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Hiroki Kanazawa, Keisuke Imoto, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
A hypoxic stress which causes apoptosis of cardiomyocytes is the main problem in the ischemic heart disease. Canstatin, a non-collagenous fragment of type IV collagen α2 chain, is an endogenous anti-angiogenic factor. We have previously reported that canstatin has a cytoprotective effect on cardiomyoblasts. In the present study, we examined the effects of canstatin on hypoxia-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Cell counting assay was performed to determine a cell viability. Western blotting was performed to detect expression of cleaved casepase-3 and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Akt...
2017: PloS One
Atul Malhotra, Michael Ditchfield, Michael C Fahey, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Beth J Allison, Graeme R Polglase, Euan M Wallace, Ryan Hodges, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy and, in severe cases, is associated with elevated rates of perinatal mortality, neonatal morbidity, and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The leading cause of FGR is placental insufficiency, with the placenta failing to adequately meet the increasing oxygen and nutritional needs of the growing fetus with advancing gestation. The resultant chronic fetal hypoxia induces a decrease in fetal growth, and a redistribution of blood flow preferentially to the brain...
February 24, 2017: Pediatric Research
Dominik Duscher, Michael Januszyk, Zeshaan N Maan, Alexander J Whittam, Michael S Hu, Graham G Walmsley, Yixiao Dong, Sacha M Khong, Michael T Longaker, Geoffrey C Gurtner
BACKGROUND: A hallmark of diabetes mellitus is the breakdown of almost every reparative process in the human body, leading to critical impairments of wound healing. Stabilization and activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is impaired in diabetes, leading to deficits in new blood vessel formation in response to injury. In this article, the authors compare the effectiveness of two promising small-molecule therapeutics, the hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine and the iron chelator deferoxamine, for attenuating diabetes-associated deficits in cutaneous wound healing by enhancing HIF-1α activation...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ben Gold, Carl Nathan
While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
Qingtao Kong, Rui Yang, Zhen Wang, Wenquan Zhou, Xue Du, Suyang Huang, Yuan Jiang, Weida Liu, Hong Sang
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental pathogen requiring atmospheric levels of oxygen for optimal growth. Upon inhalation, C. neoformans disseminates to the brain and causes meningoencephalitis. However, the mechanisms by which the pathogen adapts to the low-oxygen environment in the brain have not been investigated. We isolated a C. neoformans strain with a small capsule from a host tissue, although this strain produces large capsules in normoxic conditions. We hypothesize that this difference in capsule size is attributed to hypoxia caused by chronic inflammatory response...
March 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Shi-Zheng Wu, Ying-Lan Li, Wei Huang, Wen-Feng Cai, Jialiang Liang, Christian Paul, Lin Jiang, Zhi-Chao Wu, Meifeng Xu, Ping Zhu, Yigang Wang
It has been reported that CXCR4-overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC(CX4) ) can repair heart tissue post myocardial infarction. This study aims to investigate the MSCCX4-derived paracrine cardio-protective signaling in the presence of myocardial infarction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were divided into 3 groups: MSC only, MSC(CX4) , and CXCR4 gene-specific siRNA-transduced MSC. Mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to hypoxia, and then MSCs-conditioned culture medium was incubated with neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Tsewang Tashi, N Scott Reading, Tanna Wuren, Xu Zhang, Lorna G Moore, Hao Hu, Feng Tang, Anna Shestakova, Felipe Lorenzo, Tatiana Burjanivova, Parvaiz Koul, Prasenjit Guchhait, Carl T Wittwer, Colleen G Julian, Binal Shah, Chad D Huff, Victor R Gordeuk, Josef T Prchal, RiLi Ge
: Tibetans have lived at high altitude for generations and are thought to be genetically adapted to hypoxic environments. Most are protected from hypoxia-induced polycythemia, and a haplotype of EPAS1, encoding hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2α), has been associated with lower hemoglobin levels. We earlier reported a Tibetan-specific EGLN1 haplotype encoding PHD2 which abrogates HIF augmentation in hypoxia. We genotyped 347 Tibetan individuals from varying altitudes for both the Tibetan-specific EGLN1 haplotype and 10 candidate SNPs in the EPAS1 haplotype and correlated their association with hemoglobin levels...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Jingsong Mao, Shunsong Tang, Duo Hong, Fan Zhao, Meng Niu, Xiangjun Han, Ji Qi, Han Bao, Yutian Jiang, Changhui Fu, Dan Long, Xianwei Meng, Hongying Su
The use of nanomaterials as drug delivery systems shows good effects in treating tumors. However, the effective dose of drugs targeted to tumor tissues is very low because of the effect of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in removing such foreign substances. In order to eliminate the RES effect, we developed mPEG-PLGA@ZrO2@(DOX + ILS) (mPEG-PLGA@ZrO2@[DOX + ILS]) drug-loaded microspheres. These microwave (MW)-sensitized microspheres directly embolized the blood-supply vessels of tumors to induce tumor ischemia and hypoxia, as well as to aggregate drugs within tumor tissues in a long-lasting manner...
