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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908971/13n-ammonia-pet-ct-detection-of-myocardial-perfusion-abnormalities-in-beagle-dogs-after-local-heart-irradiation
#1
Jianbo Song, Rui Yan, Zhifang Wu, Jianguo Li, Min Yan, Xinzhong Hao, Jianzhong Liu, Sijin Li
: To determine the potential value of (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for detection of myocardial perfusion changes at early stage induced by radiation damage. METHODS: Thirty-six Beagle dogs were randomly divided into the control (n = 18) or the irradiation groups (n = 18). The irradiation group underwent local irradiation to the left ventricular anterior cardiac wall with a single dose of 20 Gy, whereas the control group received sham irradiation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904032/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction%C3%A3-epidemiology-pathogenesis-prognosis-diagnosis-risk-factors-and-therapy
#2
Cheng Chen, Janet Wei, Ahmed AlBadri, Parham Zarrini, C Noel Bairey Merz
Angina has traditionally been thought to be caused by obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, a substantial number of patients with angina are found to not have obstructive CAD when undergoing coronary angiography. A significant proportion of these patients have coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), characterized by heightened sensitivity to vasoconstrictor stimuli and limited microvascular vasodilator capacity. With the advent of non-invasive and invasive techniques, the coronary microvasculature has been more extensively studied in the past 2 decades...
November 29, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903921/a-two-pool-model-to-describe-the-ivim-cerebral-perfusion
#3
Gabrielle Fournet, Jing-Rebecca Li, Alex M Cerjanic, Bradley P Sutton, Luisa Ciobanu, Denis Le Bihan
IntraVoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique capable of measuring perfusion-related parameters. In this manuscript, we show that the mono-exponential model commonly used to process IVIM data might be challenged, especially at short diffusion times. Eleven rat datasets were acquired at 7T using a diffusion-weighted pulsed gradient spin echo sequence with b-values ranging from 7 to 2500 s/mm(2) at three diffusion times. The IVIM signals, obtained by removing the diffusion component from the raw MR signal, were fitted to the standard mono-exponential model, a bi-exponential model and the Kennan model...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903536/persistent-microvascular-obstruction-after-myocardial-infarction-culminates-in-the-confluence-of-ferric-iron-oxide-crystals-proinflammatory-burden-and-adverse-remodeling
#4
Avinash Kali, Ivan Cokic, Richard Tang, Alice Dohnalkova, Libor Kovarik, Hsin-Jung Yang, Andreas Kumar, Frank S Prato, John C Wood, David Underhill, Eduardo Marbán, Rohan Dharmakumar
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that persistent microvascular obstruction (PMO) is more predictive of major adverse cardiovascular events than myocardial infarct (MI) size. But it remains unclear how PMO, a phenomenon limited to the acute/subacute period of MI, drives adverse remodeling in chronic MI setting. We hypothesized that PMO resolves into chronic iron crystals within MI territories, which in turn are proinflammatory and favor adverse remodeling post-MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Canines (n=40) were studied with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the spatiotemporal relationships among PMO, iron deposition, infarct resorption, and left ventricular remodeling between day 7 (acute) and week 8 (chronic) post-MI...
