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dental grade mineralization

Anders Palmquist
Osseointegrated implants are frequently used in reconstructive surgery, both in the dental and orthopedic field, restoring physical function and improving the quality of life for the patients. The bone anchorage is typically evaluated at micrometer resolution, while bone tissue is a dynamic composite material composed of nanoscale collagen fibrils and apatite crystals, with defined hierarchical levels at different length scales. In order to understand the bone formation and the ultrastructure of the interfacial tissue, analytical strategies needs to be implemented enabling multiscale and multimodal analyses of the intact interface...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Maya Ramesh, Malathi Narasimhan, Ramesh Krishnan, Rita Mary Aruna, Sarah Kuruvilla
Background: Fluoride is needed for the normal development of bone and teeth; in high levels, it affects developing teeth and bone. Dental fluorosis (DF) is caused by ingestion of excess fluoride mainly through drinking water. Aim: The present study aims to observe and understand the histological changes of fluorosed teeth under light microscope (LM). Materials and Methods: Teeth which were indicated for extractions for orthodontic or periodontal problems were selected...
September 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Mojtaba Dorri, Maria José Martinez-Zapata, Tanya Walsh, Valeria Cc Marinho, Aubrey Sheiham Deceased, Carlos Zaror
BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a sugar-dependent disease that damages tooth structure and, due to loss of mineral components, may eventually lead to cavitation. Dental caries is the most prevalent disease worldwide and is considered the most important burden of oral health. Conventional treatment methods (drill and fill) involve the use of rotary burs under local anaesthesia. The need for an electricity supply, expensive handpieces and highly trained dental health personnel may limit access to dental treatment, especially in underdeveloped regions...
December 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Athina Bakopoulou, Danae Apatzidou, Eleni Aggelidou, Evangelia Gousopoulou, Gabriele Leyhausen, Joachim Volk, Aristeidis Kritis, Petros Koidis, Werner Geurtsen
BACKGROUND: Development of clinical-grade cell preparations is central to meeting the regulatory requirements for cellular therapies under good manufacturing practice-compliant (cGMP) conditions. Since addition of animal serum in culture media may compromise safe and efficient expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for clinical use, this study aimed to investigate the potential of two serum/xeno-free, cGMP culture systems to maintain long-term "stemness" of oral MSCs (dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and alveolar bone marrow MSCs (aBMMSCs)), compared to conventional serum-based expansion...
November 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Rozita Jalali, Franck Guy, Samaneh Ghazanfari, Don Lyaruu, Leo van Ruijven, Pamela DenBesten, Stefania Martignon, Gina Castiblanco, Antonius L J J Bronckers
OBJECTIVE: Fluoride excess of 0.05-0.07mgF/kgbw/day in water or food additives like salt is the principal cause of endemic dental fluorosis. How fluoride causes these defects is not clear yet. Recent studies in rodents suggest that development of enamel fluorosis is associated with insufficient neutralization of protons released during the formation of hypermineralized lines. DESIGN: Here we examined whether hypermineralization could also be assessed by MicroCT in developing molar enamel of humans exposed to fluoride...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Calvin C Wu, Michael J Econs, Linda A DiMeglio, Karl L Insogna, Michael A Levine, Paul J Orchard, Weston P Miller, Anna Petryk, Eric T Rush, Dolores M Shoback, Leanne M Ward, Lynda E Polgreen
Background: Osteopetrosis encompasses a group of rare metabolic bone diseases characterized by impaired osteoclast activity or development, resulting in high bone mineral density. Existing guidelines focus on treatment of the severe infantile forms with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) but do not address the management of patients with less severe forms for whom HCT is not the standard of care. Therefore, our objective was to develop expert consensus guidelines for the management of these patients...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Stephen M Hamlet, Cedryck Vaquette, Amit Shah, Dietmar W Hutmacher, Saso Ivanovski
