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Hypoxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333924/dynamic-mr-imaging-for-functional-vascularization-depends-on-tissue-factor-signaling-in-glioblastoma
#1
Xiao Chen, Tian Xie, Jingqin Fang, Wei Xue, Houyi Kang, Haipeng Tong, Yu Guo, Bo Zhang, Sumei Wang, Yizeng Yang, Weiguo Zhang
Glomeruloid vascular proliferation (GVP) is a diagnostic hallmark and links to aggressive behavior, therapy resistance and poor prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM). It lacks clinical approaches to predict and monitor its formation and dynamic change. Yet the mechanism of GVPs also remains largely unknown. Using an in situ GBM xenograft mouse model, combined clinical MRI images of pre-surgery tumor and pathological investigation, we demonstrated that the inhibition of tissue factor (TF) decreased GVPs in Mouse GBM xenograft model...
January 15, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333574/unique-metabolic-activation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-in-obesity-promotes-inflammatory-responses
#2
Lily Boutens, Guido J Hooiveld, Sourabh Dhingra, Robert A Cramer, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent studies have identified intracellular metabolism as a fundamental determinant of macrophage function. In obesity, proinflammatory macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue and trigger chronic low-grade inflammation, that promotes the development of systemic insulin resistance, yet changes in their intracellular energy metabolism are currently unknown. We therefore set out to study metabolic signatures of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in lean and obese conditions...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333563/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-in-adipose-tissue-isolation-and-gene-expression-profile-of-distinct-sub-population-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#3
Mehdi Najar, Emerence Crompot, Leo A van Grunsven, Laurent Dollé, Laurence Lagneaux
Thanks to their relative abundance and easier collection, adipose tissue (AT) is considered an alternative source for the isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs have great therapeutic values and are thus under investigations for several clinical indications such as regenerative medicine and immunomodulation. In this work, we aimed to identify, isolate and characterize AT-MSCs based on their aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity known to be a classical feature of stem cells. FACS technology allowed to isolate two different populations of AT-MSCs according to their ALDH activity (referred as ALDH+ and ALDH-)...
January 15, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333385/kaempferol-inhibits-angiogenesis-by-suppressing-hif-1%C3%AE-and-vegfr2-activation-via-erk-p38-mapk-and-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-endothelial-cells
#4
Gi Dae Kim
Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit vascular formation in endothelial cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we evaluated whether kaempferol exerts antiangiogenic effects by targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were treated with various concentrations of kaempferol for 24 h...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332196/bioelectronic-modulation-of-carotid-sinus-nerve-activity-in-the-rat-a-potential-therapeutic-approach-for-type-2-diabetes
#5
Joana F Sacramento, Daniel J Chew, Bernardete F Melo, Matteo Donegá, Wesley Dopson, Maria P Guarino, Alison Robinson, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Sonal Patel, Bradley J Holinski, Nishan Ramnarain, Victor Pikov, Kristoffer Famm, Silvia V Conde
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331808/simultaneous-inhibition-of-hedgehog-signaling-and-tumor-proliferation-remodels-stroma-and-enhances-pancreatic-cancer-therapy
#6
Jun Zhao, Huamin Wang, Cheng-Hui Hsiao, Diana S-L Chow, Eugene J Koay, Yaan Kang, Xiaoxia Wen, Qian Huang, Ying Ma, James A Bankson, Stephen E Ullrich, Willem Overwijk, Anirban Maitra, David Piwnica-Worms, Jason B Fleming, Chun Li
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers. It has an excessive desmoplastic stroma that can limit the intratumoral delivery of chemotherapy drugs, and protect tumor cells against radiotherapy. Therefore, both stromal and tumor compartments need to be addressed in order to effectively treat PDAC. We hereby co-deliver a sonic hedgehog inhibitor, cyclopamine (CPA), and a cytotoxic chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (PTX) with a polymeric micelle formulation (M-CPA/PTX). CPA can deplete the stroma-producing cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), while PTX can inhibit tumor proliferation...
January 9, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331314/chloroquine-inhibits-autophagy-and-deteriorates-the-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-in-hypoxic-rat-neurons
#7
Peng Li, Lei Hao, Yan-Yan Guo, Guang-Lu Yang, Hua Mei, Xiao-Hua Li, Qiong-Xiang Zhai
AIMS: Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) and apoptosis in the neurons are associated with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE). The present study was to explore the influence of autophagy on the induction of MD and apoptosis in the neurons in a neonatal HIE rats and in hypoxia-treated neurons in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten-day-old HI rat pups were sacrificed for brain pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. The induction of autophagy, apoptosis and MD were also determined in the neurons under hypoxia, with or without autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) treatment...
