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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728494/the-clinical-significance-of-qt-prolongation-associated-with-tamoxifen-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Katherine Fung, Julia Imeson, Frances Cusano
Objective To review the literature discussing QT prolongation associated with the use of tamoxifen in order to evaluate the clinical significance. Data sources A search of PubMed (1946 to 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 2017) and EMBASE (1947 to 2017) was performed using a combination of the following search terms: tamoxifen, estrogen antagonist, selective estrogen receptor modulator, QT prolongation, QT interval, long QT syndrome and torsades de pointes. All searches were limited to human subjects. Reference lists of the literature found were also reviewed but did not reveal any further articles...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725320/splice-site-variants-in-the-kcnq1-and-scn5a-genes-transcript-analysis-as-a-tool-in-supporting-pathogenicity
#2
Ivone U S Leong, Philippa A Dryland, Debra O Prosser, Stella W-S Lai, Mandy Graham, Martin Stiles, Jackie Crawford, Jonathan R Skinner, Donald R Love
BACKGROUND: Approximately 75% of clinically definite long QT syndrome (LQTS) cases are caused by mutations in the KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A genes. Of these mutations, a small proportion (3.2-9.2%) are predicted to affect splicing. These mutations present a particular challenge in ascribing pathogenicity. METHODS: Here we report an analysis of the transcriptional consequences of two mutations, one in the KCNQ1 gene (c.781_782delinsTC) and one in the SCN5A gene (c.2437-5C>A), which are predicted to affect splicing...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710299/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-related-complete-heart-block-and-torsades-de-pointes
#3
Faisal Inayat, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Waqas Ullah, Iqra Riaz
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a relatively recently recognised clinical entity. It frequently mimics acute coronary syndrome and is accompanied by reversible left ventricular apical ballooning in the absence of angiographically significant coronary artery stenosis. TCM is a reversible condition, and the prognosis is usually well. However, in rare instances, it can be associated with life-threatening arrhythmic complications. Herein, we report the case of a patient with TCM who developed complete atrioventricular block followed by QT prolongation and torsades de pointes...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699125/uptake-of-predictive-genetic-testing-and-cardiac-evaluation-for-children-at-risk-for-an-inherited-arrhythmia-or-cardiomyopathy
#4
Susan Christian, Joseph Atallah, Robin Clegg, Michael Giuffre, Cathleen Huculak, Tara Dzwiniel, Jillian Parboosingh, Sherryl Taylor, Martin Somerville
Predictive genetic testing in minors should be considered when clinical intervention is available. Children who carry a pathogenic variant for an inherited arrhythmia or cardiomyopathy require regular cardiac screening and may be prescribed medication and/or be told to modify their physical activity. Medical genetics and pediatric cardiology charts were reviewed to identify factors associated with uptake of genetic testing and cardiac evaluation for children at risk for long QT syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690955/energy-drinks-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-review-of-current-literature
#5
REVIEW
Muhammad A Mangi, Hiba Rehman, Muhammad Rafique, Michael Illovsky
Energy drinks (EDs) are commonly used as a dietary supplement by young adolescents and adults. They are often used as a source of energy in order to enhance physical and mental performance. EDs contain a variety of substances, but caffeine is the main component. Safety has been the biggest concern associated with consuming EDs. Case reports, observational studies, and meta-analyses have been done in order to determine the effects of EDs on cardiovascular changes. The detrimental effects of EDs are cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, prolonged QT interval, aortic dissection, and death...
June 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687226/acquired-long-qt-syndrome-and-phosphoinositide-3-kinase
#6
REVIEW
Ira S Cohen, Richard Z Lin, Lisa M Ballou
While it is well known that mutation of several different ion channels can cause congenital long QT syndrome, block of IKr is widely thought to be responsible for most cases of drug-induced acquired long QT syndrome (aLQTS). In this article, we review evidence supporting another cause of aLQTS due to inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Inhibition of PI3K affects multiple plateau currents, reducing IKr, IKs, and ICaL while increasing the persistent sodium current (INaP). The effects of PI3K inhibitors develop slowly, requiring hours to days to reach steady state...
