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Loïc Costeur, Bastien Mennecart, Bert Müller, Georg Schulz
Foetuses are a source of scientific information to understand the development and evolution of anatomical structures. The bony labyrinth, surrounding the organ of balance and hearing, is a phylogenetically and ecologically informative structure for which still little concerning growth and shape variability is known in many groups of vertebrates. Except in humans, it is poorly known in many other placentals and its prenatal growth has almost never been studied. Ruminants are a diversified group of placentals and represent an interesting case study to understand the prenatal growth of the ear region...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
A N Salt, J J Hartsock, R M Gill, E King, F B Kraus, S K Plontke
Intratympanic gentamicin therapy is widely used clinically to suppress the vestibular symptoms of Meniere's disease. Dosing in humans was empirically established and we still know remarkably little about where gentamicin enters the inner ear, where it reaches in the inner ear and what time course it follows after local applications. In this study, gentamicin was applied to the round window niche as a 20 μL bolus of 40 mg/ml solution. Ten 2 μL samples of perilymph were collected sequentially from the lateral semi-circular canal (LSCC) at times from 1 to 4 h after application...
October 8, 2016: Hearing Research
Guanglin Kuang, Xu Wang, Christer Halldin, Agneta Nordberg, Bengt Långström, Hans Ågren, Yaoquan Tu
Potentiation of the function of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) is believed to provide a possible way for the treatment of cholinergic system dysfunctions such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) are able to augment the peak current response of the endogenous agonist of α7-nAChR by binding to some allosteric sites. In this study, the binding profile of a potent type I PAM, NS-1738, with a chimera structure (termed α7-AChBP) constructed from the extracellular domain of α7-nAChR and an acetylcholine binding protein was investigated with molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and free energy calculation methods...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
James E Joy
Putative sensory structures in the food canal, and distal vestibule region entering the canal of Tabanus atratus F., are described. Two pairs of sensilla were observed in the walls of the vestibule-a distal pair of the basiconic type, and a pair of setifiorm sensilla at the base of the vestibule. Vestibular sensilla were constant in type, number, and position. Conversely, setiform sensilla in right and left walls of the food canal varied in number from one fly specimen to another, and lacked evidence of pairing (i...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Anh Tn Nguyen, Jo-Anne Baltos, Trayder Thomas, Toan D Nguyen, Laura Lopez Munoz, Karen J Gregory, Paul J White, Patrick M Sexton, Arthur Christopoulos, Lauren T May
The adenosine A1 G protein-coupled receptor (A1AR) is an important therapeutic target implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and neuronal disorders. Although it is well established that the A1AR orthosteric site is located within the receptor's transmembrane (TM) bundle, prior studies have implicated extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) as having a significant role in contributing to orthosteric ligand affinity and signaling for various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We thus performed extensive alanine scanning mutagenesis of the A1AR-ECL2 to explore the role of this domain on A1AR orthosteric ligand pharmacology...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Anh Tn Nguyen, Elizabeth A Vecchio, Trayder Thomas, Toan D Nguyen, Luigi Aurelio, Peter J Scammells, Paul J White, Patrick M Sexton, Karen J Gregory, Lauren T May, Arthur Christopoulos
Allosteric modulation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) offers a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of numerous central and peripheral disorders. However, despite decades of research, there is a relative paucity of structural information regarding the A1AR allosteric site and mechanisms governing cooperativity with orthosteric ligands. We combined alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the A1AR second extracellular loop (ECL2) with radioligand binding and functional interaction assays to quantify effects on allosteric ligand affinity, cooperativity and efficacy...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Solange Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Trang Le, Edd Rabon, L Lee Hamm, Nazih L Nakhoul
Renal Rhbg is localized to the basolateral membrane of intercalated cells and is involved in NH3/NH4+ transport. The structure of Rhbg is not yet resolved however a high-resolution crystal structure of AmtB, a bacterial homologue of Rh, has been determined. We aligned the sequence of Rhbg to AmtB and identified important sites of Rhbg that may affect transport. Our analysis positioned three conserved amino acids, Histidine-183 (H183), Histidine-342 (H342) and Tryptophan-230 (W230), within the hydrophobic pore where they presumably serve to control NH3 transport...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Alba M Azola, Kirstyn L Sunday, Ianessa A Humbert
Submental surface electromyography (ssEMG) visual biofeedback is widely used to train swallowing maneuvers. This study compares the effect of ssEMG and videofluoroscopy (VF) visual biofeedback on hyo-laryngeal accuracy when training a swallowing maneuver. Furthermore, it examines the clinician's ability to provide accurate verbal cues during swallowing maneuver training. Thirty healthy adults performed the volitional laryngeal vestibule closure maneuver (vLVC), which involves swallowing and sustaining closure of the laryngeal vestibule for 2 s...
