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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340164/denervation-of-the-extrinsic-cardiac-sympathetic-nervous-system-as-a-treatment-modality-for-arrhythmia
#1
Chance M Witt, Luciana Bolona, Michelle O Kinney, Christopher Moir, Michael J Ackerman, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J Asirvatham, Christopher J McLeod
Denervation of the extrinsic cardiac sympathetic nervous system is a method of altering the autonomic tone experienced by the heart and vasculature. It has been studied and employed as a therapy for cardiac disease for decades. Currently, there is a high level of interest in using cardiac denervation for treatment of arrhythmias. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the cardiac autonomic nervous system followed by a discussion of the mechanistic studies which provide a basis for the therapeutic use of sympathetic denervation...
March 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334543/-functional-impact-of-herg-from-physiological-role-to-target-of-anticancer-therapy
#2
Júlia Šatková, Markéta Bébarová
The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG; officially designated as KCNH2) encodes the structure of protein forming α-subunit of voltage-gated ion channel which conducts the rapid component of delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr). This current plays an important role namely in the cardiac repolarization. Mutations in hERG result in inherited arrhythmogenic syndromes characterized by a lenghtening or shortening of QT interval on the electrocardiogram and by an increased occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323171/acquired-long-qt-syndrome-in-hospitalized-patients
#3
Haixu Yu, Li Zhang, Jinqiu Liu, Ying Liu, Peter R Kowey, Yanli Zhang, Yue Chen, Yushan Wei, Lianjun Gao, Huihua Li, Jie Du, Yunlong Xia
BACKGROUND: Acquired long QT syndrome (ALQTS) has long been overlooked in clinical practice. Recent studies reported that severe ALQTS (QTc ≥500 ms) in hospitalized patients is associated with increased all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the role of ALQTS in the clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients. METHODS: Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify severe ALQTS in hospitalized patients in a single study center from 9-1-2013 to 2-28-2014...
March 16, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318666/cardiac-sympathetic-denervation-100years-later-jonnesco-would-have-never-believed-it
#4
Peter J Schwartz, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Luigi Pugliese
One hundred years have elapsed since Thomas Jonnesco performed the first left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD) in a patient with unmanageable angina pectoris and ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and the progress in the field has surpassed imagination. Here we will review the historic basis of cardiac sympathectomy for the management of life-threatening arrhythmias and will then discuss the often forgotten critical experimental studies that provided the rationale for the amazing growth of its role in clinical management...
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316956/sudden-infant-death-syndrome-due-to-long-qt-syndrome-a-brief-review-of-the-genetic-substrate-and-prevalence
#5
REVIEW
Nikolaos S Ioakeimidis, Theodora Papamitsou, Soultana Meditskou, Zafiroula Iakovidou-Kritsi
The pathophysiological mechanisms which lead to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are not completely understood. Cardiac channelopathies are a well-established causative factor with long QT syndrome (LQTS) being the most frequent one, accounting for approximately 12% of SIDS cases. The genetic substrate of the above arrhythmogenic syndrome has been thoroughly described but only specific gene mutations or polymorphisms have been identified as SIDS causative. The review will focus on the prevalence of LQTS-induced SIDS or near-SIDS cases and the mutations held responsible...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303324/short-qt-syndrome-in-pediatrics
#6
REVIEW
Roberta Pereira, Oscar Campuzano, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Sergi Cesar, Anna Iglesias, Josep Brugada, Fernando E S Cruz Filho, Ramon Brugada
Short QT syndrome is a malignant cardiac disease characterized by the presence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias leading to syncope and sudden cardiac death. Currently, international guidelines establish diagnostic criteria when QTc is below 340 ms. This entity is one of the main diseases responsible for sudden cardiac death in the pediatric population. In recent years, clinical, genetic and molecular advances in pathophysiological mechanisms related to short QT syndrome have improved diagnosis, risk stratification, and preventive measures...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292795/primary-care-management-of-opioid-use-disorders-abstinence-methadone-or-buprenorphine-naloxone
#7
REVIEW
Anita Srivastava, Meldon Kahan, Maya Nader
OBJECTIVE: To advise physicians on which treatment options to recommend for specific patient populations: abstinence-based treatment, buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance, or methadone maintenance. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PubMed was searched and literature was reviewed on the effectiveness, safety, and side effect profiles of abstinence-based treatment, buprenorphine-naloxone treatment, and methadone treatment. Both observational and interventional studies were included...