May 17, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685701/the-role-of-quinidine-in-the-pharmacological-therapy-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-quinidine
#7
Bojana Bozic, Teodora Vidonja Uzelac, Aleksandra Kezic, Milica Bajcetic
BACKGROUND: Historically, quinidine was the first medicine used in the therapy of heart arrhythmias. Studies in the early 20th century identified quinidine, a diastereomer of the antimalarial quinine, as the most potent of the antiarrhythmic substances extracted from the cinchona plant. Quinidine is used by the 1920s, as an antiarrhythmic agent to maintain sinus rhythm after conversion from atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation and to prevent recurrence of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation...
July 7, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685698/medical-therapy-for-long-qt-syndrome
#8
George Adamos, Nicoletta Iacovidou, Theodoros Xanthos
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrhythmogenic disorder characterized by repolarization abnormalities with a propensity to cause life threatening cardiac events. The first manifestation of the syndrome may be sudden death, therefore, early diagnosis and therapy is of great importance. LQTS can be both congenital and acquired. The latter is most commonly seen in hospitalized patients and such individuals have an easily recognizable and reversible precipitating factor (electrolyte disturbances, certain drugs etc...
July 7, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680407/cardiac-ion-channel-regulation-in-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-relevance-to-long-qt-syndrome-and-atrial-fibrillation
#9
REVIEW
Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Mohamed Boutjdir
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysregulation leading to metabolic syndrome is an epidemic that poses a significant public health problem. More than one-third of the world population is overweight or obese leading to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Obesity predisposes to atrial fibrillation, ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmias; conditions that are underlain by dysfunction in electrical activity of the heart. To date, current therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy of obesity are limited, suggesting that there is considerable room for development of therapeutic interventions with novel mechanisms of action that will help normalize rhythm in obese patients...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673607/nanoparticle-formulations-to-enhance-tumor-targeting-of-poorly-soluble-polyphenols-with-potential-anticancer-properties
#10
REVIEW
Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Silvia Rossi, Giuseppina Sandri, Franca Ferrari
Polyphenols have been extensively studied for their relevant anticancer activity. Quite often however their instability, extensive metabolization, low bioavailability and poor solubility limit their application in cancer prevention and therapy. Formulation in nanoparticles has been widely proposed as a means to overcome these limits, maximize localization and specific activity at tumor site. The present review is intended as an update of literature regarding nanoparticulate carriers aimed to deliver polyphenols to the cancer site...
June 30, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670758/congenital-long-qt-syndrome-and-torsade-de-pointes
#11
REVIEW
Nabil El-Sherif, Gioia Turitto, Mohamed Boutjdir
Since its initial description by Jervell and Lange-Nielsen in 1957, the congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) has been the most investigated cardiac ion channelopathy. A prolonged QT interval in the surface electrocardiogram is the sine qua non of the LQTS and is a surrogate measure of the ventricular action potential duration (APD). Congenital as well as acquired alterations in certain cardiac ion channels can affect their currents in such a way as to increase the APD and hence the QT interval. The inhomogeneous lengthening of the APD across the ventricular wall results in dispersion of APD...
July 2, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652909/a-case-of-hypoglycemiainduced-qt-prolongation-leading-to-torsade-de-pointes-and-a-review-of-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#12
Faris Hannoodi, Hashim Alwash, Kushal Shah, Israa Ali, Sarwan Kumar, Khalid Zakaria
Torsades de pointes is a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Occurrence of this arrhythmia as a result of hypoglycemia has not been reported in the literature. We describe an interesting case of an insulin-dependent diabetic patient presenting with torsades de pointes resulting from hypoglycemia. A 62-year-old male was admitted to the hospital following an episode of severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a cardiac arrest. He was found to unresponsive at home after taking insulin. His serum glucose was found to be 18...
June 7, 2017: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638571/prevalence-of-qt-prolongation-and-associated-lvef-changes-in-diabetic-patients-over-a-four-year-retrospective-time-period
#13
Zhongju Lu, Lloyd Lense, Mohit Sharma, Ankit Shah, Ying Luu, Lucien Cardinal, Joan Faro, Alan Kaell
Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and longitudinal changes of prolonged QTc in DM patients admitted to our community hospital, and to determine, if any, its correlation with changes of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients with Type 1 (T1DM) and Type 2 (T2DM) with at least two admissions during a four-year period was performed to identify QTc interval, and LVEF, as measured on transthoracic echocardiogram. Changes in QTc and LVEF between patient hospital admissions were compared...