September 28, 2016: Dysphagia
Michihiko Sone, Tadao Yoshida, Satofumi Sugimoto, Kyoko Morimoto, Yuriko Okazaki, Masaaki Teranishi, Shinji Naganawa, Tsutomu Nakashima
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in the vestibule on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be a high-risk factor for complications in cases that are candidates for stapes surgery. OBJECTIVE: Pre-operative detection of EH could be valuable in cases that are candidates for stapes surgery to prevent unpredictable complications following surgery. Pre-operative MRI findings and post-operative findings following stapes surgery were compared to evaluate the efficacy of such MRI evaluation for the management of cases with otosclerosis...
September 27, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Tabassum A Kennedy, Nathan Connell, Timothy Szczykutowicz, Sebastian Schafer, Kevin Royalty, Sara Nace, Brian Gartrell, Samuel Gubbels
HYPOTHESIS: Flat-panel computed tomography (FPCT) will allow more accurate localization of cochlear implants with decreased metallic artifact and decreased radiation dose when compared with multi-detector CT (MDCT). BACKGROUND: The measurement of scalar location and intra-scalar position of cochlear implantation (CI) electrodes using computed tomography (CT) is complicated by metallic image artifact and insufficient scalar resolution. FPCT has been shown to improve upon the resolution of MDCT while reducing artifact...
September 23, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
A Fujiwara, K Tokura, W Tome, N Kitai
The purpose of this study was to investigate the multidirectional lip-closing force in adult females before and after short-term lip training. Sixty-six Japanese females participated in this study. The subjects performed lip training that involved maintaining 200 or 400 g of bottled water in the oral vestibule. The signals of directional lip-closing force were investigated in eight directions before training and 5 and 7 days after the lip training. The differences in the closing force between pre- and post-training were then analysed statistically...
November 2016: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Thomas M Roston, Wenting Guo, Andrew D Krahn, Ruiwu Wang, Filip Van Petegem, Shubhayan Sanatani, S R Wayne Chen, Anna Lehman
BACKGROUND: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an ion channelopathy usually caused by gain-of-function mutations ryanodine receptor type-2 (RyR2). Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is an often genetic cardiomyopathy. A rare LVNC-CPVT overlap syndrome may be caused by exon 3 deletion in RyR2. We sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum and molecular basis of a novel RyR2 mutation identified in a family with both conditions. METHODS: Several members of an affected family underwent clinical and genetic assessments...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
O V Nekrasova, A D Volyntseva, K S Kudryashova, V N Novoseletsky, E A Lyapina, A V Illarionova, S A Yakimov, Yu V Korolkova, K V Shaitan, M P Kirpichnikov, A V Feofanov
Potassium voltage-gated Kv1.6 channel, which is distributed primarily in neurons of central and peripheral nervous systems, is of significant physiological importance. To date, several high-affinity Kv1.6-channel blockers are known, but the lack of selective ones among them hampers the studies of tissue localization and functioning of Kv1.6 channels. Here we present an approach to advanced understanding of interactions of peptide toxin blockers with a Kv1.6 pore. It combines molecular modeling studies and an application of a new bioengineering system based on a KcsA-Kv1...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Heidrun Schaaf, Heiko Kerkmann, Felix Pitka, Niko Christian Bock, Sameh Attia
BACKGROUND: Tooth replantation after traumatic avulsion or transplantation is a challenge in oral surgery. A special method named auto-alloplastic replantation, in which a titanium post is used after extraoral endodontic treatment, combines several advantages. The treatment is performed in one step with no further endodontic intervention, no wide root canal instrumentation, no recontamination, and reduced endodontic infection. This is the first report on replantation of an ectopic tooth in a patient with a cleft lip and alveolus using this method...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Sid Topiol, Benny Bang-Andersen, Connie Sanchez, Klaus P Bøgesø
