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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223488/oral-administration-of-plga-encapsulated-cpg-odn-and-campylobacter-jejuni-lysate-reduces-cecal-colonization-by-campylobacter-jejuni-in-chickens
#1
Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Douglas C Hodgins, Tamiru Negash Alkie, Wanderely Quinteiro-Filho, Alexander Yitbarek, Jake Astill, Shayan Sharif
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in humans. It is considered a commensal organism of the chicken gut and infected chickens serve as a reservoir and shed bacteria throughout their lifespan. Contaminated poultry products are considered the major source of infection in humans. Therefore, to reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis, it is essential to reduce the bacterial load in poultry products. The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of soluble and PLGA-encapsulated oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs (E-CpG ODN) as well as C...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201902/in-vivo-studies-on-the-influence-of-bacteriophage-preparations-on-the-autoimmune-inflammatory-process
#2
Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Jan Borysowski, Marlena Kłak, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Bożena Obmińska-Mrukowicz, Agnieszka Suszko-Pawłowska, Barbara Bubak, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Andrzej Górski
Phage preparations used for phage therapy may have not only direct antibacterial action but also immunomodulating effects mediated by phages themselves as well as by bacterial antigens. Therefore phage application in patients with immune disorders, and especially with autoimmune diseases, requires special attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phage lysates (staphylococcal phages A3/R, phi200, and MS-1 cocktail, enterococcal phage 15/P, Pseudomonas phage 119x, and E. coli T4 phage) as well as purified T4 phage on the course of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), commonly used as an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193960/continuous-and-high-throughput-electromechanical-lysis-of-bacterial-pathogens-using-ion-concentration-polarization
#3
Minseok Kim, Lidan Wu, Bumjoo Kim, Deborah T Hung, Jongyoon Han
Electrical lysis of mammalian cells has been a preferred method in microfluidic platforms, because of its simple implementation and rapid recovery of lysates without additional reagents. However, bacterial lysis typically requires at least 10-times higher electric fields (~10 kV/cm), resulting in various technical difficulties. Here, we present a novel, low-field-enabled electromechanical lysis mechanism of bacterial cells using electroconvective vortices near ion selective materials. The vortex-assisted lysis only requires field strength of ~ 100 V/cm , yet efficiently recovering proteins and nucleic acids from a variety of pathogenic bacteria, and operates in a continuous, and ultra-high-throughput (> 1 mL/min) manner...
December 1, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180369/membrane-vesicles-derived-from-bordetella-bronchiseptica-active-constituent-of-a-new-vaccine-against-infections-caused-by-this-pathogen
#4
D Bottero, M E Zurita, M E Gaillard, E Bartel, C Vercellini, D Hozbor
Bordetella bronchiseptica, a Gram-negative bacterium, causes chronic respiratory-tract infections in a wide variety of mammalian hosts-humans included, albeit rarely. We recently designed B. pertussis and B. parapertussis experimental vaccines based on outer-membrane vesicles derived from each pathogen and obtained protection against the respective infections in mice. Here, we demonstrate that outer-membrane vesicles derived from virulent-phase B. bronchiseptica (OMVBbvir+) protect mice against sublethal infection from different B...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178720/lipopolysaccharide-and-lipoteichoic-acid-binding-by-antimicrobials-used-in-oral-care-formulations
#5
John Christian Haught, Sancai Xie, Ben Circello, Cheryl S Tansky, Deepa Khambe, Yiping Sun, Yakang Lin, Koti Sreekrishna, Malgorzata Klukowska, Tom Huggins, Donald J White
PURPOSE: To study the reactivity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) with the cationically charged agents cetylpyridinium chloride, stannous fluoride, and the non-cationic agent triclosan. We also assessed the effect of these agents to inhibit LPS and LTA binding to cellular Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) in vitro. METHODS: The ability of these antimicrobials to bind with LPS and/or LTA was assessed in both the Limulus amebocyte lysate and BODIPY-TR-cadaverine dye assays...
December 2016: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173590/gene-expression-profiling-of-chicken-cecal-tonsils-and-ileum-following-oral-exposure-to-soluble-and-plga-encapsulated-cpg-odn-and-lysate-of-campylobacter-jejuni
#6
Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Tamiru Negash Alkie, Douglas C Hodgins, Alexander Yitbarek, Bahram Shojadoost, Shayan Sharif
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading bacterial cause of food-borne illness in humans. Contaminated chicken meat is an important source of infection for humans. Chickens are not clinically affected by colonization, and immune responses following natural infection have limited effects on bacterial load in the gut. Induction of intestinal immune responses may possibly lead to a breakdown of the commensal relationship of chickens with Campylobacter. We have recently shown that soluble and poly D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) as well as C...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162483/altered-expression-of-cxcr1-il-8r-in-macrophages-utilizing-cell-surface-tnfr1-and-il-1-receptor-during-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#7
Biswadev Bishayi, Rana Adhikary, Sahin Sultana, Rajen Dey, Ajeya Nandi
Currently, very few studies are available on the expression of CXCR1 in mouse macrophages having both intact TNFR1 and IL-1R or their deficiency in relation to acute S. aureus infection. Peritoneal macrophages from mice neutralized singly for TNFR1or IL-1R, or for both TNFR1 and IL-1R were infected with S. aureus in vitro and their ability to secrete cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined. It was observed that the release TNF-α and IL-1β in response to S. aureus infection was decreased in macrophages when both TNFR1 and IL-1R were neutralized...