March 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291620/pacing-in-congenital-heart-disease-a-four-decade-experience-in-a-single-tertiary-centre
#8
Disha Midha, Zhong Chen, David G Jones, Howell J Williams, Karen Lascelles, Julian Jarman, Jonathan Clague, Janice Till, Konstatinos Dimopoulos, Sonya V Babu-Narayan, Vias Markides, Michael A Gatzoulis, Tom Wong
BACKGROUND: The increased risk of brady- and tachy-arrhythmias in the congenital heart disease (CHD) population means that cardiac rhythm management devices are often required at an early age and expose patients to device-related complications. The present study drew upon four decades of experience at a tertiary adult congenital heart disease ACHD center and aimed to investigate the indication for cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and predictors of late device-related complication requiring re-intervention...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290961/kcnq1-gene-variants-in-large-asymptomatic-populations-considerations-for-genomic-screening-of-military-cohorts
#9
Paul Kruszka, Karin Weiss, Donald W Hadley
INTRODUCTION: The advances in genomic technology of large populations make the potential for genomic screening of military cohorts and recruits feasible, affording the potential to identify at-risk individuals before occurrence of potentially life-threatening events. Exploring sudden cardiac death, known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in young military service members, we focused on the most common gene associated with long QT syndrome (LQTS), KCNQ1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the publicly available database Exome Aggregation Consortium as a surrogate for a military population, variants in KCNQ1 were filtered on the basis of population prevalence, classification as a disease mutation in the Human Gene Mutation database, and classification as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in the ClinVar database...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290796/-sudden-cardiac-death-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
N A Karoli, A P Rebrov
The article contains review of data on the problem of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Large studies have shown that risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is 2-3 times greater than in general population. The incidence of COPD and ischemic heart disease (IHD) progressively rises with age. Combination of these diseases is often observed in clinical practice among patients older than 40 years. According to the population study published in 2015 COPD has been associated with elevated risk of SCD especially in patients with frequent exacerbations within 5 years after diagnosis...
February 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279743/vectrocardiography-identifies-patients-with-electrocardiographically-concealed-long-qt-syndrome-eclqts
#11
Daniel Cortez, J Martijn Bos, Michael J Ackerman
BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) and genotypic subtypes are associated with distinctive T wave patterns, arrhythmogenic triggers, and corrected QT interval (QTc) risk associations. Twenty percent of patients with LQTS have normal QTc values, electrographically concealed LQTS (ecLQTS). Vectorcardiography (VCG) has value for sudden cardiac death risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of VCG to identify patients with ecLQTS. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review on patients with ecLQTS, defined as resting QTc values < 440 ms...
March 6, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273424/is-quadriceps-tendon-autograft-a-better-choice-than-hamstring-autograft-for-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#12
Etienne Cavaignac, Benoit Coulin, Philippe Tscholl, Nik Nik Mohd Fatmy, Victoria Duthon, Jacques Menetrey
BACKGROUND: The quadriceps tendon (QT) autograft is known as an effective graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and shows a similar functional outcome to the bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) in randomized controlled trials, with a lesser incidence of complications. Up until now, only 2 studies have compared QT to hamstring tendon (HT) autograft. HYPOTHESIS: The functional outcomes of the QT technique are at least as good as those of the HT technique, with the same morbidity...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271153/low-iron-stores-in-otherwise-healthy-children-affect-electrocardiographic-markers-of-important-cardiac-events
#13
Cem Karadeniz, Rahmi Özdemir, Mustafa Demirol, Nagehan Katipoğlu, Yılmaz Yozgat, Timur Meşe, Nurettin Ünal
Both an excess of iron and iron deficiency (ID) may lead to significant cardiac problems. Parameters that represent ventricular repolarization heterogeneity, like QT dispersion (QTd), corrected QT dispersion (QTcd), the interval between the peak and the end of the T wave (Tp-e), and Tp-e dispersion, have not been evaluated in otherwise healthy children with low iron levels before. Here we assessed the effects of low iron storage on P wave dispersion (PWd), QTd, Tp-e intervals, and Tp-e dispersion in otherwise healthy children...
