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Skin disease

James P Strassner, John E Harris
Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that leads to life-altering depigmentation and remains difficult to treat. However, clinical observations and translational studies over 30-40 years have led to the development of an insightful working model of disease pathogenesis: Genetic risk spanning both immune and melanocyte functions is pushed over a threshold by known and suspected environmental factors to initiate autoimmune T cell-mediated killing of melanocytes. While under cellular stress, melanocytes appear to signal innate immunity to activate T cells...
October 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Immunology
Danielle Bloch, Nicole M Roth, Elba V Caraballo, Jorge Muñoz-Jordan, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Aidsa Rivera, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Brenda Rivera Garcia, Tyler M Sharp
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes and is the cause of an acute febrile illness characterized by potentially debilitating arthralgia. After emerging in the Caribbean in late 2013, the first locally-acquired case reported to public health authorities in Puerto Rico occurred in May 2014. During June-August 2014, household-based cluster investigations were conducted to identify factors associated with infection, development of disease, and case reporting...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Herman G Sprenger, Wouter F Bierman, Melanie I Martes, Reindert Graaff, Tjip S Van Der Werf, Andries J Smit
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed as stable markers of glycemic and oxidative stress. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) as marker of accumulated AGEs is increased and predictive of CVD events in diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and pre-existing CVD. We determined SAF levels in HIV-1 infected patients, testing the hypothesis that SAF predicts CVD events in HIV infection...
October 18, 2016: AIDS
Anand Pandey, Vipin Gupta, Shailendra P Singh, Vijendra Kumar, Rajesh Verma
A trophic ulcer is a pressure ulcer caused by external trauma to a part of the body that is compromised due to disease, vascular insufficiency, or loss of afferent nerve fibers. Spinal dysraphism (ie, neural tube defects [NTD]) such as meningomyelocele is a risk factor for developing these ulcers in adults and pediatric patients. Information regarding the occurrence of trophic ulcers in pediatric patients with NTD is lacking. A review of the English-language literature on skin/neuropathic ulcers in patients with NTDs, irrespective of study design, published between 1975 and 2014, was undertaken using the PubMed database...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Mary Norval, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Liza Bornman, Robyn M Lucas, Caradee Y Wright
In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
K T Desai, F Patel, P B Patel, S Nayak, N B Patel, R K Bansal
BACKGROUND: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. METHODS: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Madhukar Pai, Marcel Behr
The identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is useful for both fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and for clinical and public health interventions (i.e., to prevent progression to disease). Basic research suggests there is a pathogenetic continuum from exposure to infection to disease, and individuals may advance or reverse positions within the spectrum, depending on changes in the host immunity. Unfortunately, there is no diagnostic test that resolves the various stages within the spectrum of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Rivka Inzelberg, Shira Flash, Eitan Friedman, Esther Azizi
The mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are unclear, but plausibly involve common pathways. 129Ser-phosphorylated-α-synuclein, a pathological PD hallmark, is abundantly expressed in CMM, but not in normal skin. In inherited PD, PARK genes harbor germline mutations; the same genes are somatically mutated in CMM, or their encoded proteins involved in melanomagenesis. Conversely, genes associated with CMM, affect PD risk. PD/CMM targeted cells share the neural crest origin and melanogenesis capability...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Georgios Nikolakis, Constantine A Stratakis, Theodora Kanaki, Andrej Slominski, Christos C Zouboulis
The skin is an important extra-gonadal steroidogenic organ, capable of metabolizing various hormones from their precursors, as well as of synthesizing de novo a broad palette of sex steroids and glucocorticoids from cholesterol. In this manuscript, we review the major steroidogenic properties of human skin and we suggest steroidogenesis' impairment as a cardinal factor for various pathological conditions such as acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, and androgenic alopecia.
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Peter Giovannini, Melanie-Jayne R Howes, Sarah E Edwards
The data described in this article is related to the review article "Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review" (Giovannini et al., 2016) [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Jason T Little, Vance T Lehman, Jonathan M Morris, Julia S Lehman, Felix E Diehn
Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is an uncommon malignancy. It manifests either in the primary form in the skin as an intraepithelial neoplasm, or in secondary form as pagetoid (intraepithelial) spread of an underlying internal carcinoma to the skin. Although local invasion and recurrence of primary extramammary Paget disease are relatively frequent, widespread metastases are rare. As such, there are very few reports and little characterization of the radiologic features of widespread spinal metastases. To our knowledge, there are no prior reports of a metastatic extramammary Paget disease presenting as a painful pathologic vertebral body compression fracture...
May 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Seiko Ohno
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by degeneration of the right ventricle and ventricular tachycardia originating from the right ventricle. Additionally, the disease is an inherited cardiomyopathy that mainly follows the autosomal dominant pattern. More than 10 genes have been reported as causative genes for ARVC, and more than half of ARVC patients carry mutations in desmosome related genes. The desmosome is one of the structures involved in cell adhesion and its disruption leads to various diseases, including a skin disease called pemphigus...