February 24, 2017: Nanoscale
Hiroshi Takatsuji
Plants are sessile organisms that are continuously exposed to a wide range of environmental stresses. To cope with various stresses using limited resources, plants have evolved diverse mechanisms of "tradeoff" that enable the allocation of resources to address the most life-threatening stress. During our studies on induced disease resistance in rice, we have found some important phenomena relevant to tradeoffs between biotic and abiotic stress responses, and between stress response and plant growth. We characterized these tradeoff phenomena from viewpoints of signaling crosstalks associated with transcriptional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Olivier Girard, Davide Malatesta, Grégoire P Millet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Jazmin Schwartz, Milan Grkovski, Andreas Rimner, Heiko Schoder, Pat B Zanzonico, Sean D Carlin, Kevin D Staton, John Laurence Humm, Sadek A Nehmeh
Hypoxic tumors exhibit increased resistance to radiation, chemical, and immune therapies. (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET is a noninvasive, quantitative imaging technique used to evaluate the magnitude and spatial distribution of tumor hypoxia. The aim of this study was to perform pharmacokinetic analysis of (18)FMISO dynamic PET (DynFMISO) images of stage III-IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: Seventeen patients diagnosed with NSCLC underwent 2 PET/CT scans (1-3 days apart) before radiation therapy (RT): a 3-min static (18)FDG and dynamic (18)FMISO...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Xiaofeng Tian, Dongcheng Feng, Jihong Yao, Guangzhi Wang, Zhenlu Li, Guo Zu, Yang Li, Fuwen Luo, Shili Ning, Wasim Qasim, Zhao Chen
Intestinal epithelial oxidative stress and apoptosis constitute key pathogenic mechanisms underlying intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We previously reported that the adaptor p66Shc-mediated pro-apoptotic pathway was activated after intestinal I/R. However, the upstream regulators of the p66Shc pathway involved in intestinal I/R remain to be fully identified. Here, we focused on the role of a prolyl-isomerase, Pin1, in the regulation of p66Shc activity during intestinal I/R. Intestinal I/R was induced in rats by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
Xin Yang, Shiqi Yang, Chao Wang, Shihuan Kuang
Muscle satellite cells are myogenic stem cells whose quiescence, activation, self-renewal, and differentiation are influenced by oxygen supply, an environmental regulator of stem cell activity. Accordingly, stem cell-specific oxygen signaling pathways precisely control the balance between muscle growth and regeneration in response to oxygen fluctuations, and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are central mediators of these cellular responses. However, the in vivo roles of HIFs in quiescent satellite cells and activated satellite cells (myoblasts) are poorly understood...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
NagaPraveena Uppari, Vincent Joseph, Aida Bairam
We recently showed that in 12-day-old male rats exposed to caffeine for 10 consecutive days, progesterone inhibits the respiratory response to hypoxia and increases apnea frequency (Uppari et al., 2016J Physiol, 594(2), 373-389). This was partly due to a higher inhibitory response of GABAa receptor to allopregnanolone, the neuroactive metabolite of progesterone. In the present study, we addressed whether similar effects occur in females. We used newborn female rats daily gavaged with water (control) or caffeine (15mg/kg) between the postnatal (P) days 3-12...
