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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649135/development-and-validation-of-a-microtiter-plate-based-assay-for-determination-of-bacteriophage-host-range-and-virulence
#1
Yicheng Xie, Laith Wahab, Jason J Gill
Bacteriophages, which are the natural predators of bacteria, have re-emerged as an attractive alternative to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Phages are highly specific at the species and strain level and measurement of the phage host range plays an important role in utilizing the phage as antimicrobials. The most common method for phage host range determination has been to spot phage lysates on soft agar overlays and observe plaque formation. In this study, a liquid culture-based assay was developed in a 96-well microtiter plate format to measure the phage host range and virulence for a collection of 15 Salmonella phages against a panel of 20 Salmonella strains representing 11 serovars...
April 12, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648469/the-stimulation-of-the-vaginal-immune-system-with-short-term-administration-of-a-vaginal-gel-containing-fraction-of-propionibacterium-acnes-hyaluronic-acid-and-polycarbophil-is-efficacious-in-vaginal-infections-dependent-on-disorders-in-the-vaginal-ecosystem
#2
Gian Benedetto Melis, Bruno Piras, Maria Francesca Marotto, Manuela Neri, Valentina Corda, Valerio Vallerino, Alessandra Saba, Stefano Lello, Monica Pilloni, Pierina Zedda, Anna Maria Paoletti, Valerio Mais
The vaginal immune system (VIS) is the first defense against antigens recognized as foreign. Substances capable of locally activating the VIS could be a valid strategy to treat vulvo-vaginal infections (VVI), caused by changes in the vaginal ecosystem, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (CA), and mixed vaginitis (MV). Bacterial lysates, obtained by crushing bacterial cultures, exert immuno-modulatory activities. The parietal fraction from Propionibacterium acnes is a patent of Depofarma (MoglianoVeneto, Italy)...
April 12, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622672/viral-infections-in-wheezing-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Peter Le Souëf
Over the past year, studies into virus-induced wheeze in children have shifted towards investigations that examine the mechanisms by which respiratory viruses cause wheeze and an increase in studies examining the effects of novel interventions to reduce wheezing exacerbations. Studies on rhinovirus species (RV)-C infection have found that this is associated with a decrease in expression of CDHR3, the cellular receptor specific for this virus, and a decrease in interferon-β expression, both of which are likely to favour RV-C infection...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602789/protein-and-rna-enhanced-fermentation-by-gut-microbiota-of-the-earthworm-lumbricus-terrestris
#4
Lydia Zeibich, Oliver Schmidt, Harold L Drake
Earthworms are a dominant macro-fauna in soil ecosystems and have determinative effects on soil fertility and plant growth. These invertebrates feed on ingested material, and gizzard-linked disruption of ingested fungal and bacterial cells is conceived to provide diverse biopolymers in the anoxic alimentary canal of earthworms. Fermentation in the gut is likely important to the utilization of ingested biopolymer-derived compounds by the earthworm. This study therefore examined the fermentative response of gut content-associated microbes of the model earthworm Lumbricus terrestris to (a) microbial cell-lysate (to simulate gizzard-disrupted cells) and (b) dominate biopolymers of such biomass, protein and RNA...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602381/cloning-expression-and-characterisation-of-p450-hal1-cyp116b62-from-halomonas-sp-ncimb-172-a-self-sufficient-p450-with-high-expression-and-diverse-substrate-scope
#5
Joanne L Porter, Selina Sabatini, Jack Manning, Michele Tavanti, James L Galman, Nicholas J Turner, Sabine L Flitsch
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are able to catalyse a range of synthetically challenging reactions ranging from hydroxylation and demethylation to sulfoxidation and epoxidation. As such they have great potential for biocatalytic applications but are underutilised due to often-poor expression, stability and solubility in recombinant bacterial hosts. The use of self-sufficient P450 s with fused haem and reductase domains has already contributed heavily to improving catalytic efficiency and simplifying an otherwise more complex multi-component system of P450 and redox partners...
