconstruction while still being able to compensate for severe artifacts...
August 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801254/the-effect-of-visual-parameters-on-neural-activation-during-nonsymbolic-number-comparison-and-its-relation-to-math-competency
#18
Eric D Wilkey, Jordan C Barone, Michèle M M Mazzocco, Stephan E Vogel, Gavin R Price
Nonsymbolic numerical comparison task performance (whereby a participant judges which of two groups of objects is numerically larger) is thought to index the efficiency of neural systems supporting numerical magnitude perception, and performance on such tasks has been related to individual differences in math competency. However, a growing body of research suggests task performance is heavily influenced by visual parameters of the stimuli (e.g. surface area and dot size of object sets) such that the correlation with math is driven by performance on trials in which number is incongruent with visual cues...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797928/comparison-of-planar-pet-and-well-counter-measurements-of-total-tumor-radioactivity-in-a-mouse-xenograft-model
#19
Michael V Green, Jurgen Seidel, Mark R Williams, Karen J Wong, Anita Ton, Falguni Basuli, Peter L Choyke, Elaine M Jagoda
INTRODUCTION: Quantitative small animal radionuclide imaging studies are often carried out with the intention of estimating the total radioactivity content of various tissues such as the radioactivity content of mouse xenograft tumors exposed to putative diagnostic or therapeutic agents. We show that for at least one specific application, positron projection imaging (PPI) and PET yield comparable estimates of absolute total tumor activity and that both of these estimates are highly correlated with direct well-counting of these same tumors...
June 30, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795796/hyper-branched-phosphorescent-conjugated-polymer-dots-with-iridium-iii-complex-as-the-core-for-hypoxia-imaging-and-photodynamic-therapy
#20
Zhiying Feng, Peng Tao, Liang Zou, Pengli Gao, Yuan Liu, Xing Liu, Hua Wang, Shujuan Liu, Qingchen Dong, Jie Li, Bingshe Xu, Wei Huang, Raymond Wai Yeung Wong, Qiang Zhao
Real-time monitoring the contents of molecular oxygen (O2) in tumor cells is of great significance in early diagnosis of cancer. At the same time, the photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be realized by highly toxic singlet oxygen (1O2) generated in situ during the O2 sensing, making it one of the most promising methods for cancer therapy. Herein, the iridium(III) complex cored hyper-branched phosphorescent conjugated polymer dots with the negative charges for hypoxia imaging and highly efficient PDT was rationally designed and synthesized...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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