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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144888/energy-expenditure-and-intake-during-special-operations-forces-field-training-in-a-jungle-and-glacial-environment
#1
Caleb D Johnson, Andrew J Simonson, Matthew E Darnell, James P DeLany, Meleesa F Wohleber, Christopher Connaboy
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, two in a hot environment (n=21) and one in a cool environment (n=8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly-labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the three missions, mean energy expenditure (4,618 ± 1,350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2,429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2,200 kcal/day...
November 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142894/comparison-of-energy-and-nutrient-contents-of-commercial-and-noncommercial-enteral-nutrition-solutions
#2
Nahid Ramezani Jolfaie, Mohammad Hossein Rouhani, Maryam Mirlohi, Mina Babashahi, Saeid Abbasi, Peiman Adibi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Leila Azadbakht
Background: Nutritional support plays a major role in the management of critically ill patients. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of enteral nutrition solutions (noncommercial vs. commercial) and the amount of energy and nutrients delivered and required in patients receiving these solutions. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 270 enterally fed patients. Demographic and clinical data in addition to values of nutritional needs and intakes were collected...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142651/prevention-of-insulin-resistance-by-dietary-intervention-among-pregnant-mothers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Masoomeh Goodarzi-Khoigani, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Farahnaz Mardanian, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Azam Dadkhah-Tirani
Background: Chronic insulin resistance (IR) is a basic part of the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutrition significantly impacts IR and weight loss reduces insulin levels, whereas weight gain increases the concentrations. Therefore, we surveyed the effect of nutrition intervention on IR in pregnant women and whether this effect is irrespective of weight gaining in accordance with Institute of Medicine limits. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was carried out among 150 primiparous pregnant mothers in fifteen health centers, five hospitals, and 15 private obstetrical offices in Isfahan...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142316/sedentary-behavior-and-altered-metabolic-activity-by-agnps-ingestion-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Akanksha Raj, Prasanna Shah, Namita Agrawal
Among several nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are extensively used in a wide variety of consumer products due to its unique antimicrobial property. However, dosage effect of AgNPs on behavior and metabolic activity in an in vivo condition is not well studied. Therefore, to elucidate the impact of AgNPs on behavior and metabolism, systematic and detailed dosages study of AgNPs was performed by rearing Drosophila melanogaster on food without and with AgNPs. We found that dietary intake of AgNPs at early larval stage leads to behavioral abnormalities such as poor crawling and climbing ability of larvae and adults respectively...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142011/effect-of-distinct-lifestyle-interventions-on-mobilization-of-fat-storage-pools-the-central-mri-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#6
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140312/plasma-amino-acid-abnormalities-in-chronic-heart-failure-mechanisms-potential-risks-and-targets-in-human-myocardium-metabolism
#7
Roberto Aquilani, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Daniela Corbellini, Evasio Pasini, Manuela Verri, Annalisa Barbieri, Anna Maria Condino, Federica Boschi
The goal of this study was to measure arterial amino acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and relate them to left ventricular function and disease severity. Amino acids (AAs) play a crucial role for heart protein-energy metabolism. In heart failure, arterial AAs, which are the major determinant of AA uptake by the myocardium, are rarely measured. Forty-one subjects with clinically stable CHF (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV) were analyzed. After overnight fasting, blood samples from the radial artery were taken to measure AA concentrations...
