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Alba Murgia, Elena Veronesi, Olivia Candini, Anna Caselli, Naomi D'souza, Valeria Rasini, Andrea Giorgini, Fabio Catani, Lorenzo Iughetti, Massimo Dominici, Jorge S Burns
In skeletal regeneration approaches using human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSC), functional evaluation before implantation has traditionally used biomarkers identified using fetal bovine serum-based osteogenic induction media and time courses of at least two weeks. However, emerging pre-clinical evidence indicates donor-dependent discrepancies between these ex vivo measurements and the ability to form bone, calling for improved tests. Therefore, we adopted a multiparametric approach aiming to generate an osteogenic potency assay with improved correlation...
2016: PloS One
Claire S Allen, James Hs Yeung, Ben Vandermeer, Joanne Homik
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999. Corticosteroids are widely used in inflammatory conditions as an immunosuppressive agent. Bone loss is a serious side effect of this therapy. Several studies have examined the use of bisphosphonates in the prevention and treatment of glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) and have reported varying magnitudes of effect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of bisphosphonates for the prevention and treatment of GIOP in adults...
October 5, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ecaterina Constanța Barbu, Cristina Emilia Chiţu-Tișu, Mihai Lazăr, Cristina Mihaela Olariu, Dan Olteanu, Mihai Bojincă, Adrian Octavian Abagiu, Victoria Aramă, Daniela Adriana Ion, Ioana Anca Bădărău
AIMS: We aimed to quantify global and regional body composition changes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, compare them to healthy controls and identify possible association between body composition changes and CHC. To our knowledge, this study is the first one comparing CHC patients to controls with regard to soft tissue body composition changes. METHODS: We assessed 60 CHC patients and 60 healthy controls by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Soft tissue and bone body composition parameters were compared between the groups (using the Mann-Whitney test)...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Caterina Ledda, Carla Loreto, Serena Matera, Nicoletta Massimino, Emanuele Cannizzaro, Andrea Musumeci, Marcello Migliore, Concettina Fenga, Cristoforo Pomara, Venerando Rapisarda
Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a natural mineral asbestos-like fibrous species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. In order to clarify potential involvement of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of FE-induced chest abnormalities, we analyzed IL-18 serum levels in FE-exposed workers (FEEW) and correlated them with pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. A total of 21 FEEWs, residing in Biancavilla for >30 years, with a working seniority of 17 ± 6.1 years were examined. High-resolution computed tomography scans revealed low grade of fibrosis in 8 (38%) FEEWs, and pleural plaques (PPs) in 13 (62%) FEEWs...
September 27, 2016: Future Oncology
Thomas G Dahlgren, Helena Wiklund, Muriel Rabone, Diva J Amon, Chiho Ikebe, Les Watling, Craig R Smith, Adrian G Glover
BACKGROUND: We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
Katariina A H Myller, Mikael J Turunen, Juuso T J Honkanen, Sami P Väänänen, Jarkko T Iivarinen, Jari Salo, Jukka S Jurvelin, Juha Töyräs
In post-traumatic osteoarthritis, both articular cartilage and subchondral bone undergo characteristic pathological changes. This study investigates potential of delayed cone beam computed tomography arthrography (dCBCTa) to simultaneously detect variations in cartilage and subchondral bone. The knees of patients (n = 17) with suspected joint injuries were imaged using a clinical CBCT scanner at 5 and 45 min after the intra-articular injection of anionic contrast agent (Hexabrix™) with hydroxyapatite phantoms around the knee...
September 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Timothy J Schultz, Peter Roupas, Richard Wiechula, Debra Krause, Susan Gravier, Anthony Tuckett, Sonia Hines, Alison Kitson
BACKGROUND: Optimizing body composition for healthy aging in the community is a significant challenge. There are a number of potential interventions available for older people to support both weight gain (for those who are underweight) and weight loss (for overweight or obese people). While the benefits of weight gain for underweight people are generally clearly defined, the value of weight loss in overweight or obese people is less clear, particularly for older people. OBJECTIVES: This umbrella review aimed to measure the effectiveness of nutritional interventions for optimizing healthy body composition in older adults living in the community and to explore theirqualitative perceptions...