June 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595888/humoral-immune-responses-to-select-marine-bacteria-in-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-and-kemp-s-ridley-sea-turtles-lepidochelys-kempii-from-the-southeastern-united-states
#6
Maria L Rodgers, Catherine A Toline, Charles D Rice
Serum from Kemp's ridley sea turtles Lepidochelys kempii and loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta was collected during summer in 2011, 2012, and 2013. Serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) recognition of lysate proteins from nine bacterial species and whole bacterium-specific IgY titers to these pathogens were quantified. Serum and purified IgY recognized proteins of all bacteria, with protein recognition for some species being more pronounced than others. Circulating IgY titers against Vibrio vulnificus, V. anguillarum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Brevundimonas vesicularis changed over the years in Kemp's ridley sea turtles, while IgY titers against V...
March 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575037/mechanical-bacterial-lysate-administration-prevents-exacerbation-in-allergic-asthma-children-the-eolia-study
#7
Andrzej Emeryk, Malgorzata Bartkowiak-Emeryk, Zbigniew Jan Raus, Fulvio Braido, Guido Ferlazzo, Giovanni Melioli
BACKGROUND: Despite progress in asthma management, prevention of asthma exacerbation remains challenging in school-aged children with allergic asthma. New therapeutic approaches are needed. Previously, a chemical bacterial lysate has been successfully used in preschool children to reduce wheezing attacks. We assessed the effect of Polyvalent Mechanical Bacterial Lysate (PMBL® ) Tablet on asthma clinical course and control in 6- to 16-year old children with partly controlled or uncontrolled allergic asthma...
March 25, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561355/nonspecific-immunomodulators-for-recurrent-respiratory-tract-infections-wheezing-and-asthma-in-children-a-systematic-review-of-mechanistic-and-clinical-evidence
#8
Susanna Esposito, Manuel E Soto-Martinez, Wojciech Feleszko, Marcus H Jones, Kun-Ling Shen, Urs B Schaad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the mechanistic and clinical evidence for the use of nonspecific immunomodulators in paediatric respiratory tract infection (RTI) and wheezing/asthma prophylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonspecific immunomodulators have a long history of empirical use for the prevention of RTIs in vulnerable populations, such as children. The past decade has seen an increase in both the number and quality of studies providing mechanistic and clinical evidence for the prophylactic potential of nonspecific immunomodulators against both respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma in the paediatric population...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535725/sonic-hedgehog-signaling-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-activation-during-the-granulopoietic-response-to-systemic-bacterial-infection
#9
Xin Shi, Shengcai Wei, Kevin J Simms, Devan N Cumpston, Thomas J Ewing, Ping Zhang
Activation and reprogramming of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells play a critical role in the granulopoietic response to bacterial infection. Our current study determined the significance of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the regulation of hematopoietic precursor cell activity during the host defense response to systemic bacterial infection. Bacteremia was induced in male Balb/c mice via intravenous injection (i.v.) of Escherichia coli (5 × 107 CFUs/mouse). Control mice received i.v. saline. SHH protein level in bone marrow cell (BMC) lysates was markedly increased at both 24 and 48 h of bacteremia...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535407/size-exclusion-chromatography-method-for-purification-of-nicotinamide-mononucleotide-nmn-from-bacterial-cells
#10
George Cătălin Marinescu, Roua-Gabriela Popescu, Anca Dinischiotu
Over 12% of the world's health resources are spent on treating diabetes, as high blood glucose is the third cause of mortality worldwide. Insulin resistance is the basis of the most common form of diabetes: type 2 diabetes. Recent animal studies report successful attempts at reversing type 2 diabetes by the administering of the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). However, the current high price of this molecule urges for more efficient and cost-effective production methods. This work proposes a method for purifying NMN by Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) on silica with a covalently attached coating of poly(2-hydroxyethyl aspartamide) (PolyHEA) stationary phase using an isocratic elution with a denaturing mobile phase (50 mM formic acid) from a complex molecular mixture such as a fermentation broth...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481062/improved-isotopic-profiling-by-pure-shift-heteronuclear-2d-j-resolved-nmr-spectroscopy
#11
Davy Sinnaeve, Mickael Dinclaux, Edern Cahoreau, Pierre Millard, Jean-Charles Portais, Fabien Letisse, Guy Lippens
Quantitative information on the carbon isotope content of metabolites is essential for flux analysis. Whereas this information is in principle present in proton NMR spectra through both direct and long-range heteronuclear coupling constants, spectral overlap and homonuclear coupling constants both hinder its extraction. We demonstrate here how pure shift 2D J-resolved NMR spectroscopy can simultaneously remove the homonuclear couplings and separate the chemical shift information from the heteronuclear coupling patterns...