The recently reported X-ray structures of the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter SERT with bound inhibitors open new opportunities for drug discovery at SERT, selectivity design with respect to other neurotransmitter sodium transporters, and enhanced understanding of the molecular events involved in SERT action. Through computational and structural analyses, we explore the binding and migration of 5-HT at SERT. Consistent with earlier studies of leucine migration at the bacterial homolog of SERT, LeuT, we find multiple potential 'stopover' sites for 5-HT binding at SERT including the two (transmembrane S1 and extracellular vestibule S2) seen in the binding of the SSRI (S)-citalopram (S-Cit) to SERT, as well as other sites...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
David Naranjo, Hans Moldenhauer, Matías Pincuntureo, Ignacio Díaz-Franulic
Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K(+) channels discriminate K(+) over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K(+) channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings...
October 2016: Journal of General Physiology
H Karayilmaz, Öe Güngör, S Hanimeli, B Yagmur
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited disorder affecting the skin and mucous membranes, characterized by blister formation following minor trauma. It is a chronic mechanobullous disease related to the specific abnormal or absent proteins. The disease is associated with conspicuous clinical and oral manifestations. The oral involvement of EB includes generalized enamel hypoplasia, dental caries, limited mouth opening, ankyloglossia, microstomia and obliteration of the vestibule. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary disorder with dental enamel defects and enamel hypoplasia both in deciduous and permanent dentition...
February 26, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
Maria Hovorakova, Katerina Lochovska, Oldrich Zahradnicek, Kristina Domonkosova Tibenska, Michaela Dornhoferova, Lucie Horakova-Smrckova, Silvia Bodorikova
The area of the oral vestibule is often a place where pathologies appear (e.g., peripheral odontomas). The origin of these pathologies is not fully understood. In the present study, we traced a cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the beginning of tooth development using Cre-LoxP system in the lower jaw of wild-type (WT) mice. We focused on Shh expression in the area of the early appearing rudimentary incisor germs located anteriorly to the prospective incisors. The localization of the labelled cells in the incisor germs and also in the inner epithelial layer of the vestibular anlage showed that the first very early developmental events in the lower incisor area are common to the vestibulum oris and the prospective incisor primordia in mice...
2016: PloS One
Akira Ishiyama, Joni Doherty, Gail Ishiyama, Alicia M Quesnel, Ivan Lopez, Fred H Linthicum
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate for potential causes of delayed loss of residual hearing that variably occurs with hybrid cochlear implants. STUDY DESIGN: Histopathological evaluation of 29 human temporal bone (HTB) with cochlear implant (CI). SETTING: The Neurotology and House HTB Laboratory of UCLA (House-UCLA). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: HTB from CI patients from the House-UCLA HTB Laboratory (n = 28) and one courtesy of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI)...
September 7, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Elke Loos, Nicolas Verhaert, Annelore Willaert, Koenraad Devriendt, Ann Swillen, Robert Hermans, Katya Op de Beeck, Greet Hens
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most frequent microdeletion syndrome in humans, presents with a large variety of abnormalities. A common abnormality is hearing impairment. The exact pathophysiological explanation of the observed hearing loss remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the middle and inner ear malformations as seen on computer tomographic imaging in patients with 22q11DS. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 11 22q11DS patients who had undergone a CT of the temporal bone in the past...
November 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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