October 2016: Journal of Arrhythmia
Bing Xu, Xiyuan Li, Miaomiao Du, Chao Zhou, Hezhi Fang, Jianxin Lyu, Yanling Yang
By using next-generation sequencing targeted to MitoExome including the entire mtDNA and exons of 1033 genes encoding the mitochondrial proteome, we described here a novel m.11240C>T mutation in the mitochondrial ND4 gene from a patient with Leigh syndrome. High mutant loads of m.11240C>T were detected in blood, urinary epithelium, oral mucosal epithelium cells, and skin fibroblasts of the patient. Decreased mitochondrial complex I activity was found in transmitochondrial cybrids containing the m.11240C>T mutation with biochemical analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Kazuhiko Yoshimatsu, Gakuji Osawa, Hajime Yokomizo, Yuki Yano, Sachiyo Okayama, Akiko Sakuma, Masaya Satake, Yasufumi Yamada, Shinichi Asaka, Takebumi Usui, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Shunichi Shiozawa, Takeshi Shimakawa, Takao Katsube, Yoshihiko Naritaka
A 78-year-old man visited our hospital with a prolapsed hemorrhoid. He was referred to the dermatology unit due to the thickness and redness of the perianal skin. He was diagnosed as having extra mammary Paget's disease by skin biopsy. After a biopsy of the anal polyp was performed to investigate the primary site, he was diagnosed with early anal canal cancer with Pagetoid spread and underwent a radical operation. Abdominoperineal resection with skin(D2 prx D3 lymphadenectomy) was performed with perineal reconstruction using a gracilis muscle graft...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Akimune Kaga, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hiroki Miyabayashi, Takaya Metoki, Setsuko Kitaoka, Satoru Kumaki
Neonatal toxic shock syndrome-like exanthematous disease (NTED) is a newly recognized neonatal infectious disease, caused by the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). TSST-1 is mainly produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the immune responses to TSST-1 are known to cause toxic shock syndrome, a life-threatening infectious disease. The clinical symptoms of NTED are skin rash, fever, and thrombocytopenia, but severe thrombocytopenia is rare in term infants with NTED. Although the cause of NTED is the same as that of toxic shock syndrome, the clinical symptoms of NTED are milder than toxic shock syndrome...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Cornelia Wiegand, Peter Mugisha, Grace K Mulyowa, Peter Elsner, Uta-Christina Hipler, Yvonne Gräser, Silke Uhrlaß, Pietro Nenoff
Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection common among prepubertal children in sub-Saharan Africa and mainly caused by Trichophyton and Microsporum species. Accurate identification is challenging as conventional methods like culture and microscopy are slow and mostly based on morphological characteristics, which make them less sensitive and specific. Modern molecular methods, like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, are gaining acceptance and are quick as well as accurate. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical patterns of tinea capitis and to accurately identify the most common causative dermatophytes affecting the scalps of children aged 1 to 16 years attending the Skin Clinic at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mbarara, Uganda, East Africa, using both conventional mycological methods and PCR-ELISA for detection of dermatophyte DNA...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Yang Luo, Junling Li, Yan Wang, Xuezhi Hao, Fenglian Qu
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is commonly overexpressed in lung squamous cell carcinoma and has been associated with impaired prognosis. The aim of this study was to observe the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab, a anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, combined with chemotherapy as second- or later-line in the treatment of advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical data was conducted in 13 patients with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma, who were administered with nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy as second-line or later-line treatment...
October 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Stefan Tukaj, Anna Görög, Konrad Kleszczyński, Detlef Zillikens, Sarolta Kárpáti, Michael Kasperkiewicz
Inflammation-induced heat shock proteins (HSPs) and hypovitaminosis D have been reported to impact immune responses and to be associated with autoimmune diseases including celiac disease (CD), a gluten-sensitive enteropathy mediated by autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (TG2). Recently, we provided evidence for a role of autoantibodies to HSPs in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), an inflammatory skin disease induced by underlying latent CD. In this study, we aimed at investigating the humoral autoimmune response to HSPs and vitamin D status in CD patients (n=15) presenting without the cutaneous disease manifestation...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
M Ivaskiene, A P Matusevicius, A Grigonis, G Zamokas, L Babickaite
In the field of veterinary dermatology dermatophytosis is one of the most frequently occurring infectious diseases, therefore its treatment should be effective, convenient, safe and inexpensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of newly developed topical formulations in the treatment of cats with dermatophytosis. Evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of terbinafine and econazole formulations administered topically twice a day was performed in 40 cats. Cats, suffering from the most widely spread Microsporum canis-induced dermatophytosis and treated with terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream, recovered within 20...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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