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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821153/combination-of-microsized-mineral-particles-and-rosin-as-a-basis-for-converting-cellulosic-fibers-into-sticky-superhydrophobic-paper
#1
Xiaoyan Yu, Peiwen Bian, Yang Xue, Xueren Qian, Haipeng Yu, Wenshuai Chen, Xiaohai Hu, Peng Wang, Dong Wu, Qinghui Duan, Limei Li, Jing Shen, Yonghao Ni
The unique features of cellulosic paper including flexibility, biodegradability, and low cost enables it as a versatile, sustainable biomaterial for promising applications. In the paper industry, microsized mineral particles are widely used in the production of printing/writing paper grades, while rosin derived from trees is the earliest internal sizing agent for paper hydrophobication. On the basis of existing commercial practices associated with the use of mineral particles and rosin in paper production, we present a process concept of converting cellulosic fibers (paper-grade pulp) into "sticky" superhydrophobic paper involving the use of microsized mineral particles and rosin (a tree-derived natural product, mainly a mixture of resin acids, especially abietic acid with chemical formula of C19H29COOH)...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806687/mineralization-defects-are-comparable-in-fluorotic-impacted-human-teeth-and-fluorotic-mouse-incisors
#2
Rozita Jalali, Franck Guy, Samaneh Ghazanfari, Don Lyaruu, Leo van Ruijven, Pamela DenBesten, Stefania Martignon, Gina Castiblanco, Antonius L J J Bronckers
OBJECTIVE: Fluoride excess of 0.05-0.07mgF/kgbw/day in water or food additives like salt is the principal cause of endemic dental fluorosis. How fluoride causes these defects is not clear yet. Recent studies in rodents suggest that development of enamel fluorosis is associated with insufficient neutralization of protons released during the formation of hypermineralized lines. DESIGN: Here we examined whether hypermineralization could also be assessed by MicroCT in developing molar enamel of humans exposed to fluoride...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777535/electrospun-nanofibers-new-concepts-materials-and-applications
#3
Jiajia Xue, Jingwei Xie, Wenying Liu, Younan Xia
Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique that relies on the electrostatic repulsion between surface charges to continuously draw nanofibers from a viscoelastic fluid. It has been applied to successfully produce nanofibers, with diameters down to tens of nanometers, from a rich variety of materials, including polymers, ceramics, small molecules, and their combinations. In addition to solid nanofibers with a smooth surface, electrospinning has also been adapted to generate nanofibers with a number of secondary structures, including those characterized by a porous, hollow, or core-sheath structure...
August 4, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772618/bilayer-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nano-hydroxyapatite-membrane-with-barrier-function-and-osteogenesis-promotion-for-guided-bone-regeneration
#4
Li Fu, Zhanfeng Wang, Shujun Dong, Yan Cai, Yuxin Ni, Tianshou Zhang, Lin Wang, Yanmin Zhou
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is one such treatment that reconstructs neo-bone tissue by using a barrier membrane to prevent the invasion of soft tissue and to create a space for guiding new bone growth into the bone defect. Herein, we report a novel functionally graded bilayer membrane (FGBM) for GBR application. To fabricate the novel membrane, the composites of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and nano-hydroxyapatite were prepared by phase inversion for the dense layer and by electrospinning for another porous layer, and their corresponding properties were evaluated including surface morphology, mechanics, degradability, cell barrier function, and in vitro osteogenic bioactivity...
March 3, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767638/low-bone-mineral-density-is-a-significant-risk-for-proximal-junctional-failure-after-surgical-correction-of-adult-spinal-deformity-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#5
Mitsuru Yagi, Nobuyuki Fujita, Osahiko Tsuji, Narihito Nagoshi, Takashi Asazuma, Ken Ishii, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Kota Watanabe
STUDY DESIGN: A propensity-matched comparison of risk factors for proximal junctional failure (PJF), which is a symptomatic proximal junctional kyphosis developing after corrective surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD). OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of bone strength for developing PJF. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: PJF, a devastating complication of corrective surgery for ASD, often recurs even after revision surgery. Most studies of risk factors for PJF are retrospective and have a selection bias in surgical strategy, making it difficult to identify modifiable PJF risk factors...
August 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764879/influence-of-design-features-of-tibial-stems-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-on-tibial-bone-remodeling-behaviors
#6
Zhengbin Jia, He Gong, Shimin Hu, Juan Fang, Ruoxun Fan
In total knee arthroplasty, the optimal length and material of tibial stem remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate influences of lengths and materials of cementless stems on tibial remodeling behaviors. Three groups of lengths were investigated (i.e., 110, 60, and 30 mm), and four materials (i.e., titanium, flexible 'iso-elastic' material, and two functionally graded materials [FGMs]) were selected for each group. FGM is a kind of material whose composition gradually varies in space. In this study, the compositions of two FGMs were Ti and hydroxyapatite (FGM I), and Ti and bioglass (FGM II), respectively...