November 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140289/cats-and-carbohydrates-the-carnivore-fantasy
#8
REVIEW
Adronie Verbrugghe, Myriam Hesta
The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140151/a-comparison-of-the-nutrient-intakes-of-macronutrient-based-dieting-and-strict-dieting-bodybuilders
#9
Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems, Darryn Willoughby
The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive assessment of the nutritional habits of competitive bodybuilders and compare the nutrient intakes of macronutrient-based dieting and strict dieting individuals. Data from 41 subjects (30 males and 11 females) were used in analyses. Participants completed a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and diets were analyzed using a computer system. Males consumed an average of 2577.2 (SD=955.1) kilocalories, with an average fat intake of 83.6 g (SD=41.3), an average carbohydrate intake of 323...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135691/control-of-intestinal-lipoprotein-secretion-by-dietary-carbohydrates
#10
Priska Stahel, Changting Xiao, Gary F Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoproteins secreted by the intestine can contribute to dyslipidemia and may increase risk for CVD. This review focuses on how dietary carbohydrates can impact the production of chylomicrons, thereby influencing plasma concentrations of triglycerides and lipoproteins. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypercaloric diets high in monosaccharides can exacerbate postprandial triglyceride concentration...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131494/antimicrobial-emulsifier-glycerol-monolaurate-induces-metabolic-syndrome-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-in-low-fat-diet-fed-mice
#11
Zengliang Jiang, Minjie Zhao, Hui Zhang, Yang Li, Mengyun Liu, Fengqin Feng
SCOPE: Glycerol monolaurate (GML) was widely consumed worldwide in food industry, and considered as safe, yet for chronic diseases, supporting scientific data remain sparse. This study was to investigate whether dietary GML induces metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota dysbiosis and systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: GML-induced occurrence of metabolic syndrome, gut microbiota alterations and systemic low-grade inflammation were investigated. Our results demonstrated that GML induced metabolic syndrome by significantly increasing the body weight, weight gain, food intake, body fat, fat droplet size and percentage of epididymal fat, serum triglycerides (TG), LDL and atherogenic index, and decreasing the body muscle ratio, liver weight and HDL, compared to the CON group...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131014/early-nutrition-and-growth-until-the-corrected-age-of-2-years-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#12
Henni Hiltunen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Erika Isolauri, Samuli Rautava
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm birth is associated with a high risk of extrauterine growth retardation, which has been linked with adverse developmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether nutritional management during the first 7 days of life affects growth patterns until the corrected age of 2 years in extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 78 extremely preterm (<28 weeks' gestation) neonates was conducted...
November 10, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130716/-effect-of-quinua-chenopodium-quinoa-consumption-as-a-coadjuvant-in-nutritional-intervention-in-prediabetic-subjects
#13
María Salud Abellán Ruiz, María Dolores Barnuevo Espinosa, Carlos García Santamaría, Carlos Javier Contreras Fernández, Miriam Aldeguer García, Fulgencio Soto Méndez, Isabel Guillén Guillén, Antonio Jesús Luque Rubia, Francisco Javier Quinde Ràzuri, Antonio Martínez Garrido, Francisco Javier López Román
INTRODUCTION: Quinoa is a pseudocereal containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, dietary fiber, high biological value protein, phytosterols, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which has generated interest in prediabetes nutritional interventions. This randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of processed quinoa on body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130715/relationship-of-long-term-macronutrients-intake-on-anabolic-catabolic-hormones-in-female-elite-volleyball-players
#14
Juan Mielgo Ayuso, Michael C Zpurdos, Aritz Urdampilleta, Julio Calleja González, Jesús Seco, Alfredo Córdova
INTRODUCTION: Specific macronutrient distribution and training can alter acute and chronic hormone behavior and, subsequently, sport performance. OBJECTIVE: The main aim was to examine relationships between dietary intake and anabolic/catabolic hormone response in elite female volleyball players during a 29-week season. METHODS: Twenty-two elite female volleyballers (26.4 ± 5.6 years; 178 ± 9 cm; 67.1 ± 7.5 kg) had dietary intake (seven-day dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire), blood concentration of anabolic/catabolic hormones concentration, physical performance, and body composition assessed at four time points: a) T1: baseline/pre-testing; b) T2: eleven weeks after T1; c) T3: ten weeks after T2; and d) T4: eight weeks after T3...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129737/endotoxemia-is-modulated-by-quantity-and-quality-of-dietary-fat-in-older-adults
#15
Javier Lopez-Moreno, Sonia Garcia-Carpintero, Francisco Gomez-Delgado, Rosa Jimenez-Lucena, Cristina Vals-Delgado, Juan F Alcala-Diaz, Irene Roncero-Ramos, Oriol A Rangel-Zuñiga, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Maria M Malagon, Jose M Ordovas, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Antonio Camargo
BACKGROUND: Aging is an important determinant of the rate of atherosclerosis development, mainly through low-grade inflammation. Diet, and particularly its fat content, modulates the inflammatory response in fasting and postprandial states. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the effects of dietary fat on endotoxemia in healthy older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy older adults were randomized to three diets, lasting three-weeks each, using a crossover design: 1...