February 26, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466657/chemiluminescent-biosensors-for-detection-of-second-messenger-cyclic-di-gmp
#12
Andrew B Dippel, Wyatt A Anderson, Robert S Evans, Samuel Deutsch, Ming C Hammond
Bacteria colonize highly diverse and complex environments, from gastrointestinal tracts, to soil and plant surfaces. This colonization process is controlled in part by the intracellular signal cyclic di-GMP, which regulates bacterial motility and biofilm formation. To interrogate cyclic di-GMP signaling networks, a variety of fluorescent biosensors for live cell imaging of cyclic di-GMP have been developed. However, the need for external illumination precludes the use of these tools for imaging bacteria in their natural environments, including in deep tissues of whole organisms and in samples that are highly autofluorescent or photosensitive...
February 21, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445368/beneficial-oral-biofilms-as-smart-bioactive-interfaces
#13
Beatrice Gutt, Qun Ren, Irmgard Hauser-Gerspach, Piotr Kardas, Stefan Stübinger, Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Tuomas Waltimo
Periodontitis is a very common health problem caused by formation of pathogenic bacterial biofilm that triggers inflammation resulting in either reversible gingivitis or irreversible periodontal hard and soft tissue damages, leading to loss of teeth when left untreated. Commensal bacteria play an important role in oral health in many aspects. Mainly by colonizing oral tissues, they (i) contribute to maturation of immune response, and (ii) foreclose attachment of pathobiont and, therefore, prevent from infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394276/lactobacillus-gasseri-crispr-cas9-characterization-in-vitro-reveals-a-flexible-mode-of-protospacer-adjacent-motif-recognition
#14
Emily M Anderson, Shawn McClelland, Elena Maksimova, Žaklina Strezoska, Megan Basila, Alexandra E Briner, Rodolphe Barrangou, Anja van Brabant Smith
While the CRISPR-Cas9 system from S. pyogenes is a powerful genome engineering tool, additional programmed nucleases would enable added flexibility in targeting space and multiplexing. Here, we characterized a CRISPR-Cas9 system from L. gasseri and found that it has modest activity in a cell-free lysate assay but no activity in mammalian cells even when altering promoter, position of tag sequences and NLS, and length of crRNA:tracrRNA. In the lysate assay we tested over 400 sequential crRNA target sequences and found that the Lga Cas9 PAM is NNGA/NDRA, different than NTAA predicted from the native bacterial host...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360768/pharmacokinetic-study-of-bioactive-flavonoids-in-the-traditional-japanese-medicine-keigairengyoto-exerting-antibacterial-effects-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Takashi Matsumoto, Atsushi Kaneko, Junichi Koseki, Yosuke Matsubara, Setsuya Aiba, Kenshi Yamasaki
Recent studies have demonstrated that flavonoid glucuronides can be deconjugated to the active form aglycone by β-glucuronidase-expressing macrophages. Keigairengyoto (KRT) is a flavonoid-rich traditional Japanese medicine reported to enhance bacterial clearance through immune modulation. Our aims are to examine the pharmacokinetics of KRT flavonoids and to identify active flavonoids contributing to the adjuvant effects of KRT. KRT was evaluated at pharmacokinetic analysis to quantify absorbed flavonoids, and cutaneous infection assay induced in mice by inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358332/trypanosoma-cruzi-produces-the-specialized-proresolving-mediators-resolvin-d1-resolvin-d5-and-resolvin-e2
#16
Romain A Colas, Anthony W Ashton, Shankar Mukherjee, Jesmond Dalli, Oscar B Akide-Ndunge, Huan Huang, Mahalia S Desruisseaux, Fangxia Guan, Linda A Jelicks, Fabiane Matos Dos Santos, Jyothi Nagajyothi, Michael Zingman, Jinet Reyes, Louis M Weiss, Charles N Serhan, Herbert B Tanowitz
Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease (CD). CD is a persistent, life-long infection affecting many organs, most notably the heart where it may result in acute myocarditis and chronic cardiomyopathy. The pathological features include myocardial inflammation and fibrosis. In the Brazil-strain infected CD-1 mouse that recapitulates many of the features of human infection, we found increased plasma levels of resolvin D1 (RvD1), a specialized pro-resolving mediator of inflammation, both during the acute and chronic phases of the infection (>100 days post infection) as determined by ELISA...