November 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902858/reliable-estimation-of-microvascular-flow-patterns-in-patients-with-disrupted-blood-brain-barrier-using-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri
#5
Mikkel Bo Hansen, Anna Tietze, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Elizabeth R Gerstner, Tracy T Batchelor, Leif Østergaard, Kim Mouridsen
PURPOSE: To present and quantify the performance of a method to compute tissue hemodynamic parameters from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI data in brain tissue with possible nonintact blood-brain barrier. THEORY AND MATERIALS AND METHODS: We propose a Bayesian scheme to obtain perfusion metrics, including capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH), from DSC-MRI data in the presence of contrast agent extravasation. Initial performance assessment is performed through simulations...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902857/quantitative-assessment-of-hyperacute-cerebral-infarction-with-intravoxel-incoherent-motion-mr-imaging-initial-experience-in-a-canine-stroke-model
#6
Qian-Qian Gao, Shan-Shan Lu, Xiao-Quan Xu, Cheng-Jiang Wu, Xing-Long Liu, Sheng Liu, Hai-Bin Shi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for the measurement of diffusion and perfusion parameters in hyperacute strokes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An embolic ischemic model was established with an autologous thrombus in 20 beagles. IVIM imaging was performed on a 3.0 Tesla platform at 4.5 h and 6 h after embolization. Ten b values from 0 to 900 s/mm(2) were fitted with a bi-exponential model to extract perfusion fraction f, diffusion coefficient D, and pseudo-diffusion coefficient D*...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896946/dynamic-laser-speckle-angiography-achieved-by-eigen-decomposition-filtering
#7
Chenxi Li, Ruikang Wang
A new approach is proposed for statistically analysis of laser speckle signals emerged from a living biological tissue based on eigen-decomposition to separate the dynamic speckle signals due to moving blood cells from the static speckle signals due to static tissue components, upon which to achieve angiography of the interrogated tissue in vivo. The proposed approach is tested by imaging mouse ear pinna in vivo, demonstrating its capability of providing detailed microvascular networks with high contrast, and high temporal and spatial resolutions...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894261/multimarker-approach-for-the-prediction-of-microvascular-obstruction-after-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-a-prospective-observational-study
#8
Hans-Josef Feistritzer, Sebastian Johannes Reinstadler, Gert Klug, Martin Reindl, Sebastian Wöhrer, Christoph Brenner, Agnes Mayr, Johannes Mair, Bernhard Metzler
BACKGROUND: Presence of microvascular obstruction (MVO) derived from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is among the strongest outcome predictors after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to investigate the comparative predictive values of different biomarkers for the occurrence of MVO in a large cohort of reperfused STEMI patients. METHODS: This study included 128 STEMI patients. CMR imaging was performed within the first week after infarction to assess infarct characteristics, including MVO...
November 28, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890421/contrast-enhanced-mdct-in-patients-with-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-correlation-with-histological-findings-and-diagnostic-performance-in-differentiation-between-tumour-grades
#9
E Belousova, G Karmazanovsky, A Kriger, D Kalinin, L Mannelli, A Glotov, N Karelskaya, O Paklina, A Kaldarov
AIM: To identify the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs), which correlate with tumour histology and enable preoperative grading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with histologically confirmed pNET who underwent preoperative contrast-enhanced MDCT were included in this study. Nineteen tumours were classified as Grade 1 (G1) and 20 as Grade 2 (G2). Histopathology slides were reviewed to assess the intratumoural microvascular density (MVD) and the amount of tumour stroma...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889555/correlation-between-microvascular-dysfunction-and-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-levels-in-non-ischemic-heart-failure-patients-with-cardiac-fibrosis
#10
Kyoko Hirakawa, Megumi Yamamuro, Tomoaki Uemura, Seiji Takashio, Koichi Kaikita, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Mina Nakayama, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Yasuyuki Yamashita, Seiji Hokimoto, Kenichi Tsujita
BACKGROUNDS: The relationship between microvascular dysfunction and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels remains unclear in heart failure (HF) patients with cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: This study evaluated 55 consecutive non-ischemic HF patients in an effort to determine the relationship between endothelial independent coronary microvascular dysfunction and plasma BNP levels, as well as whether each measure is correlated with myocardial fibrosis. We evaluated plasma BNP levels in patients with stable HF...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885885/septic-encephalopathy-and-septic-encephalitis-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#11
Simone C Tauber, Helmut Eiffert, Wolfgang Brück, Roland Nau
During the last two decades, septic encephalopathy (SE) was recognized as a clinically relevant problem with a high prevalence in patients at admission and during their hospital stay. SE is a condition associated with increased mortality and morbidity such as long-term cognitive impairment. Areas covered: This review illustrates the pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy and encephalitis involving blood-brain-barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation caused by endothelial and microglial activation by endogenous or pathogen-derived compounds, hypoxia by impaired microvascular regulation and septic shock as well as imbalance of neurotransmitters...