July 29, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758368/composition-and-structure-of-porcine-digital-flexor-tendon-bone-insertion-tissues
#7
Sandhya Chandrasekaran, Mark Pankow, Kara Peters, Hsiao-Ying Shadow Huang
Tendon-bone insertion is a functionally graded tissue, transitioning from 200MPa tensile modulus at the tendon end to 20GPa tensile modulus at the bone, across just a few hundred micrometers. In this study, we examine the porcine digital flexor tendon insertion tissue to provide a quantitative description of its collagen orientation and mineral concentration by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based image analysis and mass spectrometry, respectively. Histological results revealed uniformity in global collagen orientation at all depths, indicative of mechanical anisotropy, although at mid-depth, the highest fiber density, least amount of dispersion, and least cellular circularity were evident...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756618/antioxidant-vitamin-and-mineral-supplements-for-slowing-the-progression-of-age-related-macular-degeneration
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer R Evans, John G Lawrenson
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that antioxidants may prevent cellular damage in the retina by reacting with free radicals that are produced in the process of light absorption. Higher dietary levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals may reduce the risk of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplementation on the progression of AMD in people with AMD...
July 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756617/antioxidant-vitamin-and-mineral-supplements-for-preventing-age-related-macular-degeneration
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer R Evans, John G Lawrenson
BACKGROUND: There is inconclusive evidence from observational studies to suggest that people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C, and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc) may be less likely to develop age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether or not taking antioxidant vitamin or mineral supplements, or both, prevent the development of AMD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 29 March 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 29 March 2017), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database) (1985 to 29 March 2017), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www...
July 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748385/effect-of-implementation-of-guidelines-on-assessment-and-diagnosis-of-vertebral-fractures-in-patients-older-than-50%C3%A2-years-with-a-recent-non-vertebral-fracture
#10
R Y van der Velde, S P G Bours, C E Wyers, W F Lems, P P M M Geusens, J P W van den Bergh
We evaluated the impact of a new Dutch guideline on systematic implementation of densitometric Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA) in patients with a recent non-vertebral fracture. Systematic implementation resulted in a significant increase of VFA, diagnosis of vertebral fractures (VFs), and percentage of patients eligible for treatment. INTRODUCTION: VFs are underdiagnosed although they are important predictors of fracture risk, independent of age and bone mineral density (BMD). The Dutch guideline on osteoporosis and fracture prevention recommends VFA in all patients aged >50 years with a recent non-VF...
July 26, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743608/quantitative-regional-and-sub-regional-analysis-of-femoral-and-tibial-subchondral-bone-mineral-density-sbmd-using-computed-tomography-ct-comparison-of-non-osteoarthritic-oa-and-severe-osteoarthritic-knees
#11
P Omoumi, H Babel, B M Jolles, J Favre
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare subchondral bone mineral density (sBMD) between non-radiographic osteoarthritic (OA) and medial femorotibial OA knees, using computed tomography (CT). DESIGN: CT exams from 16 non-radiographic OA (KL grade < 2) and 16 severe medial OA (KL grade ≥ 3) knees (average age of 61.7 ± 3 and 62.2 ± 5 years old respectively, 50% male in each group), were retrospectively analyzed. CT exams were segmented and 3D maps of subchondral BMD (sBMD) based on the CT number in the most superficial 3 mm of femoral and tibial subchondral bone were computed...
July 23, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727077/excess-of-dietary-montmorillonite-impairs-growth-performance-liver-function-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-starter-pigs
#12
H Y Zhao, X B Mao, B Yu, J He, P Zheng, J Yu, J Q Luo, Q Y Wang, D W Chen
Montmorillonite (MMT) is widely used as a mycotoxin adsorbent in animal feeds, but its safety remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the safety of MMT supplementation in diets fed to starter pigs. A total of 120 32-d-old piglets (initial weight, 8.0 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted into dietary treatments with graded MMT levels (0 [FS 0], 0.5% [FS 0.5], 1.0% [FS 1.0], 2.5% [FS 2.5], and 5.0% [FS 5.0]) with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. All diets were fed for 28 d. As the MMT level increased, ADG and G:F changed in a linear and quadratic manner, while ADFI was linearly decreased ( > 0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727068/the-effects-of-molybdenum-water-concentration-on-feedlot-performance-tissue-mineral-concentrations-and-carcass-quality-of-feedlot-steers
#13
M J Kistner, J J Wagner, J Evans, S Chalberg, S Jalali, K Sellins, M L Kesel, T Holt, T E Engle
Thirty cross-bred steers (initial BW 452.0 ± 12.1 kg) were used to investigate the effects of Mo water concentration on performance, carcass characteristics, and mineral status of feedlot steers. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. Steers were blocked by weight and then divided into 2 weight blocks each consisting of 15 steers. Steers were randomly assigned within block to one of 5 treatments (3 steers/treatment per block). Water treatments consisted of: 1) 0.0 µg/L, 2) 160 µg/L, 3) 320 µg/L, 4) 480 µg/L, and 5) 960 µg/L of supplemental Mo added as Na2MoO4 to the drinking water...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722766/comparative-analysis-of-the-radiology-of-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures-in-women-and-men-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-observations-from-the-canadian-multicentre-osteoporosis-study-camos