August 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Anna Spina, Roberta Montella, Davide Liccardo, Alfredo De Rosa, Luigi Laino, Thimios A Mitsiadis, Marcella La Noce
Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), selected from the stromal-vascular fraction of dental pulp, are ecto-mesenchymal stem cells deriving from neural crests, successfully used in human bone tissue engineering. For their use in human therapy GMP procedures are required. For instance, the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) is strongly discouraged in clinical practice due to its high risk of prions and other infections for human health. Alternatively, clinical grade sera have been suggested, including the New Zealand FBS (NZ-FBS)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Liang Shi, Chaoming Mao, Xuefeng Wang, Rencong Liu, Lin Li, Xiao Mou, Ping Xu, Hongli Li, Chengcheng Xu, Guoyue Yuan, Bin Wang, Hao Zhang
Increasing evidence suggests the association between obesity and bone metabolism. However, whether excessive fat accumulation has a beneficial or adverse effect on bone health remains controversial. Chemerin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone and a chemoattractant cytokine that regulates adipogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the associations of serum chemerin with bone mineral density (BMD) and serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in 543 Chinese obese postmenopausal women. BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine, lean mass, and fat mass were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lukas Kamer, Hansrudi Noser, Michael Blauth, Mark Lenz, Markus Windolf, Albrecht W Popp
Osteoporosis leads to bone loss and structural deterioration, which increase the risk of fractures. The aim of this study was to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) bone mass distributions of the distal tibia in normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic conditions. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) of the 33 % of the distal tibia and local dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were applied to 53 intact, fresh-frozen tibiae. The HR-pQCTs were graded to assign local T-scores and merged into three equally sized average normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic surface models...
August 30, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Qiliang Zuo, Shifeier Lu, Zhibin Du, Thor Friis, Jiangwu Yao, Ross Crawford, Indira Prasadam, Yin Xiao
BACKGROUND: Although articular cartilage is the primary tissues affected by osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying subchondral bone also undergoes noticeable changes. Despite the growing body of research into the biophysical and mechanical properties of OA bone there are few studies that have analysed the structure of the subchondral sclerosis at the nanoscale. In this study, the composition and nano-structural changes of human osteoarthritis (OA) subchondral bone were investigated to better understand the site-specific changes...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Brienne Miner, Mary E Tinetti, Peter H Van Ness, Ling Han, Linda Leo-Summers, Anne B Newman, Patty J Lee, Carlos A Vaz Fragoso
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between a broad array of cardiorespiratory and noncardiorespiratory impairments and dyspnea in older persons. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Cardiovascular Health Study. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling persons (N = 4,413; mean age 72.6, 57.1% female, 4.5% African American, 27.2% <high school education, 54.7% ever-smokers). MEASUREMENTS: Dyspnea severity (moderate to severe defined as American Thoracic Society Grade ≥2) and several impairments, including those established using spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 )), maximal inspiratory pressure (respiratory muscle strength), echocardiography, ankle-brachial index, blood pressure, whole-body muscle mass (bioelectrical impedance), single chair stand (lower extremity function), grip strength, serum hemoglobin and creatinine, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Mini-Mental State Examination, medication use, and body mass index (BMI)...
August 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Jennifer E Cohen, Claire E Wakefield, Richard J Cohn
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Giuseppe Pezzotti, Bryan J McEntire, Ryan Bock, Marco Boffelli, Wenliang Zhu, Eleonora Vitale, Leonardo Puppulin, Tetsuya Adachi, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, B Sonny Bal
The remarkable stoichiometric flexibility of hydroxyapatite (HAp) enables the formation of a variety of charged structural sites at the material's surface which facilitates bone remodeling due to binding of biomolecule moieties in zwitterionic fashion. In this paper, we report for the first time that an optimized biomedical grade silicon nitride (Si3N4) demonstrated cell adhesion and improved osteoconductivity comparable to highly defective, non-stoichiometric natural hydroxyapatite. Si3N4's zwitterionic-like behavior is a function of the dualism between positive and negative charged off-stoichiometric sites (i...