November 25, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867732/dynamic-contrast-optical-coherence-tomography-images-transit-time-and-quantifies-microvascular-plasma-volume-and-flow-in-the-retina-and-choriocapillaris
#12
Conrad W Merkle, Conor Leahy, Vivek J Srinivasan
Despite the prevalence of optical imaging techniques to measure hemodynamics in large retinal vessels, quantitative measurements of retinal capillary and choroidal hemodynamics have traditionally been challenging. Here, a new imaging technique called dynamic contrast optical coherence tomography (DyC-OCT) is applied in the rat eye to study microvascular blood flow in individual retinal and choroidal layers in vivo. DyC-OCT is based on imaging the transit of an intravascular tracer dynamically as it passes through the field-of-view...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867728/label-free-measurement-of-retinal-blood-cell-flux-velocity-hematocrit-and-capillary-width-in-the-living-mouse-eye
#13
A Guevara-Torres, A Joseph, J B Schallek
Measuring blood cell dynamics within the capillaries of the living eye provides crucial information regarding the health of the microvascular network. To date, the study of single blood cell movement in this network has been obscured by optical aberrations, hindered by weak optical contrast, and often required injection of exogenous fluorescent dyes to perform measurements. Here we present a new strategy to non-invasively image single blood cells in the living mouse eye without contrast agents. Eye aberrations were corrected with an adaptive optics camera coupled with a fast, 15 kHz scanned beam orthogonal to a capillary of interest...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863935/association-of-sflt-1-and-worsening-psychopathology-in-relatives-at-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-longitudinal-study
#14
Paulo L Lizano, Jeffrey K Yao, Neeraj Tandon, Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Debra M Montrose, Matcheri S Keshavan
BACKGROUND: Angiogenic dysfunction and abnormalities in psychopathology and brain structure have been reported in schizophrenia, but their relationships are mostly unknown. We recently demonstrated that sFlt-1, anti-angiogenic factor, was significantly elevated in patients at familial high-risk for psychosis (FHR). We hypothesized that elevated sFlt-1 correlates with baseline and longitudinal changes in psychopathology, cognition, and brain structure. METHODS: Plasma sFlt-1 in FHR (n=35) and HC (n=39) was obtained at baseline...
November 15, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861293/organ-pretreatment-with-cytotopic-endothelial-localizing-peptides-to-ameliorate-microvascular-thrombosis-and-perfusion-deficits-in-ex-vivo-renal-hemoreperfusion-models
#15
Karim Hamaoui, Sally Gowers, Martyn Boutelle, Terry H Cook, George Hanna, Ara Darzi, Richard Smith, Anthony Dorling, Vassilios Papalois
BACKGROUND: Hypothermic machine organ perfusion (HMP) offers opportunity to manipulate grafts with pharmacological agents prior to transplantation. Pretreating organs with novel cytotopic anticoagulant peptides that localize to endothelial cell membranes could ameliorate microvascular thrombotic sequelae posttransplantation. We describe experiments testing thrombalexin (TLN), a novel cell binding thrombin inhibitor, using porcine and unused human kidneys in a series of ex vivo normothermic hemoreperfusion models...
December 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860550/contrast-enhanced-us-guided-interventions-improving-success-rate-and-avoiding-complications-using-us-contrast-agents
#16
Dean Y Huang, Gibran T Yusuf, Mohammad Daneshi, Mohammad Ali Husainy, Raymond Ramnarine, Maria E K Sellars, Paul S Sidhu
Ultrasonography (US) is an established modality for intervention. The introduction of microbubble US contrast agents (UCAs) has the potential to further improve US imaging for intervention. According to licensing, UCAs are currently approved for clinical use in restricted situations, but many additional indications have become accepted as having clinical value. The use of UCAs has been shown to be safe, and there is no risk of renal toxic effects, unlike with iodinated or gadolinium contrast medium. Broadly speaking, UCAs can be injected into the bloodstream (intravascular use) or instilled into almost any accessible body cavity (endocavitary use), either in isolation or synchronously...