#14
Brian C Lentle, Claudie Berger, Linda Probyn, Jacques P Brown, Lisa Langsetmo, Ben Fine, Kevin Lian, Arvind K Shergill, Jacques Trollip, Stuart Jackson, William D Leslie, Jerilynn C Prior, Stephanie M Kaiser, David A Hanley, Jonathan D Adachi, Tanveer Towheed, K Shawn Davison, Angela M Cheung, David Goltzman
We compared two methods for osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF) assessment on lateral spine radiographs, the Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) technique and a modified algorithm-based qualitative (mABQ) approach. We evaluated 4465 women and 1771 men aged ≥50 years from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study with available X-ray images at baseline. Observer agreement was lowest for grade 1 VFs determined by GSQ. Among physician readers, agreement was greater for VFs diagnosed by mABQ (ranging from 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715463/potassium-citrate-prevents-increased-osteoclastogenesis-resulting-from-acidic-conditions-implication-for-the-treatment-of-postmenopausal-bone-loss
#15
Donatella Granchi, Elena Torreggiani, Annamaria Massa, Renata Caudarella, Gemma Di Pompo, Nicola Baldini
The extracellular acidic milieu in bones results in activation of osteoclasts (OC) and inhibition of osteoblasts (OB) causing a net loss of calcium from the skeleton and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Alkalinization through supplementation with potassium citrate (K citrate) has been proposed to limit the osteopenia progression, even though its pharmacological activity in bone microenvironment is not well defined. We evaluated if K citrate was able to prevent the adverse effects that acidic milieu induces on bone cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667864/an-acidosis-sparing-ketogenic-ask-diet-to-improve-efficacy-and-reduce-adverse-effects-in-the-treatment-of-refractory-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Alan W C Yuen, Isabel A Walcutt, Josemir W Sander
Diets that increase production of ketone bodies to provide alternative fuel for the brain are evolving from the classic ketogenic diet for epilepsy devised nearly a century ago. The classic ketogenic diet and its more recent variants all appear to have similar efficacy with approximately 50% of users showing a greater than 50% seizure reduction. They all require significant medical and dietetic support, and there are tolerability issues. A review suggests that low-grade chronic metabolic acidosis associated with ketosis is likely to be an important contributor to the short term and long term adverse effects of ketogenic diets...
June 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660378/mineral-metabolism-abnormalities-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-case-controlled-study
#17
Francesco Minisola, Cristiana Cipriani, Luciano Colangelo, Mirella Cilli, Alessandro Sciarra, Magnus Von Heland, Luciano Nieddu, Emanuela Anastasi, Roberto Pascone, Valeria Fassino, Daniele Diacinti, Flavia Longo, Salvatore Minisola, Jessica Pepe
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is the most common tumor in men. To the best of our knowledge a systematic assessment of bone and mineral abnormalities has not been performed in prostatic cancer patients consecutively enrolled. METHODS: This study was therefore carried out to investigate changes of skeletal and mineral metabolism in patients with prostate cancer (n  = 69). A population of patients with cancer of various origin was also investigated as a control group (n  = 53), since a comparison with non-prostate cancer patients has not been previously reported...
June 28, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655174/diagnosis-and-management-of-osteopetrosis-consensus-guidelines-from-the-osteopetrosis-working-group
#18
Calvin C Wu, Michael J Econs, Linda A DiMeglio, Karl L Insogna, Michael A Levine, Paul J Orchard, Weston P Miller, Anna Petryk, Eric T Rush, Dolores M Shoback, Leanne M Ward, Lynda E Polgreen
Background: Osteopetrosis encompasses a group of rare metabolic bone diseases characterized by impaired osteoclast activity or development, resulting in high bone mineral density. Existing guidelines focus on treatment of the severe infantile forms with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but do not address the management of patients with less severe forms for whom HCT is not the standard of care. Therefore, our objective was to develop expert consensus guidelines that would address the management of these patients...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638373/interactions-between-food-additive-silica-nanoparticles-and-food-matrices
#19
Mi-Ran Go, Song-Hwa Bae, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Jin Yu, Soo-Jin Choi
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely utilized in the food industry as additives with their beneficial characteristics, such as improving sensory property and processing suitability, enhancing functional and nutritional values, and extending shelf-life of foods. Silica is used as an anti-caking agent to improve flow property of powered ingredients and as a carrier for flavors or active compounds in food. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology, the sizes of silica fall into nanoscale, thereby raising concerns about the potential toxicity of nano-sized silica materials...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631133/bone-density-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-a-cross-sectional-observation-from-south-india
#20
Shiraz Salim Khan, Sagar S Patil
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) frequently manifests in the second and third decades of life. Malnutrition and corticosteroid therapy may affect bone mineralization and delay bone growth. Our aim was to study bone mineral density and factors associated low bone mineral density (BMD) in pediatric CD. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study in children with CD (aged 5 to <18 years) was done. Demographic and treatment details were noted. Vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL were considered as deficiency...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
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