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J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Henry T Peng, Catherine Tenn, Oshin Vartanian, Shawn G Rhind, Jerzy Jarmasz, Homer Tien, Andrew Beckett
Introduction: Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training imposes psychophysiological stress on medics. It is unclear whether these stress levels vary with the training modalities selected. It is also unclear how stress levels could have an impact on medical performance and skill uptake. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot study to compare the effects of live tissue (LT) with a high-fidelity patient simulator (SIM) on the level of stress elicited, performance, and skill uptake during battlefield trauma training course in an operating room (OR) and in a simulated battlefield scenario (field)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
S R Geed, Sachin Prasad, M K Kureel, R S Singh, B N Rai
The isolated microbial Alcaligenes sp. S3 from the agricultural field was used for the biodegradation of synthetic wastewater containing atrazine. This study was conducted in an alternating aerobic-anoxic lab scale pilot plant. The performance of continuously operated pilot plant was evaluated in three different phases with varying atrazine concentration. The best performance of plant was observed in phase-II. The atrazine (200 mg/L) having COD value 1356 mg/L was used with varying flow rate and 90.56% COD removal was obtained at a flow rate of 300 mL/h on 122th day of operation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
A Garbout, M Férid
Considering the features in changing the structure and properties of rare earth titanates pyrochlores, the substituted Dy2 Ti2 O7 may be very attractive for various applications. Effect of Sm and Y substitution on the structural properties of Dy2 Ti2 O7 ceramic was established. These ceramics were prepared by solid-state reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Both analysis show that YDyTi2 O7 with the pyrochlore structure is obtained after heating at 1400°C, but SmDyTi2 O7 has already formed after sintering at 1200°C...
March 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Christine Prouty, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong Zhang
Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Natalie Thomas, Melissa Bull
Contemporary research in the drugs field has demonstrated a number of gender differences in patterns and experiences of substance use, and the design and provision of gender-responsive interventions has been identified as an important policy issue. Consequently, whether and how domestic drug policies attend to women and gender issues is an important question for investigation. This article presents a policy audit and critical analysis of Australian national and state and territory policy documents. It identifies and discusses two key styles of problematisation of women's drug use in policy: 1) drug use and its effect on women's reproductive role (including a focus on pregnant women and women who are mothers), and 2) drug use and its relationship to women's vulnerability to harm (including violent and sexual victimisation, trauma, and mental health issues)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Meisser Vidal Madera Anaya, Juan Victor Franco, Ángela María Merchán-Galvis, Carmen R Gallardo, Xavier Bonfill Cosp
BACKGROUND: The applicability of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on treatments for oral cancer remains unknown since there are no systematic assessments of their quality. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify and assess the quality of them. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search to identify CPGs that provided recommendations on treatments for oral cancer. The quality of each included CPG was determined using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument, by four appraisers independently...
March 10, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Kouta Suzuki, Hidehito Niimura, Ryoko Yamazawa, Takahiro Nemoto, Masaaki Murakami, Masaru Mimura, Masafumi Mizuno
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, the early detection and treatment of the first episode of schizophrenia (FES) has attracted worldwide attention. In Japan, psychiatric care has changed to an open and accessible framework over the past decade. Therefore, the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is thought to have been shortened. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether recent DUP periods are shorter than they were 10 years ago and whether the DUP at present differs among psychiatric facilities...
March 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
David Hasler, Dominik Obrist
The flow field past a prosthetic aortic valve comprises many details that indicate whether the prosthesis is functioning well or not. It is, however, not yet fully understood how an optimal flow scenario would look, i.e. which subtleties of the fluid dynamics in place are essential regarding the durability and compatibility of a prosthetic valve. In this study, we measured and analyzed the 3D flow field in the vicinity of a bio-prosthetic heart valve in function of the aortic root size. The measurements were conducted within aortic root phantoms of different size, mounted in a custom-built hydraulic setup, which mimicked physiological flow conditions in the aorta...
