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David S Moore
Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
E Marinelli, G Montanari Vergallo, G Reale, A di Luca, I Catarinozzi, S Napoletano, S Zaami
In recent years there has been an exponential increase of fillers use in aesthetic medicine. The popularity of this anti-wrinkle product is based on their capacity to offer significant improvement in the aesthetic field, particularly to skin rejuvenating processes with non-invasive and less expensive techniques, if compared to the surgical methods (i.e. surgical lifting). The great number of fillers on the market is composed of a large heterogenic number of biomaterials. The aim of this review was to provide an overview and a classification of the filling materials that are most commonly used...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
C-H Wang, L-S Wang, N Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a major neurological disorder marked by an amyloid-beta plaque and neurofibrillary tau-tangle depositions in the brain. Cognitive dysfunction is the key manifestation of AD. In this study, we conducted an umbrella review of meta-analyses on the risk factors and therapeutics targeting cognitive impairment and AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed from January 2000-August, 2016, and screened systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that examined the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors in AD patients...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Hua Yu Feng, Feng Luo, Raul Arenal, Luc Henrard, Fernando García, Gaspar Armelles, Alfonso Cebollada
Here we present a novel active system, which combines the plasmon resonance enhancement of the magneto-optical activity in magnetoplasmonic nanostructures and the strong electromagnetic field localization of split ring resonators. The structures consist of a gold split ring resonator placed on top of a gold nanoring in the section of which a Co nanodot is inserted. By placing the split ring gap on top of the nanodot, and continuously varying the split ring gap opening, we are able to tune and enhance the electromagnetic field intensity in the Co nanodot, as confirmed experimentally by EELS and numerically using DDA simulation methods...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
César J Lockhart de la Rosa, Amirhasan Nourbakhsh, Markus Heyne, Inge Asselberghs, Cedric Huyghebaert, Iuliana Radu, Marc Heyns, Stefan De Gendt
Despite rapid progress in 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) research in recent years, MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) still suffer from a high metal-to-MoS2 contact resistance and low intrinsic mobility, which are major hindrances to their future application. We report an efficient technique to dope thin-film MoS2 FETs using a poly(vinyl-alcohol) (PVA) polymeric coating. This results in a reduction of the contact resistance by up to 30% as well as a reduction in the channel resistance to 20 kΩ sq(-1). Using a dehydration process, we were able to effectively control the surface interactions between MoS2 and the more electropositive hydroxyl groups (-OH) of PVA, which provided a controllable and yet reversible increase in the charge carrier density to a value of 8...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
Maxime Theillard, Roberto Alonso-Matilla, David Saintillan
Recent experimental studies have shown that confinement can profoundly affect self-organization in semi-dilute active suspensions, leading to striking features such as the formation of steady and spontaneous vortices in circular domains and the emergence of unidirectional pumping motions in periodic racetrack geometries. Motivated by these findings, we analyze the two-dimensional dynamics in confined suspensions of active self-propelled swimmers using a mean-field kinetic theory where conservation equations for the particle configurations are coupled to the forced Navier-Stokes equations for the self-generated fluid flow...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
Xiao-Yu Yang, Li-Hua Chen, Yu Li, Joanna Claire Rooke, Clément Sanchez, Bao-Lian Su
Owing to their immense potential in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation and life science applications, significant interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of hierarchically porous materials. The hierarchy of materials on porosity, structural, morphological, and component levels is key for high performance in all kinds of applications. Synthesis and applications of hierarchically structured porous materials have become a rapidly evolving field of current interest...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Rui-Pin Chen, Khian-Hooi Chew, Guoquan Zhou, Chao-Qing Dai, Sailing He
The collapse dynamics of a structured optical field with a distribution of spatially-variant states of polarization (SoP) and a spiral phase in the field cross section is studied using the two-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrӧdinger equations. The self-focusing of a structured optical field with an inhomogeneous SoP distribution can give rise to new phenomena of collapse dynamics that is completely different from a scalar field. The collapse patterns are closely related to the topological charges of the vortexas well as the polarization, the initial power, and the SoP distribution in the field cross section...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Joran Deschamps, Andreas Rowald, Jonas Ries
Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) relies on the switching of fluorescent molecules between a fluorescent and a dark state to achieve super resolution. This process is inherently dependent on the intensity distribution of the laser light used for both activation from the dark state and excitation of the bright state. Typically, laser light is coupled directly or via a single-mode fiber into the microscope, which leads to a Gaussian intensity profile in total internal reflection (TIR) or epi illumination...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Ensun Lee, Seohee Yang, Miseon Han, Jeongtae Kim
We investigate a depth-based refocusing method using four-dimensional (4D) light field data, which can reduce directional aliasing artifacts in a refocused image. Unlike conventional filtering-based methods, the proposed method estimates the amount of aliasing artifacts using the disparity information between two neighboring views. It then applies an exact smoothing operation to the refocused image in order to remove the aliasing artifacts. By doing that, the proposed method is able to generate a smoothly blurred image in the out-of-focus region and a sharp image in the focused region...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Sushanta Kumar Pal, P Senthilkumaran