January 10, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331296/a-case-of-autosplenectomy-in-sickle-cell-trait-following-an-exposure-to-high-altitude
#8
Uday Yanamandra, Reena Das, Pankaj Malhotra, Subhash Varma
A 24-year-old man presented with acute abdominal pain upon ascent to moderate altitude (3500 m). An immediate evaluation revealed a splenic infarct, and he was evacuated to sea level. Upon recovery, he was sent back to 3500 m without detailed etiological evaluation, whereupon he experienced recurrent episodes of left-side subcostal pain. Imaging suggested autosplenectomy, and workup revealed a negative thrombophilia profile but was positive for sickle cell trait (SCT). Individuals with SCT can be asymptomatic until exposure to severe hypoxia, upon which they can manifest clinically as sickle cell syndrome...
January 10, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331242/species-specific-response-to-sulfide-intrusion-in-native-and-exotic-mediterranean-seagrasses-under-stress
#9
Eugenia T Apostolaki, Marianne Holmer, Veronica Santinelli, Ioannis Karakassis
We explored the sulfur dynamics and the relationships between sediment sulfur and nutrient pools, seagrass structural and physiological variables and sulfide intrusion in native (Posidonia oceanica, Cymodocea nodosa) and exotic (Halophila stipulacea) Mediterranean seagrasses at six sites affected by cumulative anthropogenic pressures to understand the factors controlling sulfide intrusion in seagrass. Sensitive indicators of seagrass stress (leaf TN, δ15N, TS, Fsulfide) were increased at several sites, implying that seagrasses are under pressure...
December 25, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330970/gamma-glutamyl-transferase-activity-as-a-predictive-marker-for-severity-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-and-concomitant-hypertension
#10
Bozkus Fulsen
BACKGROUND: Chronic intermittent hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in resultant obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which may affect numerous regulatory mechanisms that play a role in the regulation of blood pressure. Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a novel marker in the prediction of cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of serum levels of GGT with hypertension and the degree of the upper airway obstruction in subjects with OSAS...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330945/cyclosporine-a-induces-endothelin-converting-enzyme-ece-1-studies-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#11
Samuel N Heyman, Zaid Abassi, Christian Rosenberger, Hiba Yaseen, Galia Skarjinski, Ahuva Shina, Susanne Mathia, Natalia Krits, Mogher Khamaisi
AIM: Cyclosporine A (CsA) induces renal vasoconstriction and hypoxia and enhances the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) pro-hormone (pre-pro ET-1), plausibly leading to a feed-forward loop of renal vasoconstriction, hypoxia, and enhanced synthesis of the potent vasoconstrictor ET-1. Endothelin converting enzyme (ECE)-1 cleaves big endothelin to generate endothelin (ET)-1 and is up-regulated by hypoxia via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We hypothesized that in addition to the direct induction of ET-1 synthesis, CsA might also intensify renal ECE-1expression, thus contributing to enhanced ET-1 synthesis following CsA...
January 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330944/improvement-of-islet-function-and-survival-by-integration-of-perfluorodecalin-into-microcapsules-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#12
Sang-Ho Lee, Heon-Seok Park, Yeoree Yang, Eun-Young Lee, Ji-Won Kim, Gilson Khang, Kun-Ho Yoon
Hypoxic injury of islets is a major obstacle for encapsulated islet transplantation into the peritoneal cavity. To improve oxygen delivery to encapsulated islets, we integrated 20% of the oxygen carrier material, perfluorodecalin (PFD), in alginate capsules mixed with islets (PFD-alginate). Integration of PFD clearly improved islet viability and decreased reactive oxygen species production compared to islets encapsulated with alginate only (alginate) and naked islets exposed to hypoxia in vitro. In PFD-alginate capsules, HIF-1α expression was minimal, and insulin expression was well maintained...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330822/biochemical-changes-in-mussels-submitted-to-different-time-periods-of-air-exposure
#13
Madalena Andrade, Amadeu Soares, Etelvina Figueira, Rosa Freitas
Intertidal species face multiple stressors on a daily basis due to their particular habitat. The submergence at high tide in the aquatic environment and emergence at low tide to the aerial environment, associated with a wide variation of abiotic parameters, along with anthropogenic contamination are some of the daily stresses that these organisms are exposed to. With such a dynamic environment, organisms developed strategies that allow them to avoid or tolerate these stressors. Among these species, bivalves are some of the most hypoxia tolerant, being commonly used as a biomonitoring tool due to their capacity to accumulate pollutants from the environment and reflect the imposed toxic impacts...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330810/correlation-of-glioma-proliferation-and-hypoxia-by-luciferase-magnetic-resonance-and-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#14