2018: PloS One
Maritza C Alencar, Eileen Butler, Jessica MacIntyre, Evelyn P Wempe
Formal training is an important mechanism to assist the new generation of nurse practitioners (NPs) entering the complex field of oncology. The growing number of patients with cancer and the expansion of treatment options demand structured oncology training to support the transition of novice advanced practice nurses to the field. Oncology NP fellowships are a potential solution for those seeking training centered on the management of patients with cancer. This article discusses the process of implementing an NP fellowship program at an academic cancer center, including benefits and barriers...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Jay K Bhattarai, Dharmendra Neupane, Bishal Nepal, Vasilii Mikhaylov, Alexei V Demchenko, Keith J Stine
Nanoporous gold (np-Au), because of its high surface area-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity, chemical inertness, physical stability, biocompatibility, easily tunable pores, and plasmonic properties, has attracted much interested in the field of nanotechnology. It has promising applications in the fields of catalysis, bio/chemical sensing, drug delivery, biomolecules separation and purification, fuel cell development, surface-chemistry-driven actuation, and supercapacitor design. Many chemical and electrochemical procedures are known for the preparation of np-Au...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Muhammad Shafique, Reeho Kim, Kwon Kyung-Ho
This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Radosław Mrówczyński, Artur Jędrzak, Kosma Szutkowski, Bartosz F Grześkowiak, Emerson Coy, Roksana Markiewicz, Teofil Jesionowski, Stefan Jurga
Polydopamine (PDA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin (SH-βCD) were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR and MRI), and doxorubicin (DOXO)-loading experiments. The liver cancer cellular internalization of DOXO-loaded nanoparticles was investigated by confocal imaging microscopy. Synthesized nanomaterials bearing a chemotherapeutic drug and a layer of polydopamine capable of absorbing near-infrared light show high performance in the combined chemo- and photothermal therapy (CT-PTT) of liver cancer due to the synergistic effect of both modalities as demonstrated in vitro...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jules Gellaerts, Evgeny Bogdanov, Farzin Dadashi, Benoit Mariani
Ski Mountaineering (SkiMo) is a fast growing sport requiring both endurance and technical skills. It involves different types of locomotion with and without the skis. The aim of this study is to develop and validate in the snowfield a novel inertial-based system for analysing cycle parameters and classifying movement in SkiMo in real-time. The study was divided into two parts, one focused on real-time parameters estimation (cadence, distance from strides, stride duration, stride length, number of strides, slope gradient, and power) and, second, on transition detection (kickturns, skin on, skin off, ski on and off backpack) in order to classify between the different types of locomotion...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Joao Paulo Coelho, José Osío Barcina, Elena Junquera, Emilio Aicart, Gloria Tardajos, Sergio Gómez-Graña, Pablo Cruz-Gil, Cástor Salgado, Pablo Díaz-Núñez, Ovidio Peña-Rodríguez, Andrés Guerrero-Martínez
Amphiphilic nonionic ligands, synthesized with a fixed hydrophobic moiety formed by a thiolated alkyl chain and an aromatic ring, and with a hydrophilic tail composed of a variable number of oxyethylene units, were used to functionalize spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in water. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements of the AuNPs in the presence of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) revealed the formation of supramolecular complexes between the ligand and macrocycle at the surface of the nanocrystals...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Daniel M P Ardisson-Araújo, Ana Maria Rodrigues da Silva, Fernando L Melo, Ethiane Rozo Dos Santos, Daniel R Sosa-Gómez, Bergmann M Ribeiro
In this report, we described the genome of a novel baculovirus isolated from the monocot insect pest Mocis latipes , the striped grass looper. The genome has 134,272 bp in length with a G + C content of 38.3%. Based on the concatenated sequence of the 38 baculovirus core genes, we found that the virus is a betabaculovirus closely related to the noctuid-infecting betabaculoviruses including Pseudaletia unipuncta granulovirus (PsunGV), Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV), Helicoverpa armigera granulovirus (HearGV), and Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV)...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Francesca Malvano, Luigi Maritato, Giovanni Carapella, Pasquale Orgiani, Roberto Pilloton, Marisa Di Matteo, Donatella Albanese
Due to their interesting ferroelectric, conductive and dielectric properties, in recent years, perovskite-structured materials have begun to attract increasing interest in the biosensing field. In this study, a strontium titanate perovskite layer (SrTiO₃) has been synthesized on a platinum electrode and exploited for the development of an impedimetric label-free immunosensor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 detection. The electrochemical characterization of the perovskite-modified electrode during the construction of the immunosensor, as well as after the interaction with different E...
March 16, 2018: Biosensors
Robert Beaulieu, Kaden Andre, Ronald Mancini
PURPOSE: To determine if frontalis muscle contraction can be induced by manipulating visual and eyelid proprioceptive inputs through simulating visual deprivation and ptosis. METHODS: Volunteers without prior eyelid or forehead pathologic study were recruited for this nonrandomized, prospective study. Baseline and study phase brow positions were documented. The first phase was to simulate visual deprivation and the second to simulate ptosis. The dominant eye was used for each phase...
March 14, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Dong Yoon Kim, Ji Ho Song, Yoon Jeon Kim, Joo Yong Lee, June-Gone Kim, Young Hee Yoon, Soo Geun Joe
PURPOSE: To investigate the differences in the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in both eyes of patients with axial anisometropia. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted on diabetic patients who had different axial lengths (difference greater than 1 mm) in each eye. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the differences in the progression of DR in both eyes of patients with axial anisometropia. Fundus images (fluorescein angiography and photographs of the fundus covering the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study seven fields) were graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study DR grading system...
March 15, 2018: Retina
Caleb J Bashor, James J Collins
Engineering synthetic gene regulatory circuits proceeds through iterative cycles of design, building, and testing. Initial circuit designs must rely on often-incomplete models of regulation established by fields of reductive inquiry-biochemistry and molecular and systems biology. As differences in designed and experimentally observed circuit behavior are inevitably encountered, investigated, and resolved, each turn of the engineering cycle can force a resynthesis in understanding of natural network function...
March 16, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
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