November 18, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858358/an-ex-vivo-tissue-culture-model-for-anti-angiogenic-drug-testing
#17
Mohammad S Azimi, Michelle Lacey, Debasis Mondal, Walter L Murfee
Angiogenesis, defined as the growth of new blood vessels from existing ones, plays a key role in development, growth, and tissue repair. Its necessary role in tumor growth and metastasis has led to the creation of a new category of anti-angiogenic cancer therapies. Preclinical development and evaluation of potential drug candidates require models that mimic real microvascular networks. Here, we describe the rat mesentery culture model as a simple ex vivo assay that offers time-lapse imaging of intact microvascular network remodeling and demonstrate its application for anti-angiogenic drug testing...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857878/magnetic-resonance-imaging-assessment-of-vascular-contact-of-the-facial-nerve-in-the-asymptomatic-patient
#18
Nicholas L Deep, Geoffrey P Fletcher, Kent D Nelson, Ameet C Patel, David M Barrs, Bernard R Bendok, Joseph M Hoxworth
Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial nerve vascular contact on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients without hemifacial spasm (HFS). Study Design Our radiology database was queried to identify consecutive adult patients without a history of HFS, intracranial tumor, brain radiation therapy, intracranial surgery, traumatic brain injury, or trigeminal nerve vascular compression. One hundred high-resolution MRIs of the posterior fossa were independently reviewed by two neuroradiologists for facial nerve vascular contact (200 sides)...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854307/mast-cells-density-positive-to-tryptase-correlate-with-microvascular-density-in-both-primary-gastric-cancer-tissue-and-loco-regional-lymph-node-metastases-from-patients-that-have-undergone-radical-surgery
#19
Michele Ammendola, Rosario Sacco, Valeria Zuccalà, Maria Luposella, Rosa Patruno, Pietro Gadaleta, Nicola Zizzo, Cosmo Damiano Gadaleta, Giovambattista De Sarro, Giuseppe Sammarco, Mihai Oltean, Girolamo Ranieri
Mast Cells (MCs) play a role in immune responses and more recently MCs have been involved in tumoral angiogenesis. In particular MCs can release tryptase, a potent in vivo and in vitro pro-angiogenic factor via proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. MCs can release tryptase following c-Kit receptor activation. Nevertheless, no data are available concerning the relationship among MCs Density Positive to Tryptase (MCDPT) and Microvascular Density (MVD) in both primary gastric cancer tissue and loco-regional lymph node metastases...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853747/can-magnifying-endoscopy-with-narrow-band-imaging-discriminate-between-carcinomas-and-low-grade-adenomas-in-gastric-superficial-elevated-lesions
#20
Takashi Nonaka, Masahiko Inamori, Yasushi Honda, Kenji Kanoshima, Yumi Inoh, Mizue Matsuura, Shiori Uchiyama, Eiji Sakai, Takuma Higurashi, Hidenori Ohkubo, Hiroshi Iida, Hiroki Endo, Koji Fujita, Akihiko Kusakabe, Kazuhiro Atsukawa, Hisao Takahashi, Yoko Tateishi, Shin Maeda, Kenichi Ohashi, Atsushi Nakajima
: Background and study aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) to discriminate between early carcinomas (EC) and low grade adenomas (LGA) in gastric superficial elevated epithelial neoplasias. Patients and methods: We investigated 100 consecutive cases of gastric superficial elevated epithelial neoplasias that were removed using endoscopic submucosal dissection. The pathological diagnostic criteria were based on the revised Vienna classification; category 4 (mucosal high grade neoplasia) and category 5 (submucosal invasion by carcinoma) lesions were diagnosed as EC, whereas category 3 (mucosal low grade neoplasia) lesions were diagnosed as LGA...
November 2016: Endoscopy International Open
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