November 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160220/immune-status-of-the-spiny-lobster-jasus-edwardsii-with-tail-fan-necrosis
#8
Hua Zha, Gillian Lewis, Andrea Alfaro, Shuqi Wang, Yimin Dong, Roffi Grandiosa, Andrew Jeffs
Tail fan necrosis (TFN), a disorder commonly found in some populations of commercially fished and cultured lobsters, is thought to be initiated by injuries caused by handling and containment. The unsightly appearance of affected lobster tails significantly lowers their commercial value. Knowledge about TFN is limited. In this study we describe the morphological features of TFN and apply 6 common methods for evaluating the immune status of wild-caught Australasian red spiny lobsters Jasus edwardsii with and without TFN...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108754/extracellular-adenosine-produced-by-ecto-5-nucleotidase-cd73-regulates-macrophage-pro-inflammatory-responses-nitric-oxide-production-and-favors-salmonella-persistence
#9
Matthew G Costales, Mohammad Samiul Alam, Christopher Cavanaugh, Kristina M Williams
Surface enzymes CD39 (nucleoside triphosphate dephosphorylase) and CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) mediate the synthesis of extracellular adenosine that can regulate immune responses. Adenosine produced by CD39/CD73 acts via adenosine receptors (ARs). CD73 is expressed by a variety of cell types and mediates anti-inflammatory responses. Because efficient innate immune responses are required for clearance of Salmonella infection, we investigated the role of CD73 in macrophage function, including phagocytosis, intracellular killing of Salmonella, and anti-bacterial pro-inflammatory responses to Salmonella-whole cell lysate (ST-WCL) or Salmonella infection...
November 11, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099828/-bacterial-lysates-history-and-availability
#10
Gian Loreto D'Alò, Ermanno Zorzoli, Alessandra Loria, Elisa Terracciano, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
The use of bacterial lysates (BLs) can be traced back to the end of the nineteenth century, and they are currently available in several countries across all continents. Over the last few decades, BLs have been used, both in pediatric patients and in adults, mainly for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections of the respiratory tract. BLs are produced from bacterial cultures that undergo cell lysis with two different methods: mechanical lysis and chemical lysis. The in vivo mechanism of action is still not fully understood, and the main hypotheses focus on mucosal immunity modulation...
July 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067700/polyphenol-oxidase-from-pectobacterium-atrosepticum-identification-and-cloning-of-gene-and-characteristics-of-the-enzyme
#11
Vladimir Gorshkov, Nadezhda Tarasova, Natalia Gogoleva, Elena Osipova, Olga Petrova, Evgeny Kovtunov, Yuri Gogolev
In the present study, we attempted to elucidate if the harmful phytopathogenic bacteria of Pectobacterium genus (P. atrosepticum) possess the enzymes for oxidation of phenolic compounds. Polyphenol oxidase (laccase) activity was revealed in P. atrosepticum cell lysates. Using bioinformatic analysis, an ORF encoding a putative copper-containing polyphenol oxidase of 241 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 25.9 kDa was found. This protein (named Pal1) shares significant level of identity with laccases of a new type described for several bacterial species...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062966/bacterial-cell-free-expression-technology-to-in%C3%A2-vitro-systems-engineering-and-optimization
#12
REVIEW
Filippo Caschera
Cell-free expression system is a technology for the synthesis of proteins in vitro. The system is a platform for several bioengineering projects, e.g. cell-free metabolic engineering, evolutionary design of experiments, and synthetic minimal cell construction. Bacterial cell-free protein synthesis system (CFPS) is a robust tool for synthetic biology. The bacteria lysate, the DNA, and the energy module, which are the three optimized sub-systems for in vitro protein synthesis, compose the integrated system...
