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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166691/-emil-kraepelin-s-time-in-dorpat-did-this-stay-made-marks-in-russian-and-soviet-psychiatry
#1
Birk Engmann, Holger Steinberg
In Russia, German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) is regarded as an influential and famous personality in the history of the field. This study discusses whether it was his period in the Russian Empire in the years 1886 to 1891 when he worked at Dorpat University (today Tartu, Estonia) that raised his popularity in Russia. Our research shows that all of his writings which had been translated into Russian language derive from a period much later than Dorpat. Moreover, none of his students has ever reached a scientific position which would have enabled him to become a proponent of Kraepelin's ideas in Russia...
November 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166628/biochar-application-for-the-remediation-of-heavy-metal-polluted-land-a-review-of-in-situ-field-trials
#2
David O'Connor, Tianyue Peng, Junli Zhang, Daniel C W Tsang, Daniel S Alessi, Zhengtao Shen, Nanthi S Bolan, Deyi Hou
Polluted land is a global issue, especially for developing countries. It has been reported that soil amendment with biochar may reduce the bioavailability of a wide range of contaminants, including heavy metal(loids), potentially reclaiming contaminated soils for agricultural use. However, there have been only limited reports on the in situ application of biochar at the field scale. This review was devoted to providing preliminary scientific evidence from these field trials, based on a review of 29 publications involving field applications of biochar in 8 different countries...
November 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166625/ambient-surface-mass-spectrometry-ion-mobility-spectrometry-of-intact-proteins
#3
REVIEW
Rian L Griffiths, Klaudia I Kocurek, Helen J Cooper
Ambient surface mass spectrometry encompasses a broad range of sampling and ionization techniques. To date, only a small subset of these, based on liquid microjunction extraction, have proven suitable for intact protein analysis from thin tissue sections. Liquid extraction surface analysis shows particular promise for this application. Recently, a range of ion mobility spectrometry approaches have been coupled with ambient mass spectrometry. Improvements in signal-to-noise ratios, decreased chemical noise and separation of molecular classes have been described for the analysis of various biological substrates...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166575/chemical-characterization-and-pharmacological-assessment-of-cashew-gum-extract-anacardium-occidentale-l-polysaccharide-free
#4
Daiany Priscilla Bueno da Silva, Iziara Ferreira Florentino, Lorrane Kelle da Silva Moreira, Adriane Ferreira Brito, Verônica Vale Carvalho, Géssica Adriana Vasconcelos, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Marcus Antônio Pereira-Junior, Kátia Flávia Fernandes, Elson Alves Costa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) is used in Brazilian traditional medicine in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, asthma, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disturbs. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed the chemical characterization and the investigation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of cashew gum aqueous extract without the presence of polysaccharides in its composition (CGE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CGE was obtained after precipitation and removal of polysaccharides using acetone...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166562/a-lc-hrms-data-processing-strategy-for-reliable-sample-comparison-exemplified-by-the-assessment-of-water-treatment-processes
#5
Tobias Johannes Bader, Wolfgang Schulz, Klaus Kümmerer, Rudi Winzenbacher
The behavior of micropollutants in water treatment is an important aspect in terms of water quality. Non-target screening by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) offers the opportunity to comprehensively assess water treatment processes by comparing the signal heights of all detectable compounds before and after treatment. Without preselection of known target compounds, all accessible information is used to describe changes across processes and thus serves as a measure for the treatment efficiency...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166560/analytical-challenges-and-recent-advances-in-mass-spectrometry-based-lipidomics
#6
Yepy Hardi Rustam, Gavin Edmund Reid
Although no internationally accepted consensus definition exists, lipids can be broadly defined as "fatty acids and their derivatives, and substances related biosynthetically or functionally to these compounds". Lipids play critical roles as (i) the major structural components of biological membranes, and as functional and regulatory components of membrane protein signaling, (ii) bioactive intra- and inter-cellular signaling molecules, and (iii) energy storage molecules for the maintenance of energy homeostasis...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166558/understanding-the-cellular-uptake-of-ph-responsive-zwitterionic-gold-nanoparticles-a-computer-simulation-study
#7
Xuebo Quan, Daohui Zhao, Libo Li, Jian Zhou
Surface functionalization of nanoparticles (NPs) with stealth polymers (e.g., hydrophilic and zwitterionic polymers) has become a common strategy to resist non-specific protein adsorption recently. Understanding the role of surface decoration on NP-biomembrane interactions is of great significance to promote the application of NPs in biomedical fields. Herein, using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations, we investigate the interactions between stealth polymer-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and lipid membranes...