AIM: Alveolar bone regeneration remains a significant clinical challenge in periodontology and dental implantology. This study assessed the mineralized tissue forming potential of 3-D printed medical grade polycaprolactone (mPCL) constructs containing osteoblasts (OB) encapsulated in a hyaluronic acid (HA)-hydrogel incorporating bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7). MATERIALS AND METHODS: HA-hydrogels containing human OB ± BMP-7 were prepared. Cell viability, osteogenic gene expression, mineralized tissue formation and BMP-7 release in vitro, were assessed by fluorescence staining, RT-PCR, histological/μ-CT examination and ELISA respectively...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Anna Spina, Roberta Montella, Davide Liccardo, Alfredo De Rosa, Luigi Laino, Thimios A Mitsiadis, Marcella La Noce
Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), selected from the stromal-vascular fraction of dental pulp, are ecto-mesenchymal stem cells deriving from neural crests, successfully used in human bone tissue engineering. For their use in human therapy GMP procedures are required. For instance, the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) is strongly discouraged in clinical practice due to its high risk of prions and other infections for human health. Alternatively, clinical grade sera have been suggested, including the New Zealand FBS (NZ-FBS)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Karin Bäck, Margareta Ahlqwist, Magnus Hakeberg, Cecilia Björkelund, Lars Dahlström
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to elucidate the relation between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis/arthrosis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). BACKGROUND: General epidemiological data support the hypothesis that osteoporosis and OA are inversely correlated but is not conclusively investigated in the TMJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 114 representative elderly women and men, randomised from a comprehensive population study in Gothenburg, Sweden, had bone mineral density established with whole-body, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as part of a health survey...
June 2017: Gerodontology
Patrik Stenlund, Omar Omar, Ulrika Brohede, Susanne Norgren, Birgitta Norlindh, Anna Johansson, Jukka Lausmaa, Peter Thomsen, Anders Palmquist
Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) is regarded as the state-of-the-art material for bone-anchored dental devices, whereas the mechanically stronger alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), made of titanium, aluminum (Al) and vanadium (V), is regarded as the material of choice for high-load applications. There is a call for the development of new alloys, not only to eliminate the potential toxic effect of Al and V but also to meet the challenges imposed on dental and maxillofacial reconstructive devices, for example. The present work evaluates a novel, dual-stage, acid-etched, Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr alloy implant, consisting of elements that create low toxicity, with the potential to promote osseointegration in vivo...
July 2015: Acta Biomaterialia
Lucas da Fonseca Roberti Garcia, Claudia Huck, Letícia Menezes de Oliveira, Pedro Paulo Chaves de Souza, Carlos Alberto de Souza Costa
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new calcium aluminate cement (EndoBinder) in subcutaneous tissue of rats in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide hard-setting cement. METHODS: Polyethylene tubes (1.5 × 10 mm) containing the dental cements were implanted into dorsal subcutaneous tissue of 30 rats. After experimental periods of 7, 30, and 90 days, biopsies were performed for tissue response analysis under optical light microscope...
December 2014: Journal of Endodontics
Peter G Williams
There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution)...
September 2014: Advances in Nutrition
Kathryn Grandfield, Netta Lev-Tov Chattah, Sabra Djomehri, Naomi Eidelmann, Frederick C Eichmiller, Samuel Webb, P James Schuck, Martin Nweeia, Sunita P Ho
In nature, an interface between dissimilar tissues is often bridged by a graded zone, and provides functional properties at a whole organ level. A perfect example is a "biological interphase" between stratified cementum and dentin of a narwhal tooth. This study highlights the graded structural, mechanical, and chemical natural characteristics of a biological interphase known as the cementum-dentin junction layer and their effect in resisting mechanical loads. From a structural perspective, light and electron microscopy techniques illustrated the layer as a wide 1000-2000 μm graded zone consisting of higher density continuous collagen fiber bundles from the surface of cementum to dentin, that parallels hygroscopic 50-100 μm wide collagenous region in human teeth...