November 9, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123461/intestinal-absorption-and-factors-influencing-bioavailability-of-magnesium-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn
Background: Information on the bioavailability of the essential mineral Mg2+ is sparse. Objective/Method: Evaluation of the present knowledge on factors influencing the bioavailability and intestinal absorption of Mg2+. Results: Mg2+ is absorbed via a paracellular passive and a transcellular active pathway that involves TRPM6/7 channel proteins. The bioavailability of Mg2+ varies within a broad range, depending on the dose, the food matrix, and enhancing and inhibiting factors...
November 2017: Current Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121861/transcriptomics-metabolomics-and-histology-indicate-that-high-carbohydrate-diet-negatively-affects-the-liver-health-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#17
Wassana Prisingkorn, Panita Prathomya, Ivan Jakovlić, Han Liu, Yu-Hua Zhao, Wei-Min Wang
BACKGROUND: Global trend of the introduction of high levels of relatively cheap carbohydrates to reduce the amount of costly protein in the aquatic animal feed production has affected the aquaculture of an economically important cyprinid fish, blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). This dietary shift has resulted in increased prevalence of metabolic disorders, often causing economic losses. High dietary intake of carbohydrates, associated with obesity, is one of the major causes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in humans...
November 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117450/nutrition-strategies-before-and-during-ultra-endurance-event-a-significant-gap-between-science-and-practice
#18
Soyzana K Papadopoulou, Eleni E Xyla, Spyridon Methenitis, Konstantinos G Feidantsis, Yiannis Kotsis, Ioannis G Pagkalos, Maria N Hassapidou
The purpose of the present study was to investigate and assess the nutritional practices of open-water swimmers, during the preparation period and the competition, as well as their implications on performance and anthropometric parameters according to their age. Twenty-four (n=24) men open-water swimmers, twelve young (26.3±4.9yrs) and twelve older athletes (45.8±9.7yrs), participated in the present study. Nutritional behavior - intake-energy consumption, and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated prior to the Toroneos Gulf crossing (26Km)...
November 8, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114246/variation-of-carbohydrate-active-enzyme-patterns-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-italian-healthy-subjects-and-type-2-diabetes-patients
#19
Matteo Soverini, Silvia Turroni, Elena Biagi, Sara Quercia, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Simone Rampelli
The human gut microbiota (GM) has been associated, to date, with various complex functions, essentials for the host health. Among these, it is certainly worth noting the degradation of the so-called microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs), which the GM breaks down through specific enzymes, referred to as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). This degradation constitutes the first step in the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), key microbial small molecules having multiple health-promoting effects for the host organism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113519/does-the-low-fodmap-diet-improve-symptoms-of-radiation-induced-enteropathy-a-pilot-study
#20
Trine Larsen, Trygve Hausken, Synne Otteraaen Ystad, Nils Hovdenak, Bernd Mueller, Gülen Arslan Lied
RATIONALE: Patients with radiation-induced enteropathy (RE) after cancer treatment show similar symptoms as patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD) is a widespread management strategy for IBS. We aimed to investigate if there may be a positive effect of LFD on symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with RE. METHODS: In an open non-controlled pilot study, 11 patients (all female) with RE-related IBS symptoms were recruited largely based on own initiative...
November 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
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