November 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166486/-narratives-of-users-of-mental-health-services-in-an-experiment-with-autonomous-management-of-medication
#8
Laura Lamas Martins Gonçalves, Rosana Teresa Onocko Campos
Numerous studies have highlighted the tendency to chronicity of treatments centered on the use of medications. This study was conducted in a large Brazilian city with users of Centers for Psychosocial Care (CAPS), with the aim of evaluating the effects of experimenting with the personal Guide for Autonomous Management of Medication (GAM) and the users' relationship to their treatments and participation. The instrument, created in Canada and translated and adapted to Brazil, was tested in intervention groups with users of CAPS with severe mental disorders and a history of political participation in the field of health...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166475/proposal-of-a-trigger-tool-to-assess-adverse-events-in-dental-care
#9
Claudia Dolores Trierweiler Sampaio de Oliveira Corrêa, Walter Mendes
The aim of this study was to propose a trigger tool for research of adverse events in outpatient dentistry in Brazil. The tool was elaborated in two stages: (i) to build a preliminary set of triggers, a literature review was conducted to identify the composition of trigger tools used in other areas of health and the principal adverse events found in dentistry; (ii) to validate the preliminarily constructed triggers a panel of experts was organized using the modified Delphi method. Fourteen triggers were elaborated in a tool with explicit criteria to identify potential adverse events in dental care, essential for retrospective patient chart reviews...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166426/rhinology-future-debates-an-euforea-report
#10
W J Fokkens, C Bachert, M Bernal-Sprekelsen, J Bousquet, M Djandji, A Dorenbaum, D Hakimi-Mehr, S Hendry, C Hopkins, A Leunig, L Mannent, D Mucha, M Onerci, B Pugin, S Toppila-Salmi, P Rowe, S F Seys, S Stimson, A Strzembosz, P W Hellings
The first Rhinology Future Debates was held in Brussels in December 2016, organized by EUFOREA (European Forum for Research and Education in Allergy and Airways diseases). The purpose of these debates is to bring novel developments in the field of Rhinology to the attention of the medical, paramedical and patient community, in a highly credible and balanced context. For the first time in Rhinology, a peer to peer scientific exchange with key experts in the field of rhinology and key medical colleagues from leading industries let to a brainstorming and discussion event on a number of hot issues in Rhinology...
November 22, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166406/revised-geochronology-correlation-and-dinosaur-stratigraphic-ranges-of-the-santonian-maastrichtian-late-cretaceous-formations-of-the-western-interior-of-north-america
#11
Denver Warwick Fowler
Interbasinal stratigraphic correlation provides the foundation for all consequent continental-scale geological and paleontological analyses. Correlation requires synthesis of lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and geochronologic data, and must be periodically updated to accord with advances in dating techniques, changing standards for radiometric dates, new stratigraphic concepts, hypotheses, fossil specimens, and field data. Outdated or incorrect correlation exposes geological and paleontological analyses to potential error...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166393/implicit-theories-concerning-the-intelligence-of-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#12
Claire Enea-Drapeau, Michèle Carlier, Pascal Huguet
Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence) are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory), as opposed to malleable (incremental theory), is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166243/building-capacity-for-evidence-based-public-health-reconciling-the-pulls-of-practice-and-the-push-of-research
#13
Ross C Brownson, Jonathan E Fielding, Lawrence W Green
Timely implementation of principles of evidence-based public health (EBPH) is critical for bridging the gap between discovery of new knowledge and its application. Public health organizations need sufficient capacity (the availability of resources, structures, and workforce to plan, deliver, and evaluate the preventive dose of an evidence-based intervention) to move science to practice. We review principles of EBPH, the importance of capacity building to advance evidence-based approaches, promising approaches for capacity building, and future areas for research and practice...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166151/biomarkers-and-imaging-of-breast-cancer
#14
Olena Weaver, Jessica W T Leung
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this review are to provide background information on the definitions and applications of the general term "biomarker" and to highlight the specific roles of breast imaging biomarkers in research and clinical breast cancer care. A search was conducted of the main electronic biomedical databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE [Ovid], Scopus, and Web of Science). The search was focused on review literature in general radiology and biomedical sciences and on reviews and primary research articles on biomarkers in breast imaging over the 15 years ending in June 2017...