January 22, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338886/overweight-and-obesity-status-in-pregnant-women-are-related-to-intestinal-microbiota-and-serum-metabolic-and-inflammatory-profiles
#17
Noora Houttu, Kati Mokkala, Kirsi Laitinen
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity may predispose women to clinical complications during their pregnancy. We hypothesize that a higher degree of overweight status is related to a range of aberrations in biomarkers already in early pregnancy. Our objective was to investigate whether intestinal microbiota, serum metabolic and inflammatory profiles differ in relation to the degree of overweight status in pregnant women. METHODS: This study investigated 52 overweight and 47 obese pregnant women in early pregnancy...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323531/an-efficient-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-approach-for-the-simultaneous-analysis-of-deoxynivalenol-and-its-bacterial-metabolites-3-keto-don-and-3-epi-don
#18
Kaijie Tang, Huaizhi Liu, Xiu-Zhen Li, Yousef I Hassan, Suqin Shao, Ting Zhou
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the major toxic secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi in cereal grains. Among the many promising strategies of DON detoxification are the microbial and enzymatic ones, which transform DON to nontoxic DON metabolites. Thus, proper analytical methods are needed for those DON metabolites. In this study, a robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of DON and two of its bacterial metabolites, 3-keto-DON and 3- epi-DON...
February 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317507/identification-of-euglena-gracilis-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-phosphorylase-and-establishment-of-a-new-glycoside-hydrolase-gh-family-gh149
#19
Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Nicola J Patron, Bernard Henrissat, Martin Rejzek, Gerhard Saalbach, Robert A Field
Glycoside phosphorylases (EC 2.4.x.x) carry out the reversible phosphorolysis of glucan polymers, producing the corresponding sugar 1-phosphate and a shortened glycan chain. β-1,3-Glucan phosphorylase activities have been reported in the photosynthetic euglenozoan Euglena gracilis , but the cognate protein sequences have not been identified to date. Continuing our efforts to understand the glycobiology of E. gracilis , we identified a candidate phosphorylase sequence, designated EgP1, by proteomic analysis of an enriched cellular protein lysate...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314863/bacterial-derived-neutrophilic-inflammation-drives-lung-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-copd
#20
Bradley W Richmond, Rui-Hong Du, Wei Han, John T Benjamin, Riet van der Meer, Linda Gleaves, Marshall Guo, Austin McKissack, Yongqin Zhang, Dong-Sheng Cheng, Vasiliy V Polosukhin, Timothy S Blackwell
Loss of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is common in the small airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Using mice that lack SIgA in the airways due to genetic deficiency of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR-/- mice), we investigated the role of neutrophils in driving the fibrotic small airway wall remodeling and emphysema that develops spontaneously in these mice. By flow cytometry, we found an increase in the percentage of neutrophils among CD45+ cells in the lungs, as well as an increase in total neutrophils, in pIgR-/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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