The sign rule requires that adjacent singularities on a contour have opposite signs and hence cultivation of lemon only fields poses problem as all lemons have positive index. In this paper we show that the interference of three linearly polarized plane waves can create regions of ellipse and vector fields in 2-dimensions (2D) in which a lemon lattice is interlaced in a V-point lattice. The lemons appear at intensity maxima of the lattice structure while the V-points take care of index conservation by sitting at intensity minima...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Minglin Yang, Yueqian Wu, Kuan Fang Ren, Xinqing Sheng
Due to special characteristics of nondiffraction and self reconstruction, the Bessel beams have attracted wide attention in optical trapping and appear to be a dramatic alternative to Gaussian beams. We present in this paper an efficient approach based on the surface integral equations (SIE) to compute the radiation pressure force (RPF) exerted on arbitrary shaped homogeneous particles by high-order Bessel vortex beam (HOBVB). The incident beam is described by vector expressions perfectly satisfy Maxwell's equations...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Zizhuo Liu, Koray Aydin
Graphene is a monolayer plasmonic material that has been widely studied in the area of plasmonics and nanophotonics. Combining graphene with traditional plasmonic structures provides new opportunities and challenges. One particular application for nanostructured metals is enhanced optical transmission. However, extraordinary transmission (EOT) is known to have a frequency-selective performance due to size and periodicity of the nanohole arrays. Here, we propose to use a continuous graphene layer to enhance transmission through gold nanoslit arrays at mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Weijie Mai, Xiaokang Song, Ping Jiang, Wenzhong Wang, Li Yu, Jiasen Zhang
Plasmon-based fluorescence modulation has led to important advances in various fields and has paved the way toward promising scientific research aimed at enabling new applications. However, the modulation of fluorescence properties based on both localized surface plasmon (LSP) and cavity modes of propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are rarely reported. Here, we raster scanned a hybrid nanowire (HNW) with quantum dots (QDs) adsorbed onto a Ag nanowire (NW) and obtained two-photon fluorescence (TPF) maps of the intensity and decay rate...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Hui Xie, Min Li, Yang Li, Yueming Zhou, Peixiang Lu
Using semiclassical models with implementing interference effects, we study the low-energy photoelectron intra-half-cycle interferences among nonscattering trajectories and multiple forward scattering trajectories of atoms ionized by a strong mid-infrared laser field. Tracing back to the initial tunneling coordinates, we find that up to three kinds of forward scattering trajectories have substantial contributions to the low-energy photoelectrons. Those multiple forward scattering trajectories depend sensitively on the initial transverse momentum at the tunnel exit and they lead to sign reversal of the transverse momentum of the electrons...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Di Liu, Le Yu, Xiao Xiong, Lei Yang, Yan Li, Ming Li, Hai-Ou Li, Gang Cao, Ming Xiao, Bin Xiang, Chang-Jun Min, Guang-Can Guo, Xi-Feng Ren, Guo-Ping Guo
Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have grown as fantastic building blocks for optoelectronic applications, owing to their direct band gap, transparency, and mechanical flexibility. Since the luminescence of monolayer TMDs suffers from low light absorption and emission, surface plasmons, which confine light at subwavelength and enhance the local electric field, are utilized to boost both excitation and emission fields of TMDs, enabling strong light-matter interaction at the nano-scale. Meanwhile, radially-polarized beams (RPBs) as new and attractive excitation source have found many applications in surface plasmon polaritons, optical tweezer and so on...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Jun Young Kim, Jeongyong Kim, Jinsoo Joo
Two-dimensional (2-D) transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS<sub>2</sub>, WSe<sub>2</sub>, and WS<sub>2</sub>, are promising materials for application in field effect transistors, optoelectronics, and sensing devices. In this study, 2-D WSe<sub>2</sub> samples with various numbers of layers were hybridized with functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to achieve surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The nanoscale Raman and photoluminescence spectra of the WSe<sub>2</sub> layers and WSe<sub>2</sub>/Au-NP hybrids were measured using a high-resolution laser confocal microscope...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Jie Yang, Jinlu Liu, Qi Su, Zhengyu Li, Fan Fan, Bingjie Xu, Hong Guo
We present a random number generation scheme based on measuring the phase fluctuations of a laser with a simple experimental setup. A simple model is established to analyze the randomness and the simulation result based on this model fits well with the experiment data. After the analog to digital sampling and suitable randomness extraction integrated in the field programmable gate array, the final random bits are delivered to a PC, realizing a 5.4 Gbps real time quantum random number generation. The final random bit sequences have passed all the NIST and DIEHARD tests...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Fabio Pavanello, Xiaoge Zeng, Mark T Wade, Miloš A Popović
We propose ring modulators based on interdigitated p-n junctions that exploit standing rather than traveling-wave resonant modes to improve modulation efficiency, insertion loss and speed. Matching the longitudinal nodes and antinodes of a standing-wave mode with high (contacts) and low (depletion regions) carrier density regions, respectively, simultaneously lowers loss and increases sensitivity significantly. This approach permits further to relax optical constraints on contacts placement and can lead to lower device capacitance...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
Huifang Zhang, Chun Li, Caihong Zhang, Xueqian Zhang, Jianqiang Gu, Biaobing Jin, Jiaguang Han, Weili Zhang
Plasmonic dimers that made from two subwavelength particles have drawn much attention in the recent years, which are quite promising in local field enhancement, sensing, high frequency conductance probing and electron tunneling. In this work, we experimentally investigate the mode transition effect of different plasmonic resonances in double-ring dimers when introducing conductive junction at the dimer gap in the terahertz regime. Without the junction, the dimers support a single dipolar bonding dimer plasmonic (BDP) mode...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
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