August 2014: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Menghua Li, Tieying Yin, Yazhou Wang, Feifei Du, Xingzheng Zou, Hans Gregersen, Guixue Wang
Adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the living organism have resulted in development of high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also improves steel properties. The cell cytocompatibility, blood compatibility and cell response of high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel were studied in vitro. The mechanical properties and microstructure of this stainless steel were compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel...
October 2014: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Genti Shyti, Francesco Rosalbino, Daniele Macciò, Linda Scarabelli, Rodolfo Quarto, Paolo Giannoni
PURPOSE: We assessed in vitro the corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of four Zr-based alloys (Zr97.5 Nb1.5VM1.0  ; VM, valve metal: Ti, Mo, W, Ta; at%) to be used as implant materials, comparing the results with grade-2 titanium, a biocompatible metal standard. METHODS: Corrosion resistance was investigated by open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements as a function of exposure time to an artificial physiological environment (Ringer's solution)...
February 2014: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Georgios A Kotsakis, Maurice Salama, Vanessa Chrepa, James E Hinrichs, Philippe Gaillard
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of an anorganic bovine bone graft particulate to that of a calcium phosphosilicate putty alloplast for socket preservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty teeth were extracted from 24 patients. The sockets were debrided and received anorganic bovine bone mineral (BOV, n=12), calcium phosphosilicate putty (PUT, n=12), or no graft (CTRL, n=6). The sockets were assessed clinically and radiographically 5 months later...
January 2014: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Duncan J E Murdock, Xi-Ping Dong, John E Repetski, Federica Marone, Marco Stampanoni, Philip C J Donoghue
Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates whose tooth-like elements are the earliest instance of a mineralized skeleton in the vertebrate lineage, inspiring the 'inside-out' hypothesis that teeth evolved independently of the vertebrate dermal skeleton and before the origin of jaws. However, these propositions have been based on evidence from derived euconodonts. Here we test hypotheses of a paraconodont ancestry of euconodonts using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to characterize and compare the microstructure of morphologically similar euconodont and paraconodont elements...
October 24, 2013: Nature
Marta Tunesi, Caterina Bossio, Noemi Tonna, Cinzia Della Valle, Fabio Bianco, Roberto Chiesa, Carmen Giordano
PURPOSE: To speed up the osteointegration process, surface-treated titanium has been widely used in dental and orthopedic applications. The present work describes a new silicon-based anodic spark deposition (ASD) treatment and investigates the properties of the surfaces obtained, focusing on their capability to modulate the osteogenic differentiation potential of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). METHODS: The surfaces examined were obtained from commercially pure grade 2 titanium by a single-step ASD (SUM) eventually followed by a thermal treatment in alkali solution (SUMNa), while acid-etched titanium (AE; NextMaterials s...
June 24, 2013: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Amy Hollis, Paul Arundel, Alec High, Richard Balmer
BACKGROUND.  Hypophosphatasia (HP) is characterized by defective mineralization of bone and teeth because of deficient alkaline phosphatase activity. There are generally six recognized clinical forms, of which the most severe is often lethal prenatally or early in life. In milder forms, such as odontohypophosphatasia (OHP), premature exfoliation of primary teeth may be the only clinical manifestation. CASE REPORT.  A 20-month-old girl was referred to the Specialist Paediatric Salaried Dental Service within the Harrogate and District NHS Foundation Trust with mobility of tooth numbers 71 and 81...
May 2013: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
A Kishen, A Asundi
It is established that a natural system balances functional requirements with the anatomical optimizations it has achieved. Though such process of functional adaptation is recognized in bone tissue, any mode of functional adaptation in dental tissue is yet to be understood. In this study a three-dimensional digital photoelasticity is conducted to evaluate the nature of stress distribution in the sagittal aspect and the cross-sections of the dentine structure. Later, a fluoroscopic X-ray microscopic analysis and a microindentation experiments, are performed on different sections obtained from the sagittal and cross-sections of the dentine...
January 1, 2002: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
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