February 20, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Martin Niedermeier, Andreas Weisleitner, Claus Lamm, Larissa Ledochowski, Anika Frühauf, Maria Wille, Martin Burtscher, Martin Kopp
INTRODUCTION: Decision making is impaired in hypoxic environments, which may have serious or even lethal consequences for mountaineers. An acclimatisation period prior to high altitude exposures may help to overcome adverse effects of hypoxia. Thus, we investigated possible effects of short-term pre-acclimatisation on decision making in hypoxia. METHODS: In a randomized controlled study design, 52 healthy participants were allocated to a hypoxia group (HG: short-term pre-acclimatisation by the use of intermittent hypoxia 7×1h at FiO2=12...
February 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
Diana Amorim-Pires, Joana Peixoto, Jorge Lima
Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and sympathetic paragangliomas (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, which derive from chromaffin cells occurring in the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal sympathetic paraganglia. PCC and PGL are often benign, catecholamine-producing tumors, responsible for a myriad of symptoms that may be potentially hazardous to the patient. In contrast, nonsecreting parasympathetic PGL, derived from chief cells, develop mainly in the head and neck region. Although PCC/PGL are more commonly sporadic tumors, germline mutations are present in up to 40% of the patients, ranking these tumors among those with the highest degree of heritability...
February 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Lin Li, Yunfeng Zhou, Yanlin Li, Lili Wang, Lan Sun, Lidong Zhou, Hiderori Arai, Yun Qi, Yang Xu
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the major manifestation of ischemic heart disease, which facilitates cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure and death. Oxidative stress and apoptosis have been involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Modern pharmacological studies have indicated that the extracts and active compounds of Cortex Dictamni exhibit antioxidative and cardiovascular protective activities. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Cortex Dictamni (CDAE) on regulating hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocytes oxidative stress and apoptosis...
February 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Simone Perucca, Andrea Di Palma, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Claudia Gemelli, Elisa Zoratti, Giulio Bassi, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Andrea Lojacono, Giuseppe Borsani, Enrico Tagliafico, Maria Teresa Scupoli, Simona Bernardi, Camilla Zanaglio, Federica Cattina, Valeria Cancelli, Michele Malagola, Mauro Krampera, Mirella Marini, Camillo Almici, Sergio Ferrari, Domenico Russo
A human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSCs) and cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cell co-culture system was set up in order to evaluate the proliferative and differentiative effects induced by MSCs on CD34+ stem cells, and the reciprocal influences on gene expression profiles. After 10 days of co-culture, non-adherent (SN-fraction) and adherent (AD-fraction) CD34+ stem cells were collected and analysed separately. In the presence of MSCs, a significant increase in CD34+ cell number was observed (fold increase = 14...
2017: PloS One
Nouf M Al-Rasheed, Laila Fadda, Hala A Attia, Iman A Sharaf, Azza M Mohamed, Nawal M Al-Rasheed
The study aims to compare, through histological and biochemical studies, the effects of quercetin, melatonin and their combination in regulation of immuno-inflammatory mediators and heat shock protein expressions in sodium nitrite induced hypoxia in rat lungs. The results revealed that NaNO2 injection caused a significant decrease in Hb in rats, while serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP, VEGF and HSP70 were elevated compared to the control group. Administration of melatonin, quercetin or their combination before NaNO2 injection markedly reduced these parameters...
March 1, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
Yi Qu, Jun Tang, Huiqing Wang, Shiping Li, Fengyan Zhao, Li Zhang, Q Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) death is a key contributor to cerebral white matter injury (WMI) in the developing brain. A previous study by our group indicated that receptor-interacting proteins (RIPs) are crucial in mediating necroptosis in developing neurons. However, whether this mechanism is involved in OPCs death is unclear. We aimed to explore the mechanisms of RIP-mediated oligodendrocytes (OLs) death in the developing brain. Oligodendrocytes necroptosis was induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation plus caspase inhibitor zVAD treatment (OGD/zVAD) in vitro...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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