Michael Karsy, David L Gillespie, Kevin P Horn, Lance D Burrell, Jeffery T Yap, Randy L Jensen
Gliomas are the most common type of primary, malignant brain tumor and significantly impact patients, who have a median survival of ~1 year depending on mutational background. Novel imaging modalities such as luciferase bioluminescence, micro-magnetic resonance imaging (micro-MRI), micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT), and micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) have expanded the portfolio of tools available to study this disease. Hypoxia, a key oncogenic driver of glioma and mechanism of resistance, can be studied in vivo by the concomitant use of noninvasive MRI and PET imaging...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330809/analysis-of-hypoxia-and-the-hypoxic-response-in-tumor-xenografts
#15
Nuray Böğürcü, Sascha Seidel, Boyan K Garvalov, Till Acker
Solid tumors are often characterized by insufficient oxygen supply (hypoxia), as a result of inadequate vascularization, which cannot keep up with the rapid growth rate of the tumor. Tumor hypoxia is a negative prognostic and predictive factor and is associated with a more aggressive phenotype in various tumor entities. Activation of the hypoxic response in tumors, which is centered around the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), has been causally linked to neovascularization, increased radio- and chemoresistance, altered cell metabolism, genomic instability, increased metastatic potential, and tumor stem cell characteristics...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330808/detection-of-hypoxia-and-hif-in-paraffin-embedded-tumor-tissues
#16
Fuming Li, Kyoung Eun Lee, M Celeste Simon
Hypoxia (insufficient O2 availability) is involved in various biological processes, such as tumorigenesis and inflammation. Hypoxia results in stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) including HIF1α and HIF2α. Here we describe a protocol to detect mouse and human tissue hypoxia by using Hypoxyprobe and immunohistochemical staining for HIF1α and HIF2α.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330807/evaluation-of-macrophage-polarization-in-pancreatic-cancer-microenvironment-under-hypoxia
#17
Kuldeep S Attri, Kamiya Mehla, Pankaj K Singh
Hypoxic microenvironment found in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and other solid tumors is central to physiological and metabolic alterations of immune cells that significantly impact tumor growth dynamics. Hypoxic adaptations in the immune cells are primarily mediated by the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), which regulates cellular metabolism by modulating glycolysis and other interconnected metabolic pathways. HIF-1α plays distinct roles in M1 and M2 macrophage polarization, which, in turn, regulates tumor cell immune escape and growth...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330804/in-vivo-manipulation-of-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-during-glioma-genesis
#18
Patricia D B Tiburcio, Séan B Lyne, L Eric Huang
Hypoxia has long been recognized as a driving force of tumor progression and therapeutic resistance, and the transcription factor HIF-1α is believed to play a crucial role in these processes. Here we describe an efficient RCAS/Nes-TVA system that allows for in vivo manipulation of HIF-1α expression in the mouse neural progenitor cells. Simple production of the recombinant avian virus RCAS enables quick delivery of gene of interest through injection into the neural progenitors of transgenic mice expressing the viral cognate receptor TVA under the nestin promoter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330801/hypoxic-treatment-of-zebrafish-embryos-and-larvae
#19
Hiroyasu Kamei, Cunming Duan
Zebrafish has emerged as an informative animal model to study the biological impact and molecular mechanisms of hypoxia. Here we describe a simple method to induce hypoxia in zebrafish embryos and larvae. This protocol is easy and reproducible and does not require expensive equipment or specialized devices. It can be adapted in large, medium, and small scales. This protocol is also well-suited for experiments requiring chemical drug treatment and can be applied to other fish and amphibian species.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330800/evaluation-of-erythrocyte-changes-after-normoxic-return-from-hypoxia
#20
Jihyun Song, Josef T Prchal
Hypoxia increases erythropoiesis by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), principally by HIF-2, which upregulates erythropoietin transcription. This results in an increase of red blood cell (RBC) production and delivery of more oxygen to tissues. Upon rapid return to normoxia, hypoxia-induced polycythemia is overcorrected by neocytolysis, a transient destruction of preferentially young RBCs bearing low catalase (downregulated by hypoxia-stimulated microRNA(miR)-21) caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) from expanded mitochondria...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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