March 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624887/voriconazole-induced-qt-prolongation-among-hemato-oncologic-patients-clinical-characteristics-and-risk-factors
#14
I Gueta, R Loebstein, N Markovits, Y Kamari, H Halkin, G Livni, H Yarden-Bilavsky
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the rate of QTcP and associated risk factors in patients treated with voriconazole. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients treated with voriconazole in a large tertiary center between 2009 and 2015, using paired comparison of QTc intervals on and off voriconazole treatment, adjusted for comorbidities, electrolyte abnormalities, and concurrent medications. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were included, of whom 53 were diagnosed with oncologic/hemato-oncologic disease...
June 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612130/acute-brain-diseases-as-triggers-for-stress-cardiomyopathy-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes
#15
Deena M Nasr, Sara Tomasini, Abhiram Prasad, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC) among patients admitted to our neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, consecutive adult patients admitted to the NICU between 2009 and 2013 with definite and possible NSC were included. Data on patient demographics, baseline clinical information, cardiac function, and laboratory values were collected...
June 13, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610987/tracking-interlead-heterogeneity-of-r-and-t-wave-morphology-to-disclose-latent-risk-for-sudden-cardiac-death
#16
Richard L Verrier, Heikki Huikuri
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) due primarily to ventricular fibrillation claims 1.5 million lives worldwide each year. In 45%-50% of cases, it is the first manifestation of underlying heart disease. Traditional risk factors including smoking, hypertension, age, sex, as well as depressed left ventricular ejection fraction lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity to forewarn of impending life-threatening arrhythmias. There has been a decades-long search for electrocardiographic (ECG) markers of SCD risk. Several interval-based indices such as QT dispersion and Tpeak-Tend interval held initial promise but ultimately yielded mixed results...
June 10, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606196/prescribing-an-automated-external-defibrillator-for-children-at-increased-risk-of-sudden-arrhythmic-death
#17
Karen A McLeod, Eileen Fern, Fiona Clements, Ruth McGowan
BACKGROUND: Automated external defibrillators can be life-saving in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to review our experience of prescribing automated external defibrillators for children at increased risk of sudden arrhythmic death. METHODS: We reviewed all automated external defibrillators issued by the Scottish Paediatric Cardiac Electrophysiology Service from 2005 to 2015. All parents were given resuscitation training according to the Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines, including the use of the automated external defibrillator...
June 13, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596175/calcium-signaling-and-cardiac-arrhythmias
#18
REVIEW
Andrew P Landstrom, Dobromir Dobrev, Xander H T Wehrens
There has been a significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which calcium (Ca(2+)) ions mediate various types of cardiac arrhythmias. A growing list of inherited gene defects can cause potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia syndromes, including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, congenital long QT syndrome, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In addition, acquired deficits of multiple Ca(2+)-handling proteins can contribute to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in patients with various types of heart disease...
June 9, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586578/electrophysiological-changes-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-karachi-pakistan
#19
Om Parkash, Ghulam Rehman Mohyuddin, Adil Ayub, Irfan Nazir, Arslan Arif Maan, Saeed Hamid
BACKGROUND: Electrophysiological changes in cirrhosis are well known but least investigated especially in our country hence we wanted to see electrophysiological changes especially QT interval in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi (AKUH) in which medical records (duration 2008-2010) of cirrhotic patients were reviewed. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty cirrhotic patients' charts were studied, 227 (59...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584788/clinical-implications-of-new-drugs-and-regimens-for-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#20
REVIEW
Yong-Soo Kwon
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing problem worldwide. The lack of safe and effective drugs, together with the frequent development of adverse drug reactions can result in worse outcomes. Therefore, new TB drugs able to bolster the current TB treatment regimen are urgently required. Novel drugs that are effective and safe against Mycobacterium tuberculosis are required to reduce the number of drugs and the duration of treatment in both drug-susceptible TB and multi-drug-resistant (MDR)-TB...
May 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
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