June 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036687/measuring-deaminated-nucleotide-surveillance-enzyme-itpa-activity-with-an-atp-releasing-nucleotide-chimera
#13
Debin Ji, Elena I Stepchenkova, Jian Cui, Miriam R Menezes, Youri I Pavlov, Eric T Kool
Nucleotide quality surveillance enzymes play important roles in human health, by detecting damaged molecules in the nucleotide pool and deactivating them before they are incorporated into chromosomal DNA or adversely affect metabolism. In particular, deamination of adenine moiety in (deoxy)nucleoside triphosphates, resulting in formation of (d)ITP, can be deleterious, leading to DNA damage, mutagenesis and other harmful cellular effects. The 21.5 kDa human enzyme that mitigates this damage by conversion of (d)ITP to monophosphate, ITPA, has been proposed as a possible therapeutic and diagnostic target for multiple diseases...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916188/mast-cell-chymase-decreases-the-severity-of-group-b-streptococcus-infections
#14
Claire Gendrin, Nicholas J Shubin, Erica Boldenow, Sean Merillat, Morgan Clauson, Danial Power, Kelly S Doran, Magnus Abrink, Gunnar Pejler, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Adrian M Piliponsky
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae are β-hemolytic gram-positive bacteria that colonize the lower genital tracts of women and are frequently associated with infections during pregnancy. Innate immune defenses are critical for controlling GBS dissemination and systemic infection. Mast cells are resident sentinel cells that come into contact with pathogens early during colonization and infection. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the contribution of chymase to systemic GBS infection and rates of preterm birth...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904643/rolling-circle-mutagenesis-of-gst-mcherry-to-understand-mutation-gene-expression-and-regulation
#15
Jessica Cole, Amanda Ferguson, Verónica A Segarra, Susan Walsh
Undergraduates are often familiar with textbook examples of human mutations that affect coding regions and the subsequent disorders, but they may struggle with understanding the implications of mutations in the regulatory regions of genes. We have designed a laboratory sequence that will allow students to explore the effect random mutagenesis can have on protein function, expression, and ultimately phenotype. Students design and perform a safe and time-efficient random mutagenesis experiment using error-prone rolling circular amplification of a plasmid expressing the inducible fusion protein glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mCherry...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877283/bacterial-endotoxin-adhesion-to-different-types-of-orthodontic-adhesives
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Priscilla Coutinho Romualdo, Thaís Rodrigues Guerra, Fábio Lourenço Romano, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, Izaíra Tincani Brandão, Célio Lopes Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da Silva, Paulo Nelson-Filho
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether LPS adheres to orthodontic adhesive systems, comparing two commercial brands. Material and Methods: Forty specimens were fabricated from Transbond XT and Light Bond composite and bonding agent components (n=10/component), then contaminated by immersion in a bacterial endotoxin solution. Contaminated and non-contaminated acrylic resin samples were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. LPS quantification was performed by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate QCL-1000™ test...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869736/-expression-purification-stability-and-transduction-efficiency-of-full-length-sod2-recombinant-proteins
#17
Jianru Pan, Lijuan Chen, Huocong He, Ying Su, Xiangling Wang, Xian Li, Cuihuang Chen, Lunqiao Wu, Shutao Liu
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) family is necessary to protect cells from the toxicity of reactive oxygen species produced during normal metabolism. Among SODs, manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, SOD2) is the most important one. The DNA fragment containing the full nucleotide of full-length human SOD2 was synthesized and inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1 with tag GST. DNA construct was then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and expression was induced with IPTG at 25 ℃...
July 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847096/evaluation-of-water-quality-during-successive-severe-drought-years-within-microcystis-blooms-using-fish-embryo-toxicity-tests-for-the-san-francisco-estuary-california
#18
Tomofumi Kurobe, Peggy W Lehman, M E Haque, Tiziana Sedda, Sarah Lesmeister, Swee Teh
In the San Francisco Estuary, California, the largest estuary on the Pacific Coast of North America, the frequency and intensity of drought and associated cyanobacteria blooms are predicted to increase with climate change. To assess the impact of water quality conditions on estuarine fish health during successive severe drought years with Microcystis blooms, we performed fish embryo toxicity testing with Delta Smelt and Medaka. Fish embryos were exposed to filtered ambient water collected from the San Francisco Estuary during the Microcystis bloom season in 2014 and 2015, the third and fourth most severe recorded drought years in California...
January 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836022/covalent-display-of-an-active-chimeric-recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-on-polyhydroxybutyrate-granules-surface
#19
Akram Hafizi, Mohamad Ali Malboobi, Mokhtar Jalali-Javaran, Pal Maliga, Houshang Alizadeh
OBJECTIVE: To develop a deliberately engineered expression and purification system for an active chimeric-recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (crtPA) using co-expression with polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) operon genes. RESULTS: Fusion of crtPA with PhaC-synthase simplified the purification steps through crtPA sedimentation with PHB particles. Moreover, the covalently immobilized crtPA was biologically active as shown in a chromogenic assay. Upon WELQut-protease activity, the released single-chain crtPA converted to the two-chain form which produced a pattern of bands with approx...
November 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808331/pro-and-anti-inflammatory-responses-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-induced-by-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-phages
#20
Jonas D Van Belleghem, Frédéric Clement, Maya Merabishvili, Rob Lavigne, Mario Vaneechoutte
The ability of bacteriophages to kill bacteria is well known, as is their potential use as alternatives to antibiotics. As such, bacteriophages reach high doses locally through infection of their bacterial host in the human body. In this study we assessed the gene expression profile of peripheral blood monocytes from six donors for twelve immunity-related genes (i.e. CD14, CXCL1, CXCL5, IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL10, LYZ, SOCS3, TGFBI and TNFA) induced by Staphylococcus aureus phage ISP and four Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages (i...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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