March 7, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266935/genetic-causes-of-sudden-cardiac-death-in-the-young
#14
Andrea Mazzanti, Riccardo Maragna, Silvia G Priori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we discuss the most recent and relevant studies published in the field of inherited arrhythmogenic disorders, focusing in particular on channelopathies (Long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss the updated diagnostic criteria for channelopathies released by the European Society of Cardiology, the new results on the value of programmed electrical stimulation in patients with Brugada syndrome, and the recent evidences supporting a genotype-specific therapy for Long QT syndrome type 3...
March 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257548/comparison-of-qtc-and-troponin-levels-in-st-elevation-mis-compared-with-non-st-elevation-mis
#15
Nathan Henrie, Bryan Harvell, Amy A Ernst, Steven J Weiss, Scott Oglesbee, Dusadee Sarangarm, Lorenzo Hernandez
OBJECTIVES: ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions (NSTEMIs) have differences that can be important to differentiate. Our primary hypothesis was that corrected QT (QTc) duration and troponin I levels were higher in STEMIs compared with NSTEMIs. The objective of our study was to compare STEMIs with NSTEMIs for QTc duration and troponin levels. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study of all STEMIs and a random sample of NSTEMIs during a 1-year period...
March 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238088/prevalence-of-resting-ecg-abnormalities-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-single-center-experience
#16
Gihyun Myung, Lindsy J Forbess, Mariko L Ishimori, Sumeet Chugh, Daniel Wallace, Michael H Weisman
Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Whether cardiac arrhythmias contribute to this burden among SLE patients, however, is not currently known. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiac conduction abnormalities among SLE patients from a single center. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of SLE patients who had 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) available from various settings at a single academic center over the period of 10 years...
February 25, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229241/acquired-prolongation-of-qt-interval-as-a-risk-factor-for-torsade-de-pointes-ventricular-tachycardia-a-narrative-review-for-the-anesthesiologist-and-intensivist
#17
REVIEW
Arsen Uvelin, Jasmina Pejaković, Vesna Mijatović
More than 70% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients experience heart rhythm disturbances, and these patients have correspondingly higher mortality rates. Consequently, one of the standards of care in ICUs is continuous electrocardiography monitoring. One of the potentially preventable dysrhythmic events is the occurrence of torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia in the setting of acquired prolonged QT interval. This type of ventricular tachycardia can be malignant because it often progresses to ventricular fibrillation...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228335/alterations-in-cardiac-autonomic-control-in-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Fin Biering-Sørensen, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Nan Liu, Lasse Malmqvist, Jill Maria Wecht, Andrei Krassioukov
A spinal cord injury (SCI) interferes with the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect on the cardiovascular system will depend on the extent of damage to the spinal/central component of ANS. The cardiac changes are caused by loss of supraspinal sympathetic control and relatively increased parasympathetic cardiac control. Decreases in sympathetic activity result in heart rate and the arterial blood pressure changes, and may cause arrhythmias, in particular bradycardia, with the risk of cardiac arrest in those with cervical or high thoracic injuries...
February 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223225/the-control-of-cardiac-ventricular-excitability-by-autonomic-pathways
#19
REVIEW
Malcolm Finlay, Stephen C Harmer, Andrew Tinker
Central to the genesis of ventricular cardiac arrhythmia are variations in determinants of excitability. These involve individual ionic channels and transporters in cardiac myocytes but also tissue factors such as variable conduction of the excitation wave, fibrosis and source-sink mismatch. It is also known that in certain diseases and particularly the channelopathies critical events occur with specific stressors. For example, in hereditary long QT syndrome due to mutations in KCNQ1 arrhythmic episodes are provoked by exercise and in particular swimming...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178199/combined-use-of-delamanid-and-bedaquiline-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Giovanni Battista Migliori, Emanuele Pontali, Giovanni Sotgiu, Rosella Centis, Lia D'Ambrosio, Simon Tiberi, Marina Tadolini, Susanna Esposito
The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly being used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). The World Health Organization, based on lack of evidence, recommends their use under specific conditions and not in combination. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline used in combination. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was carried out, aimed at evaluating the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid and bedaquiline-containing regimens in individuals with pulmonary/extrapulmonary disease, which were bacteriologically confirmed as M/XDR-TB...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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