November 22, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166113/statistical-mechanics-of-transport-processes-in-active-fluids-equations-of-hydrodynamics
#15
Katherine Klymko, Dibyendu Mandal, Kranthi K Mandadapu
The equations of hydrodynamics including mass, linear momentum, angular momentum, and energy are derived by coarse-graining the microscopic equations of motion for systems consisting of rotary dumbbells driven by internal torques. In deriving the balance of linear momentum, we find that the symmetry of the stress tensor is broken due to the presence of non-zero torques on individual particles. The broken symmetry of the stress tensor induces internal spin in the fluid and leads us to consider the balance of internal angular momentum in addition to the usual moment of momentum...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166101/self-consistency-of-electron-thf-cross-sections-using-electron-swarm-techniques
#16
M J E Casey, J de Urquijo, L N Serkovic Loli, D G Cocks, G J Boyle, D B Jones, M J Brunger, R D White
The drift velocity and first Townsend ionization coefficient of electrons in gaseous tetrahydrofuran are measured over the range of reduced electric fields 4-1000 Td using a pulsed-Townsend technique. The measured drift velocities and Townsend ionization coefficients are subsequently used, in conjunction with a multi-term Boltzmann equation analysis, as a further discriminative assessment on the accuracy and completeness of a recently proposed set of electron-THF vapor cross sections. In addition, the sensitivity of the transport coefficients to uncertainties in the existing cross sections is presented...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166091/string-like-collective-motion-and-diffusion-in-the-interfacial-region-of-ice
#17
Xinyi Wang, Xuhang Tong, Hao Zhang, Jack F Douglas
We investigate collective molecular motion and the self-diffusion coefficient Ds of water molecules in the mobile interfacial layer of the secondary prismatic plane (112¯0) of hexagonal ice by molecular dynamics simulation based on the TIP4P/2005 water potential and a metrology of collective motion drawn from the field of glass-forming liquids. The width ξ of the mobile interfacial layer varies from a monolayer to a few nm as the temperature is increased towards the melting temperature Tm, in accordance with recent simulations and many experimental studies, although different experimental methods have differed in their precise estimates of the thickness of this layer...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166059/qm-mm-nonadiabatic-dynamics-simulations-on-photoinduced-wolff-rearrangements-of-1-2-3-thiadiazole
#18
Xiang-Yang Liu, Ye-Guang Fang, Bin-Bin Xie, Wei-Hai Fang, Ganglong Cui
The photoinduced rearrangement reaction mechanism of 1,2,3-thiadiazole remains experimentally elusive. Two possible mechanisms have been proposed to date. The first is a stepwise mechanism via a thiocarbene intermediate; the second is an excited-state concerted rearrangement mechanism. Herein we have adopted both the electronic structure calculations and nonadiabatic dynamics simulations to study the photoinduced rearrangement reactions of 1,2,3-thiadiazole in the S2, S1, and S0 states in solution. On the basis of QM(CASPT2)/MM [quantum mechanics(complete active space self-consistent field second-order perturbation theory)/molecular mechanics] calculations, we have found that (1) the thiocarbene intermediate is not stable; thus, the stepwise mechanism should be unfavorable; (2) the excited-state decay from the S2 via S1 to S0 state is ultrafast and completed within ca...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166039/segmental-dynamics-of-polyethylene-alt-propylene-studied-by-nmr-spin-echo-techniques
#19
A Lozovoi, C Mattea, M Hofmann, K Saalwaechter, N Fatkullin, S Stapf
Segmental dynamics of a highly entangled melt of linear polyethylene-alt-propylene with a molecular weight of 200 kDa was studied with a novel proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach based upon (1)H → (2)H isotope dilution as applied to a solid-echo build-up function I(SE)(t), which is constructed from the NMR spin echo signals arising from the Hahn echo (HE) and two variations of the solid-echo pulse sequence. The isotope dilution enables the separation of inter- and intramolecular contributions to this function and allows one to extract the segmental mean-squared displacements in the millisecond time range, which is hardly accessible by other experimental methods...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166037/adenosine-triphosphate-diffusion-through-poly-ethylene-glycol-diacrylate-hydrogels-can-be-tuned-by-cross-link-density-as-measured-by-pfg-nmr
#20
Günter Majer, Alexander Southan
The diffusion of small molecules through hydrogels is of great importance for many applications. Especially in biological contexts, the diffusion of nutrients through hydrogel networks defines whether cells can survive inside the hydrogel or not. In this contribution, hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate with mesh sizes ranging from ξ = 1.1 to 12.9 nm are prepared using polymers with number-average molecular weights between Mn = 700 and 8000 g/mol. Precise measurements of diffusion coefficients D of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an important energy carrier in biological systems, in these hydrogels are performed by pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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