2016: Scientific Reports
Morris Gordon, John K MacDonald, Claire E Parker, Anthony K Akobeng, Adrian G Thomas
BACKGROUND: Constipation within childhood is an extremely common problem. Despite the widespread use of osmotic and stimulant laxatives by health professionals to manage constipation in children, there has been a long standing paucity of high quality evidence to support this practice. OBJECTIVES: We set out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic and stimulant laxatives used to treat functional childhood constipation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Trials Register from inception to 10 March 2016...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Inger Christine Munch, Ulla Toft, Allan Linneberg, Michael Larsen
PURPOSE: To investigate associations of very early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with daily intake of vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc and copper and interactions with AMD-associated polymorphisms in complement factor H (CFHY402H) and ARMS2/LOC387715. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 848 subjects aged 30-60 years from the Inter99 Eye Study. Daily intake of vitamins and minerals was estimated from a 198-item food frequency questionnaire...
November 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Yi Sun, Ole Brauckmann, Donald R Nixdorf, Arno Kentgens, Michael Garwood, Djaudat Idiyatullin, Arend Heerschap
Three-dimensional phosphorus MR images ((31)P MRI) of teeth are obtained at a nominal resolution of 0.5 mm in less than 15 minutes using acquisition pulse sequences sensitive to ultra-short transversal relaxation times. The images directly reflect the spatially resolved phosphorus content of mineral tissue in dentin and enamel; they show a lack of signal from pulp tissue and reduced signal from de-mineralized carious lesions. We demonstrate for the first time that the signal in (31)P MR images of mineralized tissue is enhanced by a (1)H-(31)P nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jaime Samour, Janine Perlman, Jörg Kinne, Vijay Baskar, Ulrich Wernery, Gerry Dorrestein
This manuscript reports three independent accidental cases of vitamin (Vit) B6 toxicosis in gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and a toxicology study that was conducted to characterize the clinical responses of gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcons to a range of single intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) doses of Vit B6. Both lethal and nonlethal doses were determined. Twelve female gyrfalcons died following IM injection of 1 ml of a vitamin B preparation. Within 30 min of injection, the birds passed pistachio green-colored urates and progressed to vomiting, anorexia, cessation of normal activity, ptosis, collapse, and death, occurring 24-36 hr post injections...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Vasileios A Kontogeorgakos, Dionysios J Papachristou, Sokratis Varitimidis
Fibro-osseous pseudotumor of digits (FOPD) is an uncommon histological diagnosis. Clinical and imaging findings may resemble high-grade sarcoma or infection. We describe a patient with progressive pain and swelling at the dorsal surface of the first web space. MRI and CT imaging revealed an intramuscular heterogenous soft tissue mass defined by a mineralized peripheral ring. Core needle biopsy diagnosed FOPD. Eight months later a matured ossified nodule that was quite smaller than the initial soft tissue mass was excised...
June 2016: J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol
Chin-Min Cheng, Maria Amaya, Tarunjit Butalia, Robert Baker, Harold W Walker, John Massey-Norton, William Wolfe
Two full-scale coal mine reclamation projects using coal combustion residues (CCRs) were recently carried out at highwall pit complexes near the Conesville and Cardinal coal-fired power plants owned by American Electric Power. The environment impacts of the reclamation projects were examined by regularly monitoring the leaching characteristics of the backfilling CCRs and the water quality of the uppermost aquifers underlying the sites. With over five years of field monitoring, it shows that the water quality at both demonstration sites